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Table 3 Odds of hypertension by tertiles of arm adiposity measures

From: Leg and arm adiposity is inversely associated with diastolic hypertension in young and middle-aged United States adults

Variable Tertile 1 Tertile 2 Tertile 3
No. (%) 1853 (23.8)
Arm/total % Unadjusted 1.00 (Ref) 0.97 (0.79, 1.18) 1.12 (0.92, 1.36)
Model 1 1.00 (Ref) 0.99 (0.72, 1.35) 1.24 (0.87, 1.75)
Model 2 1.00 (Ref) 0.96 (0.70, 1.31) 0.90 (0.64, 1.24)
Model 3 1.00 (Ref) 0.87 (0.62, 1.22) 0.89 (0.68, 1.17)
Arm lean/fat ratio Unadjusted 1.00 (Ref) 0.74 (0.64, 0.87) 0.50 (0.42, 0.60)
Model 1 1.00 (Ref) 0.77 (0.42, 1.40) 0.63 (0.36, 1.11)
Model 2 1.00 (Ref) 0.99 (0.73, 1.33) 1.17 (0.81, 1.70)
Model 3 1.00 (Ref) 1.03 (0.81, 1.31) 1.13 (0.71, 1.80)
Arm fat % Unadjusted 1.00 (Ref) 1.49 (1.26, 1.77) 2.03 (1.72, 2.40)
Model 1 1.00 (Ref) 1.26 (0.95, 1.69) 1.66 (1.02, 2.69)
Model 2 1.00 (Ref) 0.84 (0.65, 1.10) 0.92 (0.67, 1.25)
Model 3 1.00 (Ref) 1.07 (0.63, 1.80) 0.97 (0.58,1.61)
  1. Data are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
  2. Model 1 adjusts for demographic factors (age, sex, race/ethnicity, poverty index). Model 2 adjusts for Model 1 factors + cardiometabolic factors (systolic blood pressure, heart rate, triglycerides, body mass index, truncal fat mass, high density lipoprotein, alanine aminotransferase, diabetes status, serum creatinine, albuminuria, smoking, alcohol consumption). Model 3 adjusts for other examination factors (leg fat parameters other than main predictor, arm fat parameters other than main predictor)
  3. % Total fat in upper extremities corresponds to arm/total %, arm lean mass/fat mass ratio corresponds to arm lean/fat ratio, % fat in total arm mass corresponds to arm fat %. Tertiles are as follows: arm/total % (female: < 11.6, 11.6–12.9%, ≥12.9%; male: < 11.3, 11.3–12.2%, ≥12.2%); arm lean/fat ratio (female: < 1.1, 1.1–1.5, ≥1.5; male: < 2.6, 2.6–3.5, ≥3.5); arm fat % (female: < 39, 39–45%, ≥45%; male: < 21, 21–26%, ≥26%)