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Table 3 Association of adverse pregnancy outcome among gestational diabetes mellitus with IOM guideline on total GWG

From: Association between gestational weight gain in women with gestational diabetes mellitus and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective cohort study

  Within (n = 560) Below (n = 545) Above (n = 501)
n(%) (Reference) n (%) crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI) n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Caesarean delivery 235(42.0) 199(36.5) 0.80(0.62–1.01) 0.79(0.61–1.01) 247(49.3) 1.35(1.06–1.71)a 1.34(1.04–1.72)b
HDP 36(6.4) 25(4.6) 0.70(0.41–1.18) 0.63(0.406–1.11) 65(13.0) 2.17(1.15–3.32)b 2.00(1.28–3.12)b
preeclampsia 15(2.7) 11(2.0) 0.80(0.35–1.85) 0.83(0.35–1.97) 33(6.6) 2.30(1.17–4.53)b 2.06(1.01–4.21)b
PROM 263(47.0) 278(51.0) 1.18(0.93–1.49) 1.17(0.92–1.48) 147(29.3) 0.47(0.36–0.61)a 0.46(0.36–0.60)b
Postpartum hemorrhage 50(8.9) 58(10.6) 1.22(0.82–1.81) 1.24(0.83–1.85) 43(8.6) 0.96(0.63–1.47) 0.90(0.58–1.40)
Fetal distress 164(29.3) 152(27.9) 0.93(0.72–1.21) 0.93(0.72–1.22) 138(27.5) 0.92(0.71–1.20) 0.94(0.71–1.23)
Preterm birth 89(15.9) 138(25.3) 2.39(1.63–2.42)a 1.96(1.44–2.38)a 34(6.8) 0.39(0.25–0.58)a 0.35(0.23–0.44)a
Macrosomia 90(16.1) 33(6.1) 0.34(0.22–0.55)a 0.35(0.23–0.53)a 123(24.6) 1.70(1.25–2.30)a 1.55(1.13–2.13)b
SGA 41(7.3) 59(10.8) 1.43(1.23–1.69)a 1.32(1.11–1.50)b 21(4.2) 0.66(0.51–0.87)b 0.89(0.69–1.09)
LGA 126(22.5) 73(13.4) 0.47(0.35–0.68)a 0.54(0.42–0.72)a 183(36.5) 3.04(2.12–4.25)a 2.82(1.94–3.23)a
  1. Multivariate analyses were adjusted for maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education, IVF, FPG, 2-h blood glucose. The results were presented with an adjusted odds ratio, aOR (95% CI);
  2. IOM, Institute of Medicine; GWG, gestational weight gain; HDP, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; PROM, premature rupture of the membranes; SGA, small for gestational age; LGA, large for gestational age; OR odds ratio; CI, Confidence interval
  3. aP < 0.01
  4. bP < 0.05,compared with the within IOM guideline subjects