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Table 4 Differences between questionnaire and biomarkers in included studies (drugs of abuse)

From: Prevalence of prenatal exposure to substances of abuse: questionnaire versus biomarkers

DRUGS OF ABUSE
Author (reference, year) Questionnaire (%positive result) Biomarkers (%positive results) Differences/Comments
Garcia Algar et al. (28) 2009 Structured questionnaire COC (1.2%); THC (1.5%) MOR (0.3) MDMA (0.1%) COC (2.6%); THC (5.3%) MOR (4.7) MDMA (0.1%) - Hidden non-negligible drug consumption during pregnancy.
Bessa et al. (11) (2010) Structured questionnaire (0%) COC (1.7%) THC (4%) COC + THC (0.3%) - Usefulness of hair analysis for diagnosis of drug use. Significanthidden undeclared use of drugs during pregnancy
Hutson et al. (22) (2010) Structured questionnaire COC (0.4%); THC (0.15%) AMP (1%) COC (2%) THC (2%) AMP (8%) - The incidence was higher than those reported through questionnaire although significance could not be determined because of near-zero self-reporting levels
García-Serra et al. (16)
(2011)Friguls et al. (26) (2012)
Structured questionnaire COC (0.9%); THC (0.9%) COC (6.4%) THC (10.3%) MDMA (0.9%) THC + COC (0.9%) THC + MDMA (0.9%) (Hair)
COC (5.6%) THC (2.8%) (Meconium)
- No correlation between self-reported prevalence of illicit drug use and analytical methods
- Increased sensitivity of the hair against maternal meconium in detecting exposure to cannabis.
In the case of cocaine sensitivity of both matrices was similar
Joya et al. (30) (2012) N: 347 COC (2.6%) - Usefulness of hair analysis for diagnosis of drug use. Significant undeclared use of cocaine
Lendoiro et al. (18) (2013) (SP) Structured questionnaire COC (4.3%); THC (2.9%) OP (1%) COC (15.4%); THC (12.4%) OP (1%) - The results of this study confirm the usefulness of maternal hair analysis to evidence drug use during pregnancy.
- Hair analysis showed to be more sensitive than maternal interview for all drugs of abuse and medicines