Advertisement

Earth, Planets and Space

, Volume 52, Issue 4, pp 229–236 | Cite as

The 1997 phreatic eruption of Akita-Yakeyama volcano, northeast Japan: Insight into the hydrothermal processes

  • Kenji Nogami
  • Jun-ichi Hirabayashi
  • Takeshi Ohba
  • Yuzo Yoshiike
Open Access
Article

Abstract

A small-scale steam explosion occurred on Karanuma crater on the summit of Akita-Yakeyama volcano on August 16, 1997 after a dormancy of 46 years. Chemical compositions of the fumarolic gases at the summit and hot spring waters around the volcano were monitored before the eruption.

Obvious changes in the composition and outlet temperatures of the fumarolic gases were not detected, neither before nor after the 1997 eruption. Hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of the gas condensates and hot-spring waters at the Yunuma crater indicated that a hydrothermal reservoir, where the fumarolic gases separated from the hot-spring waters at 150°C, existed in a shallow place beneath the crater.

Smectite, kaolinite and pyrophyllite were identified in the clay fraction of the volcanic ejecta. Although pyrophyllite should have been formed at about 1 km beneath the summit, it was not directly derived from the deep zone during the 1997 eruption but had been ejected by previous eruptions. The Cl/S values of the water leachates of the ejecta were about 0.7, which indicated that the volcanic gas which caused the eruption was rich in HCl. However, the fumarolic gases and the water samples collected from the summit area contained little chloride. The source of the water-soluble chloride might be high-temperature magmatic gases that have been estimated as the source of Cl-SO4 type thermal water. Such magmatic gases might have caused the 1997 eruption.

Keywords

Clay Fraction Steam Explosion Water Leachate Summit Area Phreatic Eruption 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Banba, M. and Y. Kubota, Geothermal Conceptual Model from the viewpoint of the Thermal History in the North Hachimantai-Yakyama Area, Jinetsu, 34, 1–13, 1997 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  2. Epstein, S. and T. K. Mayeda, Variation of 18O content of waters from natural sources, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 4, 213–224, 1953.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Giggenbach, W. F., Isotopic shifts in waters from geothermal and volcanic systems along convergent plate boundaries and thier origin, E. P. S. L., 113, 495–510, 1992.Google Scholar
  4. Hayashi, S., H. Ito, and T. Chiba, 16th August 1997 phreatic explosion of Akita-Yakeyama volcano, northeast Japan, J. Geol. Soc. Japan, 103, XXVII–XXVIII, 1997 (in Japanese).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Henmi, K. and T. Matsuda, Contributions to Clay Mineralogy, Dedicated to Prof. Toshio Sudo, Tokyo Univ. of Education, edited by K. Henmi, pp. 151–156, 1975 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  6. Hirabayashi, J., Change of chemical composition of volcanic gas and volcanic activity, Dr. Thesis, Tokyo Inst. Tech., 190 pp., 1984 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  7. Hirabayashi, J., J. Ossaka, and T. Ozawa, Relationship between volcanic activity and chemical composition of volcanic gases—A case study on the Sakurajima Volcano, Geochem. J., 16, 11–21, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hirabayashi, J., T. Ohba, and K. Nogami, Phreatic eruption of Kuju volcano on October 1995 and geochemical investigation, Reports of October 1995 Phreatic Eruption of Kuji Volcano, 63–74, 1996a (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  9. Hirabayashi, J., T. Ohba, and K. Nogami, Chemical Composition of Volcanic Gases Associated with the 1991–1992 Activity of Shinmoe-dake, Kirishima, Japan, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 41, 263–267, 1996b (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  10. Hirabayashi, J., T. Ohba, and K. Nogami, Chemical monitoring for the volcanic activity, Abstracts 1999 Japan Earth and planetary Science Joint Meeting, 1999.Google Scholar
  11. Iwasaki, I., T. Katsura, T. Tarutani, T. Ozawa, M. Yoshida, B. Iwasaki, M. Hirayama, and M. Kamada, Geochemical studies on Tamagawa Hot Springs, in Geochemistry of the Tamagawa Hot Springs (Dedicated to Prof. Eiichi Minami on his sixtieth birthday), 7–72 pp, 1963.Google Scholar
  12. Iwasaki, I., T. Ozawa, M. Yoshida, T. Katsura, B. Iwasaki, and M. Kamada, Differentiation of magmatic emanation, Bull. Tokyo Inst. Tech., 74, 1–57, 1966.Google Scholar
  13. JMA, National catalogue of the active volcanoes in Japan (2nd edition), 93–96, 1996.Google Scholar
  14. Kurosaki, M., J. Ossaka, and T. Matsuda, Clay Minerals in the Volcanic Ejectas from Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano and the Style of Eruption, J. Mineralog. Soc. Japan, 19, 87–91, 1990 (in Japanese with English abstract).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Matsubaya, O., Nessui no Chikyukagaku, 1991 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  16. Matsubaya, O., H. Etchu, and S. Komuro, Isotopic study of hot springs in Akita prefecture, Rept. Res. Isnt. Underground Resor., Min. Coll., Akita Univ., 48, 11–24, 1983 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  17. Matsuo, S., M. Kusakabe, H. Chiba, H. Ushiki, J. Ossaka, J. Hirabayashi, T. Abiko, K. Notsu, T. Ozawa, S. Aramaki, K. Sato, T. Hayashi, J. Sato, and N. Fujii, Geochemical Study on Ground Water, Thermal Water and Ash Fall Collected Immediately after the 1977 Eruption of the Usu Volcano, Japan, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 22, 201–220, 1977 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  18. Noguchi, K. and H. Kamiya, Prediction of volcanic eruption by measuring the chemical composition and amounts of gases, Bull. Volcanol., 26, 367–378, 1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ohba, T. and J. Hirabayashi, Handling of Pt catalyst in H2-H2O equilibration method for D/H measurement of water, Geochem. J., 30, 373–377, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ossaka, J., Activity of Volcanoes and Clay Minerals, J. Clay Science Soc. Japan, 22, 127–137, 1982 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  21. Ossaka, J. and T. Ozawa, The 1962-ejecta from Mt.Yake, Nagano-Gifu Prefectures, and its mechanism of eruption, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 11, 17–29, 1966 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  22. Ossaka, J. and T. Ozawa, Study on chemical compositions of volcanic gases and volcanic activity at Sakurajima Volcano, Rep. Joint Ob. Sakurajima Volcano, 62–66, 1975 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  23. Ossaka, J., J. Hirabayashi, T. Ozawa, and K. Kimijima, Monitoring of volcanic gases from Sakurajima and estimation of state of volcanic activity, Rep. 2nd Joint ob. Sakurajima Volcano, 68–80, 1977 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  24. Ossaka, J., T. Ozawa, H. Sakai, and J. Hirabayashi, Geochemical Study on the Volcanic Activity of Kiso-Ontake Volcano, after the 1979 Eruption, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 28, 59–74, 1983 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  25. Ossaka, J., K. Nogami, and J. Hirabayashi, Water-soluble Components on Volcanic ashes from Tokachi-dake Volcano, Hokkaido, Japan during the 1988–1989 Eruption, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 43, 25–31, 1998 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  26. Ozawa, T., Chemical analysis of volcanic gases: I, Chemical analysis of volcanic gases containing water vapor, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, etc., Geochem. Int., 5, 939–947, 1968.Google Scholar
  27. Rose, W. I., Jr., Scavenging of volcanic aerosol by ash: Atmospheric and volcanologic implications, Geology, 5, 621–624, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Taylor, P. S. and R. E. Stoiber, Soluble materials on ash from active Central American volcanoes, Geol. Soc. Amer. Bull, 84, 1031–1042, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tsuya, H., Yakeyama volcano in Akita Pref. and Tamagawa hot spring, Tamagawa OnsenKenkyukai, 130–135, 1954 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  30. Ui, T., M. Yoshimoto, R. Furukawa, Y. Ishizuka, M. Yoshida, N. Miyaji, Y. Katsui, N. Kito, Y. Ganzawa, and K. Nogami, March 1996 Eruption of Hokkaido-Komagatake, Northern Japan, Bull. Volcanol. Soc. Japan, 42, 141–151, 1997 (in Japanese with English abstract).Google Scholar
  31. Varekamp, J. C., J. F. Luhr, and K. L. Prestegaard, The 1982 eruptions of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico): Character of the eruptions, ash-fall deposits and gasphase, J. V. G. R., 23, 39–68, 1984.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society of Geomagnetism and Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (SGEPSS); The Seismological Society of Japan; The Volcanological Society of Japan; The Geodetic Society of Japan; The Japanese Society for Planetary Sciences. 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenji Nogami
    • 1
  • Jun-ichi Hirabayashi
    • 1
  • Takeshi Ohba
    • 1
  • Yuzo Yoshiike
    • 2
  1. 1.Kusatsu-Shirane Volcano ObservatoryTokyo Institute of TechnologyGunmaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceToho UniversityChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations