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Table 1 Summary of demographic variables

From: Effects of gender, age, family support, and treatment on perceived stress and coping of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Total (n = 140) Male (n = 73) Female (n = 67) P-value
Age (years) 62.06 ± 11.17 63.20 ± 9.56 60.87 ± 12.66 n.s.
Disease duration (years) 9.90 ± 8.02 9.37 ± 6.90 10.48 ± 9.10 n.s.
Living together with     
(includes multiple answers)     
Spouse 113 (80.7%) 69 (94.5%) 44 (65.7%)  
Sibling (s) 1 (0.7%) 0 (0%) 1 (1.5%)  
Children 82 (58.6%) 34 (46.6%) 48 (71.6%)  
Father/Mother 20 (14.3%) 9 (1.2%) 11 (1.6%)  
Other 2 (1.4%) 1 (0.1%) 1 (0.1%)  
Treatment method (s)     
(includes multiple answers)     
Diet 77 (55.0%) 42 (57.5%) 35 (52.2%)  
Exercise 55 (39.3%) 35 (47.9%) 20 (29.9%)  
Oral hypoglycemic agents 93 (66.4%) 53 (72.6%) 40 (59.7%)  
Insulin 28 (20.0%) 8 (11.0%) 20 (29.9%)  
Oral + Insulin 7 (0.5%) 2 (0.3%) 4 (0.6%)  
HbA1c (%, NGSP*) 7.27 ± 1.23 7.09 ± 1.06 7.47 ± 1.39 n.s.
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± SD.
  2. Statistical analysis was performed by unpaired t-test or Mann–Whitney U test.
  3. n.s.: not significant.
  4. *: NGSP, National Glycohmoglobin Standardization Program.