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Table 4 Association of adverse pregnancy outcome among gestational diabetes mellitus with IOM guideline on rate of GWG in second trimester of pregnancy

From: Association between gestational weight gain in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

  Within (n = 243) Below (n = 225) Above (n = 199)
n(%) (Reference) n (%) crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) n (%) crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Caesarean delivery 99(40.7) 88(39.1) 0.85(0.72–1.21) 0.69(0.59–1.11) 86(43.2) 0.95(0.72–1.43) 0.83(0.69–1.32)
HDP 13(5.3) 10(4.4) 0.62(0.39–1.13) 0.60(0.36–1.16) 31(15.6) 3.25(1.74–3.88)a 2.55(1.86–3.38)a
preeclampsia 6(2.4) 4(1.8) 0.63(0.46–1.35) 0.74(0.41–1.45) 15(7.5) 2.51(1.59–3.67)a 2.28(1.21–3.81)b
PROM 103(42.4) 102(45.3) 1.08(0.81–1.48) 1.06(0.74–1.38) 81(40.7) 0.91(0.56–1.53) 0.82(0.47–1.41)
Postpartum hemorrhage 22(9.1) 24(10.7) 1.15(0.76–1.89) 1.09(0.69–1.71) 19(9.5) 1.08(0.45–1.77) 1.10(0.51–1.63)
Fetal distress 71(29.2) 61(27.1) 0.90(0.72–1.33) 0.86(0.74–1.19) 55(27.6) 0.92(0.71–1.20) 0.94(0.71–1.23)
Preterm birth 39(16.0) 43(19.1) 1.19(0.73–1.72) 1.11(0.64–1.65) 29(14.6) 0.893(0.45–1.49) 0.78(0.40–1.28)
Macrosomia 42(17.7) 15(6.6) 0.51(0.39–0.67)b 0.66(0.52–0.78)b 45(22.6) 1.40(1.27–2.10)b 1.20(1.02–1.82)b
SGA 18(7.4) 20(8.8) 1.23(0.84–1.77) 1.12(0.72–1.61) 10(5.0) 0.89(0.61–1.13) 0.90(0.79–1.01)
LGA 58(23.9) 17(14.2) 0.63(0.43–0.71)b 0.71(0.51–0.82) b 71(35.7) 1.61(1.43–2.15)b 1.42(1.24–1.97)b
  1. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education, IVF, FPG, 2-h blood glucose. The results were presented with an adjusted odds ratio, aOR (95% CI);
  2. IOM, Institute of Medicine; GWG, gestational weight gain; HDP, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; PROM, premature rupture of the membranes; SGA, small for gestational age; LGA, large for gestational age; OR odds ratio; CI, Confidence interval
  3. aP < 0.01
  4. bP < 0.05,compared with the within IOM guideline subjects