Cancer IARC. World cancer report 2014. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2014.
Carter GT. Natural products and pharma 2011: Strategic changes spur new opportunities. Nat Prod Rep. 2011;28:1783–9.
Pezzuto JM. Plant-derived anticancer agents. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997;53:121–33.
Lilenbaum RC, Green MR. Novel chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. J Clin Oncol. 1993;11:1391–402.
Quan Y, Qian M. Effect and mechanism of gypenoside on the inflammatory molecular expression in high-fat induced atherosclerosis rats. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2010;30:403–6.
Cai H, Liang Q, Ge G. Gypenoside attenuates beta amyloid-induced inflammation in n9 microglial cells via SOCS1 signaling. Neural Plast. 2016;2016:6362707.
Liou CJ, Huang WC, Kuo ML, Yang RC, Shen JJ. Long-term oral administration of Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract attenuates airway inflammation and Th2 cell activities in ovalbumin-sensitized mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2592–8.
Yang F, Shi H, Zhang X, Yang H, Zhou Q, Yu LL. Two new saponins from tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum), and their anti-inflammatory and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Food Chem. 2013;141:3606–13.
Zhao J, Ming Y, Wan Q, Ye S, Xie S, Zhu Y, Wang Y, Zhong Z, Li L, Ye Q. Gypenoside attenuates hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic bioactivities. Exp Ther Med. 2014;7:1388–92.
Yu H, Guan Q, Guo L, Zhang H, Pang X, Cheng Y, Zhang X, Sun Y. Gypenosides alleviate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury via attenuation of oxidative stress and preservation of mitochondrial function in rat heart. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2016;21:429–37.
Gao D, Zhao M, Qi X, Liu Y, Li N, Liu Z, Bian Y. Hypoglycemic effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins by enhancing the nrf2 signaling pathway in stz-inducing diabetic rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2016;39:221–30.
Schild L, Cotte T, Keilhoff G, Brodemann R. Preconditioning of brain slices against hypoxia induced injury by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract–stimulation of anti-oxidative enzyme expression. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:812–8.
Li B, Zhang XY, Wang MZ, Jiao LL. Characterization and antioxidant activities of acidic polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Markino. Carbohydr Polym. 2015;127:209–14.
la Cour B, Molgaard P, Yi Z. Traditional chinese medicine in treatment of hyperlipidaemia. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;46:125–9.
Gou SH, Huang HF, Chen XY, Liu J, He M, Ma YY, Zhao XN, Zhang Y, Ni JM. Lipid-lowering, hepatoprotective, and atheroprotective effects of the mixture Hong-Qu and gypenosides in hyperlipidemia with NAFLD rats. J Chin Med Assoc. 2016;79:111–21.
Wang M, Wang F, Wang Y, Ma X, Zhao M, Zhao C. Metabonomics study of the therapeutic mechanism of Gynostemma pentaphyllum and atorvastatin for hyperlipidemia in rats. PLoS One. 2013;8:e78731.
Muller C, Gardemann A, Keilhoff G, Peter D, Wiswedel I, Schild L. Prevention of free fatty acid-induced lipid accumulation, oxidative stress, and cell death in primary hepatocyte cultures by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. 2012;19:395–401.
Qin R, Zhang J, Li C, Zhang X, Xiong A, Huang F, Yin Z, Li K, Qin W, Chen M, Zhang S, Liang L, Zhang H, Nie H, Ye W. Protective effects of gypenosides against fatty liver disease induced by high fat and cholesterol diet and alcohol in rats. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1241–50.
Yan H, Wang X, Wang Y, Wang P, Xiao Y. Antiproliferation and anti-migration induced by gypenosides in human colon cancer SW620 and esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2014;33:522–33.
Liu J, Zhang L, Ren Y, Gao Y, Kang L, Qiao Q. Anticancer and immunoregulatory activity of Gynostemma pentaphyllum polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014;69:1–4.
Cheng TC, Lu JF, Wang JS, Lin LJ, Kuo HI, Chen BH. Antiproliferation effect and apoptosis mechanism of prostate cancer cell PC-3 by flavonoids and saponins prepared from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:11319–29.
Li Y, Huang J, Lin W, Yuan Z, Feng S, Xie Y, Ma W. In vitro anticancer activity of a nonpolar fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2016;2016:6308649.
Hou J, Liu S, Ma Z, Lang X, Wang J, Liang Z. Effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino on the immunological function of cancer patients. J Tradit Chin Med. 1991;11:47–52.
Tsui K-C, Chiang T-H, Wang J-S, Lin L-J, Chao W-C, Chen B-H, Lu J-F. Flavonoids from Gynostemma pentaphyllum exhibit differential induction of cell cycle arrest in H460 and A549 cancer cells. Molecules. 2014;19:17663–81.
Choi HS, Zhao TT, Shin KS, Kim SH, Hwang BY, Lee CK, Lee MK. Anxiolytic effects of herbal ethanol extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum in mice after exposure to chronic stress. Molecules. 2013;18:4342–56.
Zhao TT, Shin KS, Choi HS, Lee MK. Ameliorating effects of gypenosides on chronic stress-induced anxiety disorders in mice. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015;15:323.
Shin KS, Zhao TT, Choi HS, Hwang BY, Lee CK, Lee MK. Effects of gypenosides on anxiety disorders in MPTP-lesioned mouse model of Parkinson’s disease. Brain Res. 2014;1567:57–65.
Lin C-C, Huang P-C, Lin J-M. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Anoectochilus formosanus and Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Am J Chin Med. 2000;28:87–96.
Liu ZL, Xie LZ, Zhu J, Li GQ, Grant SJ, Liu JP. Herbal medicines for fatty liver diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(8):CD009059. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009059.pub2.
He Q, Li JK, Li F, Li RG, Zhan GQ, Li G, Du WX, Tan HB. Mechanism of action of gypenosides on type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 2015;21:2058–66.
Megalli S, Davies NM, Roufogalis BD. Anti-hyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of Gynostemma pentaphyllum in the zucker fatty rat. J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2006;9:281–91.
Lokman EF, Gu HF, Wan Mohamud WN, Ostenson CG. Evaluation of antidiabetic effects of the traditional medicinal plant Gynostemma pentaphyllum and the possible mechanisms of insulin release. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2015;2015:120572.
Circosta C, De Pasquale R, Occhiuto F. Cardiovascular effects of the aqueous extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:638–43.
Purmova J, Opletal L. Phytotherapeutic aspects of diseases of the cardiovascular system. 5. Saponins and possibilities of their use in prevention and therapy. Ceska Slov Farm. 1995;44:246–51.
Tanner MA, Bu X, Steimle JA, Myers PR. The direct release of nitric oxide by gypenosides derived from the herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Nitric Oxide. 1999;3:359–65.
Yan H, Wang X, Niu J, Wang Y, Wang P, Liu Q. Anti-cancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of gypenosides on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells. PLoS One. 2014;9:e95609.
Wu PK, Liu X, Hsiao WWL. The assessment of anti-cancer activities and saponin profiles of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins obtained from different regions of China. J Biotechnol. 2008;136:S85.
Juchi S. Preparation of a tea-like beverage containing Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins. Osaka Yakuhin Kenkyusho KK Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-61. 1986;104:772.
Kenkyusho K. Saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum as health food supplements. Osaka Yakuhin assignee Jpn Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP. 60:85.
KK OYK. Rice vinegar containing saponins as health food supplement. Osaka Yakuhin Kenkyusho KK Patent-Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho-60. 1985.
Guo W, Wang W, editor. Cultivation and utilisation of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Beijing: Publishing house of electronics; 1993.
Cui J, Eneroth P, Bruhn JG. Gynostemma pentaphyllum: identification of major sapogenins and differentiation from Panax species. Eur J Pharm Sci. 1999;8:187–91.
Shi L, Song D, Pan M, Liu D. Research advances on the saponins of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Drug Eval Res. 2011;34:456–64.
Piao XL, Xing SF, Lou CX, Chen DJ. Novel dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their cytotoxic activities against HepG2 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014;24:4831–3.
Yang F, Shi H, Zhang X, Yu LL. Two novel anti-inflammatory 21-nordammarane saponins from tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum). J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61:12646–52.
Nagai M. ea. Abstracts. In: The 23rd meeting of the Japanese Society of Pharmacognosy. 1976:37.
Takemoto T, Arihara S, Nakajima T, Okuhira M. Studies on the constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. II. Structures of gypenoside xv–xxi. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1983;103:1015–23.
Takemoto T, Arihara S, Yoshikawa K, Kusumoto K, Yano I, Hayashi T. Studies on the constituents of Cucurbitaceae plants. VI. On the saponin constituents of Luffa cylindrica Roem. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1984;104:246–55.
Takemoto T, Arihara S, Yoshikawa K. Studies on the constituents of Cucurbitaceae plants on the saponin constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1986;106:664–70.
Takemoto T, Arihara S, Nakajima T, Okuhira M. Studies on the constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino structures of gypenoside ixiv. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1983;103:173–85.
Yoshikawa K, Arimitsu M, Kishi K, Takemoto T, Arihara S. Studies on the constituents of Cucurbitaceae plants on the saponin constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1987;107:361–6.
Yoshikawa K, Takemoto T, Arihara S. Studies on the constituents of Cucurbitaceae plants on the saponin constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1987;107:262–7.
Kim JH, Han YN. Dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 2011;72:1453–9.
Zhang XS, Zhao C, Tang WZ, Wu XJ, Zhao YQ. Gypensapogenin H, a novel dammarane-type triterpene induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis on prostate cancer cells. Steroids. 2015;104:276–83.
Zhang XS, Cao JQ, Zhao C, Wang XD, Wu XJ, Zhao YQ. Novel dammarane-type triterpenes isolated from hydrolyzate of total Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2015;25:3095–9.
Shi L, Pi Y, Luo C, Zhang C, Tan D, Meng X. In vitro inhibitory activities of six gypenosides on human liver cancer cell line HepG2 and possible role of HIf-1α pathway in them. Chem Biol Interact. 2015;238:48–54.
Liu J, Yang PY, Shi HM, Sun XJ, Lee SH, Yu LL. A novel Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponin and its adipogenesis inhibitory effect through modulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway and cell cycle in mitotic clonal expansion. J Funct Foods. 2015;17:552–62.
Lee C, Lee JW, Jin Q, Jang H, Jang HJ, Rho MC, Lee MK, Lee CK, Lee MK, Hwang BY. Isolation and characterization of dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their inhibitory effects on IL-6-induced STAT3 activation. J Nat Prod. 2015;78:971–6.
Xing SF, Jang M, Wang YR, Piao XL. A new dammarane-type saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum induces apoptosis in A549 human lung carcinoma cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2016;26:1754–9.
Liu J, Li YF, Shi HM, Wang T, Wu XL, Sun XJ, Yu LL. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties. J Funct Foods. 2016;23:542–55.
Akihisa T, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. 14α-methyl-5α-ergosta-9 (11) 24 (28)-dien-3β-ol a sterol from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 1987;26:2412–3.
Akihisa T, Kanari M, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. (24r)-and (24s)-14α-methyl-5α-ergost-9 (11)-en-3β-ols from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 1989;28:1271–3.
Akihisa T, Mihara H, Fujikawa T, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. 24, 24-dimethyl-5α-cholestan-3β-ol, a sterol from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 1988;27:2931–3.
Akihisa T, Kokke W, Yokota T, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. 4α, 14α-dimethyl-5α-ergosta-7, 9 (11), 24 (28)-trien-3β-ol from Phaseolus vulgaris and Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 1990;29:1647–51.
Akihisa T, Tamura T, Matsumoto T, Kokke W, Yokota T. Isolation of acetylenic sterols from a higher plant. Further evidence that marine sterols are not unique. J Org Chem. 1989;54(606–10):0022–3263.
Akihisa T, Thakur S, Rosenstein FU, Matsumoto T. Sterols of cucurbitaceae: the configurations at c-24 of 24-alkyl-δ5-, δ7-and δ8-sterols. Lipids. 1986;21(39–47):0024–4201.
Akihisa T, Shimizu N, Tamura T, Matsumoto T. Structures of three new 24, 24-dimethyl-δ7-sterols fromGynostemma pentaphyllumfromGynostemma pentaphyllum. Lipids. 1986;21(515–7):0024–4201.
Song S-l, Ji A-g, Liang H, Wang W-L. Purification and structure analysis of polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Zhong Yao Cai. 2008.
Li X-L, Wang Z-H, Zhao Y-X, Luo S-J, Zhang D-W, Xiao S-X, Peng Z-H. Purification of a polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and its therapeutic advantages for psoriasis. Carbohydr Polym. 2012;89:1232–7.
Wang Z, Luo D. Antioxidant activities of different fractions of polysaccharide purified from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Carbohydr Polym. 2007;68:54–8.
Chi A-P, Chen J-P, Wang Z-Z, Xiong Z-Y, Li Q-X. Morphological and structural characterization of a polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino and its anti-exercise fatigue activity. Carbohydr Polym. 2008;74:868–74.
Tsai YC, Lin CL, Chen BH. Preparative chromatography of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell. Phytomedicine. 2010;18:2–10.
Yin F, Hu L, Lou F, Pan R. Dammarane-type glycosides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Nat Prod. 2004;67:942–52.
Fang Z-P, Zeng X-Y. Isolation and identification of flavonoid glycosides and organic acid from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1989;14:36.
Chang Q, Chen D, Shen L, Si J, Zhang J, Li X. Studies on the chemical constituents of Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu i. Flavonoids. Nat Prod Res Dev. 1991;4:16–8.
Kao T, Huang S, Inbaraj BS, Chen B. Determination of flavonoids and saponins in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2008;626:200–11.
Nookabkaew S, Rangkadilok N, Prachoom N, Satayavivad J. Concentrations of trace elements in organic fertilizers and animal manures and feeds and cadmium contamination in herbal tea (Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino). J Agric Food Chem. 2016;64:3119–26.
Deng S, Li X, Chen B, Deng F, Zhou X. Analysis of amino acids, vitamins and chemical elements in Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1994;19:487–90.
Chen Y-G, Zhang Y. Isolation and characterization of benzyl-o-β-d-glucopyranoside from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Yunnan Shi Fan Da Xue Xue Bao. 2001;21:58–9.
Z-l XU, F-q YANG, Z-n XIA. Chemical constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Nat Prod Res Dev. 2013;8:1067–9.
Zou C, Shi HM, Liu X, Sheng YQ, Ding TT, Yan J, Gao BY, Liu J, Lu WY, Yu LL. Conjugated linolenic acids and nutraceutical components in jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphyllum) seeds. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2016;68:111–8.
Wang L, Wang XB, Wang P, Xiao YP, Liu QH. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, physicochemical and cytotoxicity properties of Gynostemma pentaphyllum seed oil: a potential source of conjugated linolenic acids. Sep Purif Technol. 2016;159:147–56.
Lin S. Research on the chemical constituents of Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino: Shenyang Pharmaceutical University; 2010.
Tsai YC, Wu WB, Chen BH. Preparation of carotenoids and chlorophylls from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino and their antiproliferation effect on hepatoma cell. J Med Food. 2010;13:1431–42.
Shi L, Cao JQ, Shi SM, Zhao YQ. Triterpenoid saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011;13:168–77.
Yin F, Zhang YN, Yang ZY, Hu LH. Nine new dammarane saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Chem Biodivers. 2006;3:771–82.
Chen T, Li B, Li Y, Zhao CD, Shen JM, Zhang HX. Catalytic synthesis and antitumor activities of sulfated polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Carbohydr Polym. 2011;83:554–60.
Li XL, Wang ZH, Zhao YX, Luo SJ, Zhang DW, Xiao SX, Peng ZH. Isolation and antitumor activities of acidic polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Carbohydr Polym. 2012;89:942–7.
Lu KW, Chen JC, Lai TY, Yang JS, Weng SW, Ma YS, Lin HY, Wu RS, Wu KC, Wood WG, Chung JG. Gypenosides suppress growth of human oral cancer SAS cells in vitro and in a murine xenograft model: the role of apoptosis mediated by caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012;11:129–40.
Hsu HY, Yang JS, Lu KW, Yu CS, Chou ST, Lin JJ, Chen YY, Lin ML, Chueh FS, Chen SS, Chung JG. An experimental study on the antileukemia effects of gypenosides in vitro and in vivo. Integr Cancer Ther. 2011;10:101–12.
Lin J-J, Hsu H-Y, Yang J-S, Lu K-W, Wu RS-C, Wu K-C, Lai T-Y, Chen P-Y, Ma C-Y, Wood WG. Molecular evidence of anti-leukemia activity of gypenosides on human myeloid leukemia HL-60 cells in vitro and invivo using a HL-60 cells murine xenograft model. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:1075–85.
Xu C, Wang B, Ren S. The suppressive effect of gypenosides on murine s_ (180) sarcoma and cultured erythroleukemia cell line k_ (562). Xi’an Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2002;23:217–9.
Kong L, Wang X, Zhang K, Yuan W, Yang Q, Fan J, Wang P, Liu Q. Gypenosides synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effect of 5-fluorouracil on colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo: a role for oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage and p53 activation. PLoS One. 2015;10:e0137888.
Tai WC, Wong WY, Lee MM, Chan BD, Lu C, Hsiao WL. Mechanistic study of the anti-cancer effect of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins in the apc(min/+) mouse model. Proteomics. 2016;16:1557–69.
Chen L, Brar MS, Leung FC, Hsiao WL. Triterpenoid herbal saponins enhance beneficial bacteria, decrease sulfate-reducing bacteria, modulate inflammatory intestinal microenvironment and exert cancer preventive effects in ApcMin/+ mice. Oncotarget. 2016.
Chiranthanut N, Teekachunhatean S, Panthong A, Khonsung P, Kanjanapothi D, Lertprasertsuk N. Toxicity evaluation of standardized extract of Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. J Ethnopharmacol. 2013;149:228–34.
Du X-Y, Hou Y, Tan H, Han Y, Fan H. Studies on the anti-tumor activity of polysaccharide from Gynostemma pentaphyllum and its mechanism. Sci Technol Eng. 2009;20:5968–72.
Wang J-R, Zhao J-B. The effect of preventing recurrence of cancer metastasis on jiaogulan soup in clinical study. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhii. 1993;28:529–30.
Wang J-M, Wang J-R, Bi H-G, Fu G-X, Zhao J-B. Jiaogulan soup prevent recurrence of cancer metastasis on cancer patients after chemotherapy. Hebei Zhong Yi. 1997;19:23–4.
Yu S-Q, Wang J-R. Jiaogulan formula increase NK cell activity in breast cancer patients. Zhong Yi Yao Yan Jiu. 1997;13:7–8.
Wang J, Cao B. Immunological effects of jiaogulan granule in 19 cancer patients. Zhejiang Zhong Yi Za Zhi. 1989;24:449.
Liu S-X, Wang J-R. Experimental and clinical study on treatment of cancer with Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makin. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Wai Ke Za Zhi 1996:110–1.
Zhou K, Bai S. The quality of randomized parallel controlled study of chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer and improve survival of yiqi jianpi qingre huoxue method. Shiyong Zhongyi Neike Zazhi. 2015;29:42–4.
Lu HF, Chen YS, Yang JS, Chen JC, Lu KW, Chiu TH, Liu KC, Yeh CC, Chen GW, Lin HJ, Chung JG. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via inhibition of cyclin e and induction of apoptosis via activation of caspases-3 and -9 in human lung cancer A-549 cells. In Vivo. 2008;22:215–21.
Chen J-C, Lu K-W, Lee J-H, Yeh C-C, Chung J-G. Gypenosides induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathways and activation of caspase-3. Anticancer Res. 2006;26:4313–26.
Chen J-C, Lu K-W, Tsai M-L, Hsu S-C, Kuo C-L, Yang J-S, Hsia T-C, Yu C-S, Chou S-T, Kao M-C. Gypenosides induced G0/G1 arrest via CHk2 and apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondria-dependent pathways in human tongue cancer scc-4 cells. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:273–83.
Wang QF, Chen JC, Hsieh SJ, Cheng CC, Hsu SL. Regulation of Bcl-2 family molecules and activation of caspase cascade involved in gypenosides-induced apoptosis in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Lett. 2002;183:169–78.
Wang QF, Chiang CW, Wu CC, Cheng CC, Hsieh SJ, Chen JC, Hsieh YC, Hsu SL. Gypenosides induce apoptosis in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells through a calcium/reactive oxygen species-dependent mitochondrial pathway. Planta Med. 2007;73:535–44.
Yang L, Wang P, Cheng XX, Zhang MY, Xiao YP. Suppressive effect of gypenosides on murine leukemia l1210 cell lines. Zhong Yao Cai. 2010;33:1588–92.
Sun D-P, Li X-X, Liu X-L, Zhao D, Qiu F-Q, Li Y, Ma P. Gypenosides induce apoptosis by Ca2+ overload mediated by endoplasmic-reticulum and store-operated Ca2+ channels in human hepatoma cells. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2013;28:320–6.
Lu KW, Chen JC, Lai TY, Yang JS, Weng SW, Ma YS, Tang NY, Lu PJ, Weng JR, Chung JG. Gypenosides causes DNA damage and inhibits expression of DNA repair genes of human oral cancer SAS cells. In Vivo. 2010;24:287–91.
Yuan G, Wei J, Zhou J, Guo X, Yang M. Apoptosis of human hepatoma cells induced by Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. Chin German J Clin Oncol. 2006;5:173–7.
Schild L, Chen BH, Makarov P, Kattengell K, Heinitz K, Keilhoff G. Selective induction of apoptosis in glioma tumour cells by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:589–97.
Lu KW, Tsai ML, Chen JC, Hsu SCH, Hsia TC, Lin MW, Huang AC, Chang YH, Ip SW, Lu HF, Chung JG. Gypenosides inhibited invasion and migration of human tongue cancer SCC4 cells through down-regulation of NFκB and matrix metalloproteinase-9. Anticancer Res. 2008;28:1093–9.
Lu KW, Chen JC, Lai TY, Yang JS, Weng SW, Ma YS, Lu PJ, Weng JR, Chueh FS, Wood WG, Chung JG. Gypenosides inhibits migration and invasion of human oral cancer SAS cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2-9 and urokinase-plasminogen by ERK1/2 and NFκB signaling pathways. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2011;30:406–15.
Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144:646–74.
Hamanaka RB, Chandel NS. Targeting glucose metabolism for cancer therapy. J Exp Med. 2012;209:211–5.
Hsiao W, Tai WCS, Mo Z, Wu PK. The assessment of anti-cancer activities and saponin profiles of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins obtained from different regions of china. J Biotechnol. 2008;136:S22–3.
Yang XB, Zhao Y, Yang Y, Ruan Y. Isolation and characterization of immunostimulatory polysaccharide from an herb tea, Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:6905–9.
Liu X, Wang P-J, Xu F-X. Study on gypenosides inhibiting neoplasm growth and elevating immunological function in lewis lung cancer of mice. Anhui Zhong Yi Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2001;1:21.
Ky PT, Huong PT, My TK, Anh PT, Kiem PV, Minh CV, Cuong NX, Thao NP, Nhiem NX, Hyun JH, Kang HK, Kim YH. Dammarane-type saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:994–1001.
Shi L, Lu F, Zhao H, Zhao YQ. Two new triterpene saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2012;14:856–61.
Williams SA, Anderson WC, Santaguida MT, Dylla SJ. Patient-derived xenografts, the cancer stem cell paradigm, and cancer pathobiology in the 21st century. Lab Invest. 2013;93:970–82.
Tentler JJ, Tan AC, Weekes CD, Jimeno A, Leong S, Pitts TM, Arcaroli JJ, Messersmith WA, Eckhardt SG. Patient-derived tumour xenografts as models for oncology drug development. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2012;9:338–50.
Siolas D, Hannon GJ. Patient-derived tumor xenografts: transforming clinical samples into mouse models. Cancer Res. 2013;73:5315–9.
Richmond A, Su Y. Mouse xenograft models vs gem models for human cancer therapeutics. Dis Model Mech. 2008;1:78–82.
Lin S, Jia-qing C, Hong Z, Yu-qing Z. A new triterpene saponin from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Chin Herb Med. 2010;2:317.
Bai MS, Gao JM, Fan C, Yang SX, Zhang G, Zheng CD. Bioactive dammarane-type triterpenoids derived from the acid hydrolysate of Gynostemma pentaphyllum saponins. Food Chem. 2010;119:306–10.
Li N, Wu CF, Xu XY, Liu ZY, Li X, Zhao YQ. Triterpenes possessing an unprecedented skeleton isolated from hydrolyzate of total saponins from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Eur J Med Chem. 2012;50:173–8.
Chen DJ, Liu HM, Xing SF, Piao XL. Cytotoxic activity of gypenosides and gynogenin against non-small cell lung carcinoma A549 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014;24:186–91.
Zhu H, Liu Z, Tang L, Liu J, Zhou M, Xie F, Wang Z, Wang Y, Shen S, Hu L, Yu L. Reversal of P-gp and MRP1-mediated multidrug resistance by H6, a gypenoside aglycon from Gynostemma pentaphyllum, in vincristine-resistant human oral cancer (kb/vcr) cells. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;696:43–53.
Liu JS, Chiang TH, Wang JS, Lin LJ, Chao WC, Inbaraj BS, Lu JF, Chen BH. Induction of p53-independent growth inhibition in lung carcinoma cell a549 by gypenosides. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:1697–709.
Xie Z, Liu W, Huang H, Slavin M, Zhao Y, Whent M, Blackford J, Lutterodt H, Zhou H, Chen P. Chemical composition of five commercial Gynostemma pentaphyllum samples and their radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties. J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58:11243–9.