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Table 3 Unsupervised hierarchical clustering (see Figure  2 ); plasma biomarker levels (median and range) for patient in clusters with low/high frequency of DVT

From: Systemic levels of the endothelium-derived soluble adhesion molecules endocan and E-selectin in patients with suspected deep vein thrombosis

Clustering: endocan, E-selectin and CRP (Figure  2 left - no DVT among patients 88–98)
Mediator Cluster patients 88-98 Cluster patients 1-87 p-value All 98 patients
Endocan plasma level 0.31 (0.15-0.65) 0.94 (0.04-6.2) < 0.0001 0.82 (0.04-6.21)
E-selectin plasma level 27741 (22191–42222) 25672 (4940–60896) ns 26286 (4940–60896)
CRP 8 (5–30) 4 (1–170) ns 5 (1–170)
Clustering: Endocan, E-selectin, CRP, D-dimer (Figure  2 right - patients 1–29 including 18 of 21 patients with DVT)
Mediator Cluster patients 1-29 Cluster patients 30-98 p-value All 98 patients
Endocan plasma level 1.02 (0.04-6.21) 0.65 (0.13-4.54) 0.0102 0.82 (0.04-6.21)
E-selectin plasma level 26276 (9971–52968) 26296 (4940–60896) ns 26286 (4940–60896)
CRP 9 (3–170) 3 (1–101) 0.0006 5 (1–170)
D-dimer 5.640 (0.90-20.00) 0.6200 (0.22-3.55) < 0.0001 0.85 (0.22-20.00)
  1. The Mann Whitney test was used for the statistical comparison of the two patient subsets. The concentrations are given as ng/ml for endocan, pg/ml for E-selectin and μg/ml for CRP.