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Biomedical Dermatology

, 3:6 | Cite as

Advances in research on the active constituents and physiological effects of Ganoderma lucidum

  • Yunli Yang
  • Huina Zhang
  • Jinhui Zuo
  • Xiaoyan Gong
  • Fan Yi
  • Wanshan Zhu
  • Li LiEmail author
Open Access
Review
  • 102 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Ganoderma lucidum, a double-walled basidiospore produced by porous basidiomycete fungi, has been used as a traditional medicine for thousands of years. It is considered a valuable Chinese medicine for strengthening body resistance, invigorating the spleen, and replenishing Qi. G. lucidum contains a variety of active ingredients, such as polysaccharides, triterpenoids, nucleosides, sterols, alkaloids, polypeptides, fatty acids, steroids, and inorganic elements, and has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotection, hypoglycemic, anti-melanogenesis, anti-aging, and skin barrier-repairing activity.

Conclusions

The review summarizes the traditional usages, distribution, active constituents, structure, and biological effects of G. lucidum, with an aim to offer directions for further research and better usage of G. lucidum as a medicinal raw material.

Keywords

Ganoderma lucidum Traditional uses Polysaccharides Triterpenoids Natural products Pharmacological effect 

Abbreviations

AMPK

AMP-activated protein kinase

Bcl-2

B cell lymphoma-2

Bcl-xL

B cell lymphoma-extra large

cAMP

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate

CREB

cAMP-responsive element-binding protein

ERK

Extracellular signal regulated kinase

FGF2

Fibroblast growth factor

G. lucidum

Ganoderma lucidum

GLE

Extract of G. lucidum

GLPs

G. lucidum polysaccharides

Il-2

Serum interleukin-2

INF-γ

Interferon-γ

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LZ-8

Ling Zhi-8

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MITF

Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

t-BHP

Tertbutyl hydrogenperoxide

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

UV

Ultraviolet

UVB

Ultraviolet B

Background

Ganoderma lucidum is an annual or perennial fungus of the family Ganodermataceae ( Campos Ziegenbein et al. 2006); it is commonly known as “Ling Zhi” in China. In the wild, G. lucidum mainly grows in subtropical and temperate climate regions such as Asia, Europe, Africa, and Americas (Siwulski et al. 2015). G. lucidum has a kidney-shaped cap and its upper surface is russet, with a cloud-like, ring pattern, glossy exterior, and woody texture.

G. lucidum has a systematic theoretical background in traditional Chinese medicine, and research has now confirmed that it contains over 400 bioactive compounds, including polysaccharides, triterpenoids, steroids, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleosides, proteins, and alkaloids (Cör et al. 2018). Polysaccharides and triterpenoids are the major bioactive compounds in G. lucidum. The active ingredients and relative pharmacological activities differ during the different growth stages of G. lucidum. Modern pharmacology has shown that G. lucidum has antitumor (Kao et al. 2016), anti-inflammatory (Liu et al. 2018), and antioxidation effects (Sarnthima et al. 2017) and that it could regulate the respiratory, nervous, and immune systems (Kubota et al. 2018). G. lucidum also has a hypoglycemic effect (Tian et al. 2018) and can protect the liver (Wu et al. 2016). Nowadays, G. lucidum is used as a powder, tea, and dietary supplement. Therefore, it is extremely significant to study the pharmacological effects and safety of G. lucidum.

G. lucidum plays a role in inhibiting tyrosinase activity and tyrosine-related protein expression, and thus, it may ameliorate pigmentation effect (Zhang et al. 2011). It can also anti-aging by inhibiting ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression and increasing procollagen expression (Lee et al. 2018). G. lucidum also has a marked ability to scavenge free radicals in vivo.

In this review, the traditional pharmacological uses, distribution, main chemical constituents, and pharmacological effects of G. lucidum have been summarized. Furthermore, the application of G. lucidum in clinic was prospected with an aim to provide references for further development of G. lucidum-based resources.

Distribution and cultivation of G. lucidum

Distribution of G. lucidum

G. lucidum, a medical fungus, grows in subtropical and temperate climate regions such as Asia, Europe, Africa, and Americas in the wild (Siwulski et al. 2015). In Asia, G. lucidum mainly grows in China, Korea, and Japan. In Europe, it is distributed in Sweden, Denmark, and Poland. G. lucidum is distributed in Kenya, Tanzania, and Ghana in Africa (Wang et al. 2012). In China, G. lucidum grows in the regions around Yangtze and Yellow rivers (Chen and Li 2004). It originated from the Dabie Mountains, which recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica.

Cultivation of G. lucidum

Owing to the varying quality of G. lucidum in the wild and the increasing demand for it in the food service, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and health product industries, cultivation has become a major source of the mushroom. Different active substances have been extracted from the fruiting bodies, mycelia, and spores of G. lucidum. The fruiting bodies of G. lucidum have been commonly cultivated on hardwood logs, stumps, and sawdust (Cilerdzic et al. 2018). Artificial cultivation of G. lucidum takes a long time, and its quality is susceptible to environmental conditions. Liquid- and solid-state fermentation are popular for the production of mycelia (Zhou et al. 2012), and the secondary metabolites of G. lucidum can be obtained quickly by fermentation technology.

Traditional uses of G. lucidum in China

According to the colors of the fruiting bodies, G. lucidum can be classified into red, black, blue, white, yellow, and purple Reishi, and red Reishi (G. lucidum) has shown the most significant health-enhancing effects (Cör et al. 2018). G. lucidum has been extensively used as a traditional medicine to promote health and longevity in China. In traditional Chinese medicine, G. lucidum is regarded as a valuable for strengthening body resistance, invigorating the spleen, and replenishing Qi. G. lucidum was first recognized more than 2400 years ago in Shen Nong’s Materia Medica, and the book records that G. lucidum can improve eyesight, nourish liver qi, improve vital essence, and strengthen bones and muscles. Further, in Compendium of Materia Medica, G. lucidum has been recorded as being able to preserve the spirit and longevity. Modern studies have shown that G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLPs) and Ganoderma triterpenoids (GTs) which improve immunity and exert anti-aging effects are the main contributors to the traditional pharmacological activities of G. lucidum. G. lucidum has been included in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and in the American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium (Hapuarachchi et al. 2018).

Active compounds of G. lucidum

Modern studies have shown that G. lucidum contains many active compounds, including triterpenoids, polysaccharides, steroids, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleosides, proteins, and alkaloids. The triterpenoids and polysaccharides have attracted considerable attention because of their high content in the fungus, diverse structures, and significant bioactivities.

Polysaccharides

Polysaccharides are extracted from the mycelium, fruit body, and fermentation liquid of G. lucidum. The different growth stages of G. lucidum are marked by different components, structures, molecular weights, and effects of GLPs. The content of polysaccharides in the mycelium is the highest while that in the fruiting body is the lowest. The monosaccharides in the fruiting bodies are mainly glucose and galactose, while that from the mycelium and spores is mainly glucose (Khanna et al. 2012). GLPs extracted from fruiting bodies can exert anticancer effects via immunomodulation. Various types of polysaccharides, with molecular weights ranging from 4 × 105 to 1 × 106 Daltons (Bishop et al. 2015), have been identified in the fruiting body and mycelia of G. lucidum (Khanna et al. 2012; Ferreira et al. 2015). The basic framework of GLPs comprises a high-molecular-weight β-(1→3)-d-glucan with (1→6)-β-d-glucosyl branches (Liu et al. 2014), and the main components of sugars are mannose, rhamnose, glucose, and galactose. The possible repeating units of G. lucidum glucans is shown in Fig. 1 (Sone et al. 1985).
Fig. 1

Possible repeating units of G. lucidum glucans. (figure adapted from [21])

Triterpenoids

More than 200 triterpenes have been identified from the fruiting bodies, spores, and mycelia of G. lucidum (Baby et al. 2015; Xia et al. 2014). The fruiting body of G. lucidum has a high content and wide variety of GTs, while the mycelium has few GTs species. GTs have not be detected in non-broken spores of G. lucidum (Yu et al. 2016). All triterpenes are tetracyclic triterpenes (Xia et al. 2014). According to the functional groups and side chains, GTs can be divided into compounds including ganoderic acid, ganoderiol, ganoderone, ganolactone, and ganoderal (Baby et al. 2015). The skeletal types of Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum are shown in Fig. 2. The names and corresponding sources of the compounds are shown in Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 (Baby et al. 2015; Xia et al. 2014).
Fig. 2

Skeletal types of Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

Table 1

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

No.

Compound name

Types

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

R6

Source

1

Lucidenic acid H

I

β-OH

OH

β-OH

H

O

H

Fruit body

2

Lucidenic acid L

I

β-OH

H

O

β-OH

O

H

Fruit body

3

Lucidenic acid I

I

β-OH

OH

O

H

O

H

Fruit body

4

Lucidenic acid J

I

β-OH

OH

O

β-OH

O

H

Fruit body

5

Lucidenic acid K

I

O

H

O

α-OH

O

H

Fruit body

6

Lucidenic acid M

I

β-OH

H

α-OH

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

7

Methyl lucidenate I

I

β-OH

OH

O

H

O

Me

Fruit body

8

Methyl lucidenate J

I

β-OH

OH

O

β-OH

O

Me

Fruit body

9

Methyl lucidenate K

I

O

H

O

α-OH

O

Me

Fruit body

10

Methyl lucidenate L

I

β-OH

H

O

β-OH

O

Me

Fruit body

11

Methyl lucidenate M

I

β-OH

H

α-OH

H

α-OH

Me

Fruit body

12

Methyl lucidenate A

I

O

H

β-OH

H

O

Me

Mycelia

13

Methyl lucidenate C

I

β-OH

H

β-OH

β-OH

O

Me

Fruit body

14

Methyl lucidenate F

I

O

H

O

H

O

Me

Mycelia

15

Methyl lucidenate N

I

β-OH

H

β-OH

H

O

Me

Fruit body

16

Methyl lucidenate P

I

β-OH

H

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Me

Fruit body

17

Methyl lucidenate Q

I

O

H

β-OH

H

α-OH

Me

Fruit body

18

Bethyl lucidenate H

I

β-OH

OH

β-OH

H

O

Me

Fruit body

19

Methyl lucidenate D2

I

O

H

O

β-OAc

O

Me

Fruit body

20

Ethyl lucidenate A

I

O

H

β-OH

H

O

Et

Fruit body

21

Butyl lucidenate A

I

O

H

β-OH

H

O

Bu

Fruit body

22

Butyl lucidenate N

I

β-OH

H

β-OH

H

O

Bu

Fruit body

23

t-Butyl lucidenate B

I

O

H

β-OH

β-OH

O

Bu

Fruit body

24

Butyl lucidenate P

I

β-OH

H

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

25

Butyl lucidenate Q

I

O

H

β-OH

H

α-OH

Bu

Fruit body

26

Butyl lucidenate D2

I

O

H

O

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

27

Butyl lucidenate E2

I

β-OH

H

O

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

28

n-Butyl lucidenate A

I

O

H

β-OH

H

O

Me

Fruit body

29

n-Butyl lucidenate N

I

β-OH

H

β-OH

H

O

H

Fruit body

30

Methyl lucidenate E2

I

β-OH

H

O

OAc

O

Me

Fruit body

31

7,15-Dihydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-3,11-dioxochol-8-en–24-oic acid

I

O

H

OH

H

OH

H

Fruit body

Table 2

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

No.

Compound name

Types

R1

R2

R3

R4

R5

Source

32

Ganoderic acid A

II

O

β-OH

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

33

Ganoderic acid B

II

β-OH

β-OH

H

O

H

Fruit body/Spore

34

Ganoderic acid C1

II

O

β- OH

H

O

H

Fruit body/spore

35

Ganoderic acid C2

II

β-OH

β-OH

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body/spore

36

Ganoderic acid C6

II

β-OH

O

β-OH

O

H

Fruit body

37

Ganoderic acid D1

II

O

β- OH

β- OH

O

H

Fruit body

38

Ganoderic acid E

II

O

O

H

O

H

Fruit body/spore

39

Ganoderic acid F

II

O

O

β-OAc

O

H

Fruit body

40

Ganoderic acid G

II

β-OH

β- OH

β- OH

O

H

Fruit body

41

Ganoderic acid H

II

β-OH

O

β-OAc

O

H

Fruit body

42

Ganoderic acid I

II

β-OH

β-OH

H

O

ξ-OH

Fruit body

43

Ganoderic acid J

II

O

O

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

44

Ganoderic acid K

II

β-OH,

β-OH

β-OAc

O

H

Fruit body

45

Ganoderic acid M

II

O

β-OH

α-OH

O

H

Fruit body

46

Ganoderic acid N

II

O

β-OH

H

O

ξ-OH

Fruit body

47

Ganoderic acid L

II

β-OH

β-OH

H

α-OH

ξ-OH

Fruit body

48

Ganoderic acid AM1

II

β-OH

O

H

O

H

Fruit body

49

Ganoderic acid O

II

O

O

H

O

ξ-OH

Mycelium

50

Ganoderic acid B8

II

O

α-OH

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

51

Ganoderic acid C6

II

β-OH

O

β-OH

O

H

Mycelia

52

Ganoderic acid α

II

β-OH,

O

β-OAc

β-OH

H

Fruit body

53

12-Hydroxylganoderic acid C2

II

β-OH,

β-OH

OH

α-OH

H

Fruit body

54

20-Hydroxylganoderic acid G

II

β-OH

β-OH

β-OH

O

OH

Fruit body

55

3-O-Acetylganoderic acid B

II

β-OAc

β-OH

H

O

H

Mycelia

56

3-Acetylganoderic acid H

II

β-OAc

O

β-OAc

O

H

Fruit body

57

3-O-Acetylganoderic acid K

II

β-OAc

O

H

α-OH

H

Mycelia

58

12-Acetoxyganoderic acid D

II

O

β-OH

OAc

O

H

Fruit body

59

12-Hydroxyganoderic acid D

II

O

β-OH

OH

O

H

Fruit body

60

12-Acetoxyganoderic acid F

II

O

O

β-OAc

O

H

Fruit body

61

Compound B9

II

β-OH

α-OH

H

α-OH

H

Gill

62

Ganolucidic acid A

II

O

H

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

63

Ganolucidic acid B

II

β-OH

H

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

64

12β-Hydroxy-3,7,11,15,23-Pentaoxo-5α-lanosta-8-en-26-oic acid

II

O

O

β-OH

O

H

Fruit body

65

12-Hydroxy-3,7,11,15,23-pentaoxo-lanost-8-en-26-oic acid

II

O

O

OH

O

H

Fruit body

66

12,15-Bis(acetyloxy)-3-hydroxy-7,11,23-trioxo-lanost-8-en-26-oic acid

II

OH

O

OAc

OAc

H

Fruit body

70

Ganoderic acid W

III

α-OAc

α-OH

H

α-OAc

H

Fruit body

71

Ganoderic acid U

III

α-OH

α-OH

H

H

H

Mycelia

72

Ganoderic acid V

III

O

α-OH

H

α-OAc

H

Mycelia

73

Ganoderic acid Z

III

β-OH

H

H

H

H

Mycelia

74

Ganoderic acid Ma

III

α-OAc

α-OAc

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

75

Ganoderic acid Mb

II

α-OAc

α-OH

H

α-OAc

ξ-OAc

Fruit body

76

Ganoderic acid Mc

III

α-OAc

α-OAc

H

α-OH

ξ-OAc

Mycelia

77

Ganoderic acid Md

III

α-OAc

α- OMe

H

H

ξ-OAc

Fruit body

78

Ganoderic acid Mg

III

α-OAc

α- OMe

H

α-OH

ξ-OAc

Mycelia

79

Ganoderic acid Mh

III

α-OAc

α-OH

H

α-OH

ξ-OAc

Mycelial

80

Ganoderic acid Mi

III

α-OAc

α-OMe

H

α-OH

H

Mycelia

81

Ganoderic acid β

III

β-OH

β-OH

O

O

H

Spore

82

7-O-Methyl ganoderic acid O

III

α-OAc

α-OMe

H

α-OAc

β-OAc

Mycelia

83

7-O-Ethyl ganoderic acid O

III

α-OAc

α-OEt

H

α-OAc

ξ-OAc

Mycelia

84

7-Oxo-ganoderic acid Z

III

β-OH

O

H

H

H

Fruit body

85

3α,22β-Diacetoxy-7α-hydroxyl-5α-lanost-8,24E-dien-26-oic acid

III

α-OAc

α-OH

H

H

β-OAc

Mycelia

86

3β,15α-Diacetoxylanosta-8,24-dien-26-oic acid

III

β-OAc

H

H

α-OAc

H

Mycelia

87

11α-Hydroxy-3,7-dioxo-5α-Lanosta-8,24(E)-dien-26-oic acid

III

O

O

α-OH

H

H

Fruit body

88

11β-Hydroxy-3,7-dioxo-5α-lanosta-8,24(E)-dien-26-oic acid

III

O

O

β-OH

H

H

Fruit body

89

Ganoderic acid LM2

IV

O

β-OH

H

O

OH

Fruit body

90

Ganoderic acid γ

IV

O

β-OH

H

α-OH

β-OH

Spore

91

Ganoderic acid δ

IV

O

α-OH

H

α-OH

β-OH

Spore

92

Ganoderic acid ε

IV

β-OH

β-OH

H

O

β-OH

Spore

93

Ganoderic acid ζ

IV

β-OH

O

H

O

β-OH

Spore

94

Ganoderic acid η

IV

β-OH

β-OH

β-OH

O

β-OH

Spore

95

Ganoderic acid θ

IV

β-OH

O

β-OH

O

β-OH

Spore

96

Ganolucidic acid D

IV

O

H

H

α-OH

β-OH

Spore/fruit body

97

Ganolucidic acid E

IV

O

H

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

98

23S-Hydroxy-3,7,11,15-tetraoxolanost-8,24E-diene-26-oic acid

 

β-OH

O

O

O

H

Fruit body

99

Methyl ganoderate A

 

O

β-OH

H

α-OH

Me

Fruit body

100

Methyl ganoderate B

IV

β-OH

β-OH

H

O

Me

Fruit body

101

Methyl ganoderate D

V

O

β-OH

H

O

Me

Fruit body

102

Methyl ganoderate E

V

O

O

H

O

Me

Fruit body

103

Methyl ganoderate F

V

O

O

β-OAc

O

Me

Fruit body

104

Methyl ganoderate H

V

β-OH

O

β-OAc

O

Me

Fruit body

105

Methyl ganoderate J

V

O

O

H

α-OH

Me

Fruit body

106

Methyl-O-acetylganoderate C

V

β-OAc

O

β-OAc

O

Me

Mycelia

107

3β,7β-Dihydroxy-12β-acetoxy-11,15,23-trioxo-5α-lanosta-8-en-26-oic acid methyl ester

V

β-OH

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Me

Fruit body

108

Ethyl ganoderate J

 

Ο

O

H

α-OH

Et

Mycelia

109

Ethyl 3-O-Acetylganoderate B

V

β-OAc

β-OH

H

O

Et

Mycelia

110

12β-Acetoxy-3,7,11,15,23-pentaoxo-5α-lanosta-8-en-26-oic acid ethyl ester

 

O

O

β-OAc

O

Et

Fruit body

111

Butyl ganoderate A

 

O

β-OH

H

α-OH

Bu

Fruit body

112

Butyl ganoderate B

V

β-OH

β-OH

H

O

Bu

Fruit body

113

Butyl ganoderate H

V

β-OH

O

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

114

n-Butyl ganoderate H

V

β-OH

O

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

115

12β-Acetoxy-3β,7β-dihydroxy-11,15,23-trioxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid butyl ester

 

β-OH

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

116

12β-Acetoxy-3,7,11,15,23-pentaoxolanost-8-en-26-oic acid butyl ester

 

O

O

β-OAc

O

Bu

Fruit body

117

Methyl ganoderate C1

V

O

β-OH

H

O

CH3

Fruit body

118

Compound B8

V

O

OH

H

OH

H

Fruit body

119

Compound B9

V

β-OH

OH

H

OH

H

Fruit body

120

Methyl ganoderate M

V

O

β-OH

α-OH

O

O

Fruit body

121

Methyl ganoderate N

V

O

β-OH

H

O

OH

Fruit body

122

Methyl ganoderate K

 

β-OH

O

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

123

Methyl ganoderate G

 

OH

OH

OH

O

H

G. lucidum

124

Methyl ganoderenate E

V

O

O

H

O

H

Fruit body

125

Methyl ganoderate I

 

OH

OH

H

O

OH

G. lucidum

126

Methyl ganoderate A

 

O

H

H

β-OH

H

Fruit body

127

Methyl ganoderate B

V

β-OH

H

H

α-OH

H

Fruit body

128

Ganoderal B

V

O

α-OH

H

H

CHO

Fruit body

129

Lucidadiol

V

OH

O

H

H

OH

Fruit body

130

Lucidal

V

β-OH

O

H

H

CHO

Fruit body

131

Lucialdehyde B

VI

O

O

H

H

CHO

Fruit body

132

Lucialdehyde E

VI

O

β-OH

O

α-OH

CHO

Spore

133

Lucialdehyde D

VI

O

O

O

H

CHO

Spore

134

Ganoderic aldehyde A

VI

O

β-OH

O

α-OH

CHO

Fruit body

135

Lucialdehyde C

VI

β-OH

O

H

H

CHO

Fruit body

Table 3

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

No.

Compound name

Types

R1

R2

R3

R4

Source

146

Lucidenic acid A (lucidenate A)

VIII

O

β-OH

H

H

Fruit body

147

Lucidenic acid B

VIII

O

β-OH

β-OH

H

Fruit body

148

3β-Oxo-formyl-7β,12β-dihydroxy-4,4,14α-trimethyl-5α-chol-11,15-dioxo-8-en(E)-24-oic acid

VIII

β-OCHO

β-OH

OH

H

Fruit body

149

Lucidenic acid C

VIII

β-OH

β-OH

β-OH

H

Fruit body

150

Lucidenic acid D

VIII

O

O

β-OAc

H

Fruit body

151

Lucidenic acid D1

VIII

O

O

O

H

Fruit body

152

Lucidenic acid D2

VIII

O

O

β-OAc

H

Fruit body

153

Lucidenic acid E

VIII

β-OH

O

β-OAc

H

Fruit body

154

Lucidenic acid E1

VIII

O

β-OH

α-OH

H

Fruit body

155

Lucidenic acid E2

VIII

β-OH

O

β-OAc

H

Fruit body

156

Lucidenic acid F

VIII

O

O

H

H

Fruit body

157

Lucidenic acid N

VIII

β-OH

β-OH

H

H

Fruit body

158

Lucidenic acid P

VIII

β-OH

β-OH

β-OAc

H

Fruit body

159

20-Hydroxylucidenic acid D2

VIII

O

O

β-OAc

ξ-OH

Fruit body

160

20-Hydroxylucidenic acid E2

VIII

β-OH

O

β-OAc

ξ-OH

Fruit body

161

20-Hydroxylucidenic acid F

VIII

O

O

H

ξ-OH

Fruit body

162

20-Hydroxylucidenic acid N

VIII

β-OH

β-OH

H

ξ-OH

Fruit body

163

20-Hydroxylucidenic acid P

VIII

β-OH

β-OH

β-OAc

ξ-OH

Fruit body

164

3β-Hydroxy-4,4,14-trimethyl-7,11,15-trioxochol-8-en-24-oic acid

VIII

β-OH

O

H

H

Fruit body

165

Ganoderal A

IX

O

H

Me

CHO

Fruit body

166

Lucialdehyde A

IX

β-OH

H

Me

CHO

Fruit body

167

Ganoderic aldehyde TR

IX

O

α-OH

CHO

Me

Fruit body

168

Ganoderol A(ganodermenonol)

IX

O

H

Me

CH2OH

Fruit body

169

Ganoderol B

IX

β-OH

H

Me

CH2OH

Fruit body/mycelia

170

Ganodermatriol

IX

β-OH

H

CH2OH

CH2OH

Fruit body

171

Ganoderiol B

IX

O

α-OH

CH2OH

CH2OH

Fruit body

172

Ganoderiol F

IX

O

H

CH2OH

CH2OH

Fruit body

173

5α-Lanosta-7,9(11),24-triene-15α-26-dihydroxy-3-one

IX

O

α-OH

Me

CH2OH

Fruit body

174

Lucidenic acid O

XI

β-OH

OH

α-OH

H

Fruit body

175

20(21)-Dehydrolucidenic acid A

XI

O

H

O

H

Fruit body

176

Methyl 20(21)-dehydrolucidenate A

XI

O

H

O

Me

Fruit body

136

Ganoderenic acid A

X

O

β-OH

H

α-OH

Fruit body

137

Ganoderenic acid B

X

β-OH

β-OH

H

O

Fruit body

138

Ganoderenic acid C

X

β-OH

β-OH

H

α-OH

Fruit body

139

Ganoderenic acid D

X

O

β-OH

H

O

Fruit body

140

Ganoderenic acid K

X

β-OH

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Fruit body

141

Ganoderenic acid E

X

O

β-OH

β-OH

O

Gill

142

Elfvingic acid A

X

O

O

α-OH

β-OH

Fruit body

143

12β-Acetoxy-7β-hydroxy-3,11,15,23-tetraoxo-5α-lanosta-8,20-dien-26-oic acid

X

O

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Fruit body

144

12β-Acetoxy-3β-hydroxy-7,11,15,23-tetraoxo-lanost-8,20E-diene-26-oic acid

X

β-OH

O

β-OAc

O

Fruit body

145

12β-Acetoxy-3β,7β-dihydroxy-11,15,23-trioxo-5α-lanosta-8,20-dien-26-oic acid

X

β-OH

β-OH

β-OAc

O

Fruit body

Table 4

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

No.

Compound name

Types

R1

R2

R3

Source

177

Ganoderic acid P

XII

α-OH

α-OAc

β-OAc

Mycelia

178

Ganoderic acid Q

XII

α-OAc

α-OH

β-OAc

Mycelia

179

Ganoderic acid R

XII

α-OAc

H

β-OAc

Fruit body /mycelia

180

Ganoderic acid S

XII

α-OH

H

β-OAc

Mycelia

181

Ganoderic acid T

XII

α-OAc

α-OAc

β-OAc

Fruit body /mycelia

182

Ganoderic acid Y

XII

β-OH

H

H

Fruit body

183

Ganoderic acid X

XII

α-OH

α-OAc

H

Mycelia

184

Ganoderic acid TR1

XII

O

β-OH

H

Fruit body

185

Ganoderic acid Me

XII

α-OAc

α-OAc

H

Fruit body /mycelia

186

Ganoderic acid Mf

XII

α-OAc

α-OH

H

Fruit body /mycelia

187

15-Hydroxy ganoderic acid S

XII

O

α-OH

H

Fruit body

188

Ganodermic acid S

XII

β-OAc

α-OAc

H

Fruit body

189

Ganodermic acid Ja

XII

α-OH

α-OH

H

Mycelia

190

Ganodermic acid Jb

XII

β-OH

α-OH

H

Mycelia

191

Ganodermic acid R

XII

α-OAc

α-OAc

H

Mycelia

192

Ganodermic acid P1

XII

α-OAc

α-OH

OAc

Mycelia

193

Ganodermic acid P2

XII

β-OH

α-OAc

β-OAc

Mycelia

194

Ganodermic acid T-N

XII

β-OH

α-OAc

H

Mycelia

195

Ganodermic acid T-O

XII

β-OAc

α-OH

H

Fruit body

196

Ganodermic acid T–Q

XII

O

α-OAc

H

Mycelia

197

3α,15α,22α-Trihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid

XII

α-OH

α-OH

α-OH

Mycelia

198

3α,15α-Diacetoxy-22α-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid

XII

α-OAc

α-OAc

α-OH

Mycelia

199

3β,15α-Diacetoxy-22α-hydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid

XII

β-OAc

α-OAc

α-OH

Mycelia

200

3β,15α,22β-Trihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid(ganodermic acid S)

XII

β-OH

α-OH

β-OH

Mycelia

201

22β-Acetoxy-3α,15α-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid

XII

α-OH

α-OH

β-OAc

Mycelia

202

22β-Acetoxy-3β,15α-dihydroxylanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid

XII

β-OH

α-OH

β-OAc

Mycelia

203

Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3α-acetoxy-15α,22β-dihydroxy-26-oic acid

XII

α-OAc

α-OH

β-OH

Fruit body

204

Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3β,15α,22β-triacetoxy-26-oic acid

XII

β-OAc

α-OAc

β-OAc

Fruit body

205

Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3α-acetoxy-15α-hydroxy-23-oxo-26-oic acid

XIII

α-OAc

OH

O

G. lucidum

206

Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-15α-acetoxy-3α-hydroxy-23-oxo-26-oic acid

XIII

α-OH

OAc

O

G. lucidum

207

Lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-3α,l5α-diacetoxy-23-oxo-26-oic acid

XIII

α-OAc

OAc

O

G. lucidum

208

Ganoderic acid Sz

XIV

O

H

H

Fruit body

209

Ganoderic acid TR

XIV

O

α-OH

H

Fruit body

210

23-Hydroxy ganoderic acid S

XIV

OH

H

OH

Fruit body

211

Lucidone A

XV

β-OH

β-OH

O

Fruit body

212

Lucidone B

XV

O

β-OH

O

Fruit body

213

Lucidone C

XV

β-OH

β-OH

α-OH

Fruit body

214

Ganoderiol E (3β, 26,27-trihydroxy-5α-lanosta-8,24-dien-7-one)

XVI

β-OH

O

H

Fruit body

215

Ganoderiol I (15α, 26,27-trihydroxy-5α-lanosta-8,24-dien-3-one)

XVI

O

α-OMe

α-OH

Fruit body

216

Methyl Ganolucidate C

XVII

OH

OH

Me

Fruit body

217

Ganolucidic acid C

XVII

OH

OH

H

Fruit body

218

methyl ganolucidate B

XVII

OH

H

Me

Fruit body

219

methyl lucidenate G

XXVII

O

OH

CH3

Fruit body

220

Lucidenic acid G

XXVII

O

OH

H

Fruit body

Table 5

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

No.

Compound name

Types

R

Source

221

Ganosporelactone A

XVIII

O

Spore

222

Ganosporelactone B

XVIII

OH

Spore

223

Epoxyganoderiol B

XIX

O

Fruit body

224

Epoxyganoderiol C

XIX

β-OH

Fruit body

225

26-Hydroxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-triene-3,22-dione

XX

Me

Fruit body

226

26,27-Dihydroxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-triene-3,22-dione

XX

CH2OH

Fruit body

227

Ganoderitriol M

XXI

β-OH

Fruit body

228

Lucidumol A

XXI

O

Fruit body/spore

229

Ganodermanondiol

XXII

O

Fruit body/spore

230

Lucidumol B

XXII

β-OH

Fruit body/spore

Table 6

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

No.

Compound name

Types

R1

R2

Source

231

Ganoderiol C

XXIII

O

α-OEt

Fruit body

232

Ganoderiol D

XXIII

O

O

Fruit body

233

Ganoderiol G

XXIII

O

α-OMe

Fruit body

234

Ganoderiol H

XXIII

β-OH

O

Fruit body

231

Ganodermanontriol

XXIV

O

α-OH

Fruit body/spore

232

Ganoderiol A

XXIV

β-OH

OH

Fruit body

233

8β,9α-Dihydroganoderic acid C

XXV

H

O

Mycelia

234

8β,9α-Dihydroganoderic acid J

XXV

H

α-OH

Fruit body

235

Ganosporeric acid A

XXV

O

O

Spore

236

3β,7β-Dihydroxy-11,15,23-trioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid

XXVI

H

O

Fruit body

237

12β-Acetoxy-3β,7β-dihydroxy-11,15,23-trioxo-lanost-8,16-dien-26-oic acid

XXVI

β-OAc

O

Fruit body

Table 7

Ganoderma triterpenoids in G. lucidum

Steroids

Thus far, more than 20 types of sterols have been found in G. lucidum, and their skeletons can be divided into ergosterols and cholesterols (Baby et al. 2015). The steroid components of G. lucidum are summarized in Table 8 (Baby et al. 2015).
Table 8

Steroids in G. lucidum

Others

Proteins and polypeptide

Several bioactive proteins from G. lucidum have been reported. Ling Zhi-8 (LZ-8) is a polypeptide consisting of 110 amino acid residues with an acetylated amino terminus (Lin et al. 2011). The sequence and predicted secondary structure of LZ-8 is very similar to the variable region of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins. LZ-8 was the first immunomodulatory protein obtained from the mycelial extract of G. lucidum by using chromato-graphic and electrophoretic techniques (Ahmad 2018).

Enzymes

β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase, α-1,2-mannosidase, endo-β-1,3-glucanase, β-1,3-glucanase, and glutamic protease were extracted from G. lucidum, and glutamic protease is the major protein in the extracts of G. lucidum (Kumakura et al. 2019).

Nucleosides

G. lucidum also contains nucleosides such as adenosine, cystidine, guanosine, inosine, thymidine, and uridine as well as nucleotides, including adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, thymine, and uracil (Gao et al. 2007).

Amino acids

Eighteen kinds of amino acids have been found in G. lucidum, and the most abundant amino acid was leucine, which possessed strong hypoglycemic and antioxidant activities (Zhang et al. 2018a, 2018b).

Vitamins and minerals

Several vitamins have been reported from G. lucidum, such as vitamins B1, B2, B6, β-carotene, C, D, and E. Moreover, various minerals such as calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, carbon, magnesium, zinc, chromium, arsenic, copper, manganese, silicon, aluminum, cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, and lead have been identified in G. lucidum (Ahmad 2018).

Physiological activity of G. lucidum

Modern medical research has shown that G. lucidum contains a variety of compounds with anticancer (Kao et al. 2016), hypoglycemic (Yang et al. 2018), liver protection (Zhao et al. 2019), and anti-inflammatory (Hasnat et al. 2015) effects. Studies also suggest that G. lucidum possesses strong antioxidant (Lee et al. 2016) anti-melanogenesis (Hsu et al. 2016), anti-aging (Zeng et al. 2017), and skin barrier-repairing (Montalbano 2018) properties. Thus, G. lucidum is important as the lead for the development of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals.

Anticancer effects

It has been reported that GLPs, GTs, and extracts of G. lucidum have inhibitory effects on cancers, such as prostate cancer (Kao et al. 2016), lung cancer (Chen et al. 2016), glioma (Wang et al. 2018), breast cancer (Smina et al. 2017), and malignant melanoma (Zheng et al. 2018). The underlying mechanisms for the inhibition of these tumors have also been elucidated.

Whiskey and rice wine extracts of G. lucidum with growth inhibitory effects against prostate cancer cell lines were identified. The extracts exerted their effects by inhibiting the cell cycle, inducing apoptosis, and reducing tumor progression (Kao et al. 2016). An ethanol extract of sporoderm-broken spores of G. lucidum arrested the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and triggered apoptosis by decreasing the expression and activity of cell cycle regulators. It inhibited the survival and migration of human lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, through inhibition of the protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway (Chen et al. 2016).

The antitumor effects of GLPs were evaluated on the immune system of rat models of glioblastoma. GLPs increased the concentration of serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (INF-γ); the cytotoxic activity of natural killer and T cells; and the functional maturation of dendritic cells, thus resulting in the inhibition of glioma growth (Wang et al. 2018). Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in human breast adenocarcinoma cells by downregulating the levels of cyclin D1, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), AND B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and upregulating the levels of Bax and caspase-9 (Smina et al. 2017). 9,11-Dehydroergosterol peroxide from G. lucidum mycelium inhibited human malignant melanoma cells by participating in the process of decreasing the expression of the myeloid leukemia cell differentiation protein Mcl-1, damaging the mitochondrial membrane, and releasing cytochrome-c (Zheng et al. 2018).

The above studies confirmed that the alcohol extract, total triterpenes, and GLPs have antitumor activity. GTs inhibited cytotoxicity by inhibiting the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. G. lucidum used as supplements in cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapeutic regimens could be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of various cancers as an adjunct therapy.

Hepatoprotection

The active ingredients in G. lucidum, such as GLPs and GTs, can act on the immune system and effectively exhibit hepatoprotective effects and treat liver damage. The hepatoprotective effects of G. lucidum have been widely studied. GLPs can protect hepatocyte injury induced by CCl4 by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, elevating antioxidant enzyme activity, and suppressing apoptosis and immune inflammatory response (Liu et al. 2015). GTs can significantly increase the relative cell viability by 13.46% and reduce the levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase by 51.24%, 33.64%, and 24.07%, respectively, in a culture medium. GTs offered significant cytoprotection against the oxidative damage induced by tertbutyl hydrogen peroxide (t-BHP) in hepatocellular carcinoma cells by decreasing the level of malondialdehyde and increasing the contents of glutathione and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Wu et al. 2016). Ganoderma submerged fermentation reduced ethanol-induced steatohepatitis by decreasing the expression of inflammatory mediators (Chung et al. 2017). Analysis of histopathology and serum enzymes in mice revealed an important hepatoprotective function for the ethanol extract of G. lucidum (GLE). GLE inhibited lipid peroxidation, elevated the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and suppressed apoptotic cell death and immune inflammatory responses. It was therefore assumed that GLE can improve alcohol-induced liver injury (Zhao et al. 2019). Previous studies have concluded that G. lucidum protects hepatocytes from damage by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and decreasing the expression of inflammatory mediators.

Hypoglycemic effect

In recent years, the antidiabetic components and hypoglycemic mechanisms of G. lucidum have been studied. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a therapeutic target in diabetes. A novel proteoglycan, called Fudan-Yueyang-G. lucidum (FYGL), has been extracted from G. lucidum. FYGL has dose-dependent hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects and could increase blood insulin levels. Furthermore, it inhibited the overexpression of PTP1B, enhanced insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis, and decreased blood glucose in a mouse model of insulin resistance (Tian et al. 2018). FYGL can ameliorate type 2 diabetes mellitus caused by mitochondrial dysfunction and can decrease ROS level (Yang et al. 2019).

In addition, GLPs can downregulate the activity of hepatic glucose-regulated enzymes and epididymal fat/BW ratio and improvement of insulin resistance (Xiao et al. 2017). The results demonstrated that GLPs have significant hypoglycemic properties and that it may be an effective dietary food for the prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes.

Anti-inflammatory effect

Inflammation is a normal physiological response to an infection or injury, which is part of host defense and tissue healing (Lee and Choi 2018). In the inflammatory environment of the body, elevated levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-4 can further accelerate the inflammatory response in the dermis and destroy epidermal barrier function. GLPss58, a sulfated form of a polysaccharide from the fruiting body of G. lucidum, can inhibit the binding of l-selectin with the receptor, activate the complement systems, and block the binding of TNF-α and INF-γ to their antibodies. GLPss58 could inhibit all the l-selectin-, complement-, and cytokine-mediated inflammation pathways (Zhang et al. 2018a, 2018b). In addition, GLPs can prevent inflammation, maintain intestinal homeostasis, and regulated the intestinal immunological barrier functions in mice by markedly suppressing the secretions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-4 (Wei et al. 2018). The anti-inflammatory effect of GLPs plays an important role in clinic for sensitive skin.

Effect on the skin

G. lucidum has been an important functional ingredient in many salve formulations due to its anti-aging, anti-melanogenesis, and skin barrier-enhancing properties.

Anti-melanogenesis effects

The abnormal accumulation of melanin causes skin pigmentation. Tyrosinase is an enzyme that regulates melanin synthesis. G. lucidum can inhibit the activity of tyrosinase and tyrosine-related proteins, which prevents hyperpigmentation. Methyl lucidenate F isolated from G. lucidum showed a dose-dependent tyrosinase inhibitory activity, with an IC50 of 32.23 μM (Zhang et al. 2011). On the other hand, the cAMP-dependent signaling pathway regulates melanogenesis by inhibiting cellular phosphorylation of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB). Thus, downregulating the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) decreases melanin production (Liu et al. 2015). The active compound Ganoderma mannitol was obtained from G. lucidum. Compared to arbutin (0.5 mM), ganodermanondiol (10 μM) significantly reduced the melanin content in B16F10 melanoma cells. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of ganodermanondiol contributed to the reduction in MITF expression and melanin production through the inhibition of CREB phosphorylation. The phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) downregulated melanin synthesis, but phosphorylation of p38 triggered MITF expression and melanin production. Ganodermanondiol induced the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 (Kim et al. 2016). GLPs are different from GTs in that they can directly affect melanogenesis in melanocytes. GLP can antagonize UVB-induced skin pigmentation in vivo (Hu et al. 2019a, 2019b). GLP can inhibit the paracrine effects of keratinocytes and fibroblasts via the fibroblast growth factor (FGF2)/MAPK pathway to decrease melanogenesis in melanocytes (Jiang et al. 2019). G. lucidum can treat pigmentary dermatosis such as solar lentigo, chloasma, freckles, and senile plaques.

Antioxidant and anti-aging activity

UV is a primary environmental factor implicated in skin aging; it causes coarse wrinkling, dryness, and laxity (Kong et al. 2018). UVB irradiation stimulates MMP-1 secretion and reduces the synthesis of collagen and elastin, which can accelerate skin senescence (Hwang et al. 2018). The extract of G. lucidum can inhibit UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and increased procollagen expression by inhibiting ERK pathways (Lee et al. 2018). GLPs can inhibit MMP-1 protein expression, promote C-telopeptides of type I collagen protein, and inhibit ROS production in fibroblasts following UVB treatment (Zeng et al. 2017).

The long-term presence of free radicals and ROS accelerates aging and numerous age-associated illnesses (Bishop et al. 2015). Therefore, studies on scavenging free radicals and ROS are particularly important in anti-aging research.

The antioxidant properties of crude proteins obtained from the mycelium and fruiting bodies of G. lucidum were studied. It was found that protein from both the mycelia and fruit body exhibited antioxidant capacity. The mycelial protein extract showed better scavenging activities than those shown by fruiting body protein extract, in terms of both 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical- and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH•) radical-scavenging abilities (Sa-Ard et al. 2015). Oxidative stress markers were measured by using the comet assay to measure ROS generation. Furthermore, the ethanol extract of G. lucidum could significantly reduce H2O2-induced ROS production compared to that in the positive control (Lee et al. 2016).

Skin barrier-repairing activity

A wound damages the skin barrier, which will cause microbial invasion and inflammation. G. lucidum, as a wound-healing agent, can be used to treat chronic non-healing wounds in vitro (Montalbano 2018). Nanogel containing triterpenoids isolated from G. lucidum has shown beneficial effects on the frostbite healing process by increasing the wound healing area and improving the degree of pathological change in skin tissue of rats with frostbite (Shen et al. 2016). GLP promotes the migration ability of fibroblasts and upregulates the expressions of C-terminal peptide of procollagen type I and transforming growth factor-β1 in fibroblasts, so it can heal wounds (Hu et al. 2019a, 2019b). Thus, G. lucidum can be used for barrier repair to promote wound regeneration.

Other effects

Besides the above-mentioned pharmacological actions, the extract of G. lucidum can activate the AMPK/mTOR and PINK1/Parkin signaling pathways and regulate mitochondrial function, autophagy, and apoptosis, thus improving parkinsonian symptoms (Ren et al. 2018). G. lucidum can induce the secretion of immunoglobulin A and ameliorate intestinal infections (Kubota et al. 2018).

In summary, the anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects of G. lucidum have been confirmed in cell assays and signaling pathways, and especially, hypoglycemic effects have been demonstrated in mice. However, G. lucidum effects have been investigated in few clinical trials in humans. Therefore, the side effects of G. lucidum need to be further studied. Further, the melanin inhibitory, anti-aging, antioxidant, and skin barrier-enhancing properties of the secondary metabolites from G. lucidum should be focused on more in future research. G. lucidum has great potential in the development of medicines, cosmeceuticals, and nutritional supplements and the research and development of G. lucidum resources are of great significance.

Conclusions

G. lucidum is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used for centuries as a nutritional supplement and herbal medication. This review summarizes the active substances of G. lucidum. Polysaccharides and triterpenoids are the major secondary metabolites of G. lucidum. The polysaccharides mostly comprise α- or β-(1→3)-, (1→6)-glucans and hetero-polysaccharides. More than 200 kinds of GTs have been isolated from G. lucidum. GTs can effectively inhibit the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells. Ganoderic acids are the prominent bioactive constituents of GTs. Ganoderic acid A, ganoderic acid F, ganoderic acid H, ganoderic acid C, ganoderic acid D, ganoderic acid T, ganoderic acid X, and ganoderic acid Y can be used as adjuvant drugs to suppress cancer. Therefore, the application of GTs in the pharmaceutical industry is very important.

In addition, the secondary metabolites isolated from G. lucidum can be used in functional foods or medicines for properties such as anti-aging, decreased surface pigmentation, and skin barrier-enhancing effects. GTs, especially methyl aspartate and Ganoderma mannitol, have skin-whitening effects. Crude proteins obtained from the mycelia and fruiting bodies of G. lucidum show antioxidant effects. GLPs can inhibit the expression of MMP-1, increase procollagen expression, and scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species, which can delay aging. The human internal environment is interacted by many kinds of cells through various forms. Although the pharmacological effects of G. lucidum have been confirmed at the level of monolayer cells, monolayer cells can not simulate the multicellular environment in vivo, so the effect of G. lucidum on multicellular interconnection can not be explored. We can use cell co-culture to study the relationship between different cells in order to verify the pharmacological effect of G. lucidum.

In recent years, with the development of microbial technology, it has a good prospect to obtain GTs through microbial fermentation technology. G. lucidum has become a popular nutraceutical worldwide; it has great cosmeceutical potential. G. lucidum, as a good medicinal and food homologous medicinal material, has received more and more attention in the food health care and cosmetics industry, and its application in food health products and cosmetics has potential for further exploration.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by China Cosmetic Collaborative Innovation Center, the Open Research Fund Program of Beijing Key Lab of Plant Resource Research and Development, BTBU(PRRD-2017-ZD1).

Authors’ contributions

LL and FY designed and finalized the scheme; YLY performed the review work and wrote the paper; JHZ drawn some structural formulas; WSZ, XYG, and HNZ contributed to the manuscript writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by China Cosmetic Collaborative Innovation Center, the Open Research Fund Program of Beijing Key Lab of Plant Resource Research and Development, BTBU(PRRD-2017-ZD1).

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable

Consent for publication

Not applicable

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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© The Author(s) 2019

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yunli Yang
    • 1
  • Huina Zhang
    • 1
  • Jinhui Zuo
    • 1
  • Xiaoyan Gong
    • 1
  • Fan Yi
    • 1
  • Wanshan Zhu
    • 2
  • Li Li
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Beijing Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Research and DevelopmentBeijing Technology and Business UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.Department of Industrial EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina

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