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Table 1 The acute toxicity data of the studied metals and values of predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) (μg/L)

From: Risk assessment of eight metals and their mixtures to aquatic biota in sediments with diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT): a case study in Pearl River intertidal zone

Metals Algae Crustaceans Fish PNECb
EC50 Na EC50 N EC50/LC50 N
Cd 210.5 210 99.4 292 1490 35 0.099
Pb 1540 55 1941.5 28 1770 5 1.540
Ni 596 95 4389.4 81 30,000 132 0.596
Cu 120 509 70.7 936 133.8 58 0.071
Zn 738 243 913.5 286 1010 132 0.738
Co 10,378 26 7116.5 14 96,620 63 7.117
Fe 10,000 10 24,500.0 25 20,000 176 10.000
Mn 11,112 15 33,400.0 22 130,232.5 40 33.400
  1. aN is the numbers of toxicity data
  2. bPNEC is calculated based on acute toxicity data in algae, crustaceans, and fish, with the minimum level selected and then divided by the assessment factor (= 1000) [18, 38]