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Table 5 The total, direct and indirect effects of key predictors on maternal and newborn postnatal health checks between birth and facility discharge in Malawi, MDHS 2015–16

From: Influences of health facility type for delivery and experience of cesarean section on maternal and newborn postnatal care between birth and facility discharge in Malawi

 Maternal postnatal health check between birth and facility dischargeNewborn postnatal health check between birth and facility discharge
CoefStd ErrorCoefStd Error
Type of health facility where women delivered
Total Effects:
 Government hospital (ref)
 Government health center/health post/others−0.147***0.027−0.127***0.028
 private/CHAM/mission hospital0.127**0.0440.161**0.049
 CHAM health center/blm/others−0.0130.0550.0310.059
Direct Effects:
 Government hospital (ref)
 Government health center/health post/others0.156***0.0380.0210.041
 private/CHAM/mission hospital0.184***0.0450.189***0.049
 CHAM health center/blm/others0.218**0.0640.143*0.065
Indirect Effects (via cesarean section):
 Government hospital (ref)
 Government health center/health post/others−0.304***0.028−0.147***0.028
 private/CHAM/mission hospital−0.057**0.018−0.028**0.010
 CHAM health center/blm/others−0.231***0.038−0.112***0.026
Cesarean section
 No (ref)
 Yes0.294***0.0230.143***0.026
 Age at Most Recent Birth (continuous)−0.0000.003NANA
Antenatal Visits
 Less than 4 visits (ref)
 4 or more visits0.080**0.0250.076**0.025
Education
 No education (ref)
 Primary education0.080**0.0290.0590.031
 Secondary education0.277***0.0510.163**0.056
Parity
 1 (ref)
 2–30.0580.034NANA
 4+0.121*0.050NANA
Residence
 Urban (ref)
 Rural−0.181***0.039−0.217***0.041
Region of the country
 Northern0.240***0.0360.452***0.039
 Central (ref)
 Southern0.0340.028−0.0020.027
Newborn size
 Very largeNANA0.0230.043
 Larger than averageNANA0.0170.030
 Average (ref)
 Smaller than averageNANA0.0020.039
 Very smallNANA0.0950.064
 EstimateStd Error
Covariance of the errors of maternal postnatal health check and newborn postnatal health check0.717***0.013
 R-square estimatesThresholds
Maternal postnatal health check0.1350.318***
Newborn postnatal health check0.088−0.344***
Cesarean section0.2601.805***
  1. Note
  2. *p < 0.05 **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001
  3. There were 11,956 observations used for the analysis (most recent singleton births in facilities in the past 5 years)
  4. Probit regression coefficients and standard errors of the study variables are presented. The estimates were obtained in R studio with the lavaan package
  5. Total effects were calculated as the sum of the direct effects and the indirect effects
  6. “NA” stands for not applicable. The corresponding variables were not included in the model for the particular outcome being predicted and therefore, no estimates were obtained