Table 7 Log odds of immigrating to Spain by foreigners or emigrating from Spain by Spaniards born in Spain as a function of stock of people from the same nationality in destination country

From: Spain: from massive immigration to vast emigration?

  Entry of foreigners Exit of Spaniards born in Spain
  Fixed effects Fixed effects
Variables (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
U(CCAA)-U(country) −0.02813    0.04627   
  (0.00001)**    (0.00574)**   
U(country)   0.04739 0.04741   −0.07865 −0.07894
   (0.00002)** (0.00002)**   (0.00927)** (0.00926)**
U(CCAA)    −0.00946    0.02630
    (0.00002)**    (0.00726)**
Stock of immigrants pair country/region by population in origin (in thousands) 0.08518 0.08869 0.08976 0.14919 0.14924 0.14922
  (0.00011)** (0.00011)** (0.00011)** (0.00479)** (0.00479)** (0.00479)**
Time dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Country dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Region dummies Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pair country/region dummies No No No No No No
Auxiliary regressors No No No No No No
Constant −5.282 −8.393 −5.991 −6.012 −4.424 −5.178
  (0.00035)** (0.00021)** (0.00058)** (0.12207)** (0.07732)** (0.22205)**
R-squared 0.88 0.88 0.88 0.80 0.80 0.80
Observations 6542 6542 6542 1080 1080 1080
  1. Source: In columns 1 to 3, the dependent variable is the logarithm of entries from Estadística de Variaciones Residenciales by country of birth and region of destination in a particular year (1998–2012) over the population in the country of birth in the corresponding year (WEO) in thousands. In columns 4 to 6, the dependent variable is the logarithm of exits from Estadística de Variaciones Residenciales by region of residence and country of destination (2002–2012) over the population in the region of residence (padron) in thousands. Unemployment rates of regions in Spain are from the labour force survey and unemployment in origin countries at the WEO. The auxiliary regressors are the cross country average of all dependent and independent variables. Observations are weighted by the population of the origin country in (1)-(3) or the region of origin in Spain in (4)-(6). Standard errors in parentheses
  2. *p < 0.05; **p < 0.01