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Table 3 Summary of the in vitro (A) and in vivo (B) responses to TiO2 exposure

From: Agglomeration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles increases toxicological responses in vitro and in vivo

(A)
In vitro responses to TiO2 exposure
Biological endpoint HBE Caco2 THP-1
17 nm 117 nm 17 nm 117 nm 17 nm 117 nm
Cell metabolic activity No No No No No No
Cell viability No No No No No No
DNA damage Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
GSH Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
TEER Yes Yes No Yes n/a n/a
IL-8 No No No No Yes No
IL-6 Yes No No No No No
TNF-α No No No No Yes No
IL-1β No Yes No No Yes No
(B)
In vivo responses to TiO2 exposure   
Biological endpoint Aspiration Gavage   
17 nm 117 nm 17 nm 117 nm   
BAL cell number No No n/a n/a   
BALF LDH No Yes n/a n/a   
BALF proteins No No n/a n/a   
BAL macrophages No No n/a n/a   
BAL neutrophils No No n/a n/a   
BAL lymphocytes Yes Yes n/a n/a   
Blood lymphocytes No No No No   
Blood monocytes No No No No   
Blood granulocytes No No No No   
Lung Ti Yes Yes n/a n/a   
Blood Ti No No No No   
BAL DNA damage No No n/a n/a   
Blood DNA damage n/a n/a Yes Yes   
GSH lung No No n/a n/a   
GSH liver n/a n/a No No   
  1. “Yes” indicates p < 0.05 (One-way ANOVA) and a significant difference compared to control; “No” indicates p > 0.05; n/a-not available