Tissue engineering, stem cells, cloning, and parthenogenesis: new paradigms for therapy

  • Jason Hipp
  • Anthony Atala
Open Access



Patients suffering from diseased and injured organs may be treated with transplanted organs. However, there is a severe shortage of donor organs which is worsening yearly due to the aging population. Scientists in the field of tissue engineering apply the principles of cell transplantation, materials science, and bioengineering to construct biological substitutes that will restore and maintain normal function in diseased and injured tissues. Both therapeutic cloning (nucleus from a donor cell is transferred into an enucleated oocyte), and parthenogenesis (oocyte is activated and stimulated to divide), permit extraction of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, and offer a potentially limitless source of cells for tissue engineering applications. The stem cell field is also advancing rapidly, opening new options for therapy. The present article reviews recent progress in tissue engineering and describes applications of these new technologies that may offer novel therapies for patients with end-stage organ failure.


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© Hipp and Atala; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2004

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine Wake Forest University School of MedicineWinston SalemUSA
  2. 2.Wake Forest University School of Medicine Medical Center Blvd.Winston SalemUSA

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