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Pedestrian segmentation based on a spatio-temporally consistent graph-cut with optimal transport

  • Yang YuEmail author
  • Yasushi Makihara
  • Yasushi Yagi
Open Access
Research Paper
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

We address a method of pedestrian segmentation in a video in a spatio-temporally consistent way. For this purpose, given a bounding box sequence of each pedestrian obtained by a conventional pedestrian detector and tracker, we construct a spatio-temporal graph on a video and segment each pedestrian on the basis of a well-established graph-cut segmentation framework. More specifically, we consider three terms as an energy function for the graph-cut segmentation: (1) a data term, (2) a spatial pairwise term, and (3) a temporal pairwise term. To maintain better temporal consistency of segmentation even under relatively large motions, we introduce a transportation minimization framework that provides a temporal correspondence. Moreover, we introduce the edge-sticky superpixel to maintain the spatial consistency of object boundaries. In experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method improves segmentation accuracy indices, such as the average and weighted intersection of union on TUD datasets and the PETS2009 dataset at both the instance level and semantic level.

Keywords

Pedestrian segmentation Edge sticky superpixel Optimal transport Conditional random field 

Abbreviations

CRF

Conditional random field

GMM

Gaussian mixture model

OT

Optimal transport

ESS

Edge-sticky superpixel

SLIC

Simple linear iterative clustering

SEEDS

Superpixels extracted via energy-driven sampling

M. IoU

Mean intersections over union

W. IoU

Weighted intersections over union

P. IoU

Pedestrian intersections over union

1 Introduction

Silhouette extraction or human body segmentation is widely conducted as the first step in many high-level computer vision tasks of video surveillance systems, such as human tracking [1, 2, 3, 4], human action recognition [5, 6, 7, 8] and gait-based identification and recognition [9, 10, 11]. In human tracking, the extracted human silhouette is used for human full-body localization or human part localization [1, 2, 3, 4]. In human action recognition, studies [5, 7, 8] have directly extracted features from a silhouette sequence; Chaaraoui et al. [6] used contour points of the human silhouette for action representation. For gait-based identification and verification, Collins et al. [9] used the silhouette for shape matching; Chen et al. [2] extracted features from the spatio-temporal silhouette for gait recognition while Liu et al. [11] proposed the average silhouette as a feature for recognition.

Pedestrian silhouette extraction has long been studied. This research mainly falls into three categories: supervised methods, unsupervised methods, and semisupervised methods.

Supervised methods [12, 13] have performed well in recent years. A typical approach of supervised pedestrian silhouette extraction requires a manually annotated mask of the target in the first frame and propagates the mask frame by frame. An automatic surveillance system, however, cannot adopt manual annotation.

Unsupervised methods, including methods based on background subtraction (e.g., [14, 15]) and motion segmentation (e.g., [16, 17, 18, 19]), are the most popular approaches because they do not require manual annotation. Methods based on background subtraction model the background using statistical models (e.g., a Gaussian mixture model) and extract the silhouettes of moving targets as the foreground. However, methods based on background subtraction only classify the moving target and background and do not realize instance-level silhouette extraction. Multi-label motion segmentation assigns human labels to sparse points or pixels according to motion information (e.g., optical flow), allowing targets with different motion patterns to be discriminated. However, because of the lack of object detection information, motion segmentation still cannot discriminate pedestrians with the same motion pattern (e.g., pedestrians walking in the same direction side by side) and may sometimes assign different labels to human parts with different motion patterns. Motion segmentation therefore suffers from under-segmentation and over-segmentation.

Semisupervised methods that do not require a manually annotated silhouette at the first frame but a bounding box trajectory are more suitable for pedestrian silhouette extraction by an automatic surveillance system, because the trajectory of the bounding box can be automatically extracted using recently advanced approaches of object detection [20, 21, 22] and multiple-object tracking [23, 24, 25]. To the best of our knowledge, semisupervised methods use optical flow to maintain temporal consistency (e.g., [26]). Because optical flow sometimes fails in handling large displacement, optical-flow-based semisupervised approaches often suffer segmentation errors for human parts having large displacement (e.g., a pedestrian’s leg and arm). Moreover, a conditional random field (CRF) framework that uses a color-based Gaussian mixture model (GMM) for the background data term and a simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) superpixel [27] as nodes in the CRF has been adopted [26]. However, color information is not enough for modeling a nonhuman region (e.g., when a pedestrian and the background have similar colors) and the SLIC superpixel sometimes cannot preserve the object boundary well, which is vital for construction of the spatial pairwise term.

We therefore proposed a semisupervised method that not only handles large displacement but also better preserves the pedestrian’s boundary. Given the pedestrian bounding box tracklets, we construct a conditional random field for silhouette extraction that involves a data term, spatial pairwise term, and temporal pairwise term. The contributions of this paper are as follows.
  • Optimal transport (OT)-based temporal consistency. In contrast to most related work, we adopt OT to maintain temporal consistency. The lack of capacity in terms of handling large displacement is a main drawback of optical flow. Although there are methods that improve the handling of large displacement (e.g., the pyramid strategy [28]), the motion of leg and arm parts still cannot be described correctly. Compared with conventional optical flows, the proposed method successfully handles large displacement between two frames thanks to the global optimal property of the OT framework. As far as we know, the OT framework is usually used to measure the difference between two discrete distributions (e.g., a dissimilarity measure between two color histograms), which is also known as the earth mover’s distance. The proposed method does not use the final outcome of the OT framework (i.e., a distance) but the "process" of the OT framework (i.e., flow (or correspondence) between two frames), which is the primal novelty of the proposed method.

  • Combination of the edge-sticky superpixel (ESS) and OT. The time complexity of the OT increases as the dimension of the discrete distributions (e.g., the number of bins of histograms) increases, and direct application of the OT to pixel-wise image representation is computationally prohibited. We therefore need to appropriately transform the input image into a discrete distribution with a relatively low dimension. Superpixel segmentation is one such effective way to represent an image as a discrete distribution while keeping information, that is, compressing redundancy. More specifically, we regard an input image as a histogram, where the number of superpixels is the number of bins, a gravity center of a superpixel is a representative value of a bin, and a number of pixels (area) of a superpixel is the frequency (or vote) for a bin. Moreover, superpixel segmentation needs to well preserve object boundaries for our final goal, that is, pedestrian silhouette extraction. State-of-the-art superpixel segmentation methods (e.g., the SLIC superpixel [27] and superpixels extracted via energy-driven sampling (SEEDS) superpixel [29]) provide a balance between appearance and shape regularity, and usually perform well in computer vision tasks. However, this balance between appearance and shape regularity does not always guarantee that the object boundary is well preserved. Our ultimate target is to extract pedestrians’ silhouettes, and we thus need to adopt a superpixel segmentation method that better preserves object boundaries. We therefore adopt the ESS, which introduces edge detection information explicitly into the process of superpixel generation. As a result, the object boundary can be preserved well while balancing the appearance and shape regularity.

  • Performance improvement on segmentation benchmarks. We demonstrate that the proposed method improves the performance of pedestrian silhouette extraction at both the instance level and semantic level on public datasets compared with state-of-the-art methods.

2 Related work

The silhouette extraction or human segmentation of multiple pedestrians has been addressed in the literature [12, 13, 16, 26, 30, 31, 32]. We categorize typical approaches as follows: ∙Supervised methods. Supervised methods perform well in video segmentation. The most popular framework [12, 13] is to manually annotate the target’s mask in the first frame and propagate the target mask to other frames. In [13], a two-branch approach was proposed whereby the features from ResNet-101 [33] and FlowNet [34] were combined for joint object segmentation and optical flow estimation. In [12], a method of frame-by-frame object segmentation was implemented by learning the appearance of the annotated object. However, because the mask annotation has a manual burden, it is difficult to apply supervised methods to pedestrian silhouette extraction in an automatic surveillance system. ∙Unsupervised methods. Unsupervised methods require no manual annotation and hence can be applied directly to an automatic surveillance system. Most unsupervised methods are based on motion information. The temporal superpixel [35] involves optical flow into a superpixel segmentation framework to realize a temporally consistent superpixel. Ochs et al. [16] adopted a two-step approach: generate sparse segments by clustering long-term trajectories and then obtain dense segments according to color. However, the temporal superpixel is a superpixel segmentation and thus requires a manual annotator that specifies the pedestrian’s superpixel, which is again not possible for an automatic surveillance system. Ochs’s approach [16] is also prone to under-segmentation because multiple pedestrians walking in the same direction are likely to be segmented into an identical segment. ∙Semisupervised methods. Compared with supervised and unsupervised methods, semisupervised methods that only require a bounding box annotation are more suitable for silhouette extraction by a real-world surveillance system. Milan [26] exploited a joint tracking and segmentation method that first applies superpixel segmentation and multiple-pedestrian tracking. A CRF is then constructed and all superpixels are assigned with the labels of pedestrian trajectories. Because optical flow is used in the construction of the CRF, Milan’s approach sometimes fails for pedestrian’s legs, for which there is large spatial displacement. ∙Pedestrian segmentation methods for a single frame. In recent years, great strides have been made in cellular neural network (CNN)-based image semantic segmentation and instance segmentation. In [31], a multipath refinement network was presented where CNN features with multiple resolutions are fused so that semantic features can be refined using lower-level features. In [32], an object detection network [20] is concatenated by a fully convectional network [36] so that object detection and instance-level segmentation can be achieved jointly. Single-frame segmentation methods can therefore be easily extended to pedestrian silhouette extraction in video using bounding box trajectories.

3 Proposed method

3.1 Problem setting

The present study presents a method of extracting silhouettes of multiple pedestrians from a video. We assume that the cameras are static and the bounding box trajectories are given by well-established detectors [20] and trackers [23].

3.2 Framework

We adopt a two-step framework that consists of superpixel segmentation and superpixel-wise labeling. The whole framework is shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1

Framework of the proposed method. a Given input images. b Superpixel segmentation followed by the construction of a CRF consisting of c a data term, d spatial pairwise term, and e temporal pairwise term. Application of the graph-cut with α-expansion to get f the segmentation result

Superpixel segmentation. Given an input image sequence, superpixel segmentation is first applied frame by frame to reduce the computational cost. We adopt the ESS, which better preserves object boundaries.

Superpixel-wise labeling. Given the superpixel segmentation result and pedestrian trajectories (i.e., a bounding box sequence for a pedestrian), each superpixel is assigned with a trajectory label (i.e., a pedestrian label) in this step, resulting in instance-level segmentation as shown in Fig. 1f.

The label assignment problem has been well studied for decades and recent progress expanded its application area to many computer vision tasks. As an example, Wu [37] proposed an adaptive label assignment method to handle the “one example human re-identification” problem where there is only one example available for each human identity, that is, the labeled data. The adaptive label assignment method can both select a set of candidates from the unlabeled data and assign labels of the candidates using a nearest neighbors (NN) classifier in the feature space extracted by the CNN model.

However, in the present work, we cannot generate a set of "labeled data" as in [37] owing to the different problem settings. Furthermore, spatio-temporal consistency is strongly required in the present work, and pairwise features that maintain spatio-temporal consistency (e.g., edge-based features) can only be extracted in a pairwise manner instead of using the independently extracted features. As a result, the approach in [37] cannot be applied directly in the superpixel-wise labeling step of the present work.

To better handle the features extracted in a pairwise manner, we adopt the well-established CRF for superpixel-wise labeling. The label assignment problem is then formulated as a CRF problem and solved using the graph-cut with α-expansion algorithm.

Details are discussed in the following subsections.

3.3 ESS

The superpixel is a popular technology used to reduce the redundancy of an image and is employed in many computer vision applications. We use the superpixel because not only does it reduce the computational complexity but also it preserves object boundaries.

State-of-the-art approaches (e.g., the SEEDS superpixel [29] and SLIC superpixel [27] approaches) balance the spatial and appearance consistency. However, such balance sometimes affects the capacity to preserve object boundaries. It is therefore necessary to involve edge information when there is a strong need to preserve the object boundary. In this research, we adopt the ESS, which is an extension of Pitor’s work [38]. Because there is no corresponding publication1, we provide a simple illustration of the ESS. We describe the details of the ESS along with Fig. 2 in the following paragraphs.
Fig. 2

Framework of the ESS. a Each pixel in the input image (e.g., a 5×5 grayscale image) initialized as a superpixel, where a black number is the label of a superpixel. b Each pixel relabeled under an energy minimization framework. In each iteration, we scan and update the labels of all pixels. For each pixel (yellow), the label assignment costs of its four-connected neighbors (blue) are calculated as shown by red numbers, and each pixel’s label is updated with the lowest-cost neighbor’s label. The iteration continues until there is no change in each pixel’s label. Finally, the superpixel segmentation result is obtained as in c

We denote a set of pixels in frame t by \(\mathcal {P}^{t}=\{p_{i} \vert i \in \mathcal {L}_{P}^{t}\}\), where \(\mathcal {L}_{P}^{t}\) is a set of the indices of pixels in frame t (i.e., the number of elements of \(\mathcal {L}_{P}^{t}\) is the image size), t∈{1,2,...,T}, where T is the total frame number and pi is the i-th pixel. Moreover, a set of superpixel indices in frame t is denoted \(\mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}^{t}\). The superpixel segmentation in frame t can then be formulated as
$$ X_{\text{SP}}^{t}: \mathcal{L}_{P}^{t} \rightarrow \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}^{t}, $$
(1)

where each pixel is assigned with the label of a superpixel (i.e., the index of a superpixel).

We first initialize each pixel as a superpixel; i.e., \(X_{\text {SP}}^{t}(i) = i ; \forall i \in \mathcal {L}_{P}^{t}\). Then, for each pixel (e.g., the i-th pixel), we calculate the cost c(i,l) of assigning a neighboring superpixel’s label l to the i-th pixel considering the spatial proximity, appearance similarity, edge consistency, and superpixel size as
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} c(i, l)&=& \alpha \| \boldsymbol{v}_{\text{loc}}(i)-\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{loc}}(l) \|^{2} \\ &+& (1-\alpha)(1-\beta) \| \boldsymbol{v}_{\text{app}}(i)-\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(l) \|^{2} \\ &+& \frac{\gamma\alpha}{A_{l}} + (1-\alpha)\beta c_{\text{edge}}(i, l), \end{array} $$
(2)

where α, β, and γ are hyperparameters. The location and appearance vector for the i-th pixel are denoted vloc(i) and vapp(i), while the mean location and appearance vector for the l-th superpixel are denoted μloc(l) and μapp(l). Moreover, cedge is the edge cost and Al is the size of the l-th superpixel.

The first and second terms of Eq. (2) maintain the spatial consistency of the superpixel, while the third term controls the size of the superpixel.

The last term helps to preserve the object boundary by involving the edge probability. The edge probability is calculated using structured edge detection (SED) [38]. SED is briefly introduced together with Fig. 3 below.
Fig. 3

Framework of the proposed method. a Given input images and two samples of image patches (blue and green edged). b Binary edge masks obtained using a pre-trained random forest. c Edge detection results (i.e., edge probability map) obtained by aggregating all edge masks

SED firstly separates an input image into a set of image patches. A pre-trained random forest is then applied to the set of image patches to achieve a set of binary edge masks as shown in Fig. 3b. Finally, the set of edge masks are aggregated to generate the edge probability (i.e., the edge detection result) as shown in Fig. 3c. We refer the reader to [37] for more details.

The edge probability of the i-th pixel in frame t is denoted \(p_{\text {edge}}^{t}(i)\) and the edge cost function cedge(i,l) is then defined as
$$ {{}\begin{aligned} c_{\text{edge}}(i, l) =\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 & \left\{j | j\in n_{4}(i), X_{\text{SP}}^{t}(j) \not= l \right\} \,=\, \emptyset \\ \min \limits_{j\in n_{4}(i), X_{\text{SP}}^{t}(j) \not= l} - p_{\text{edge}}^{t}(j) & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right., \end{aligned}} $$
(3)
where the set of four-connected neighbors of the i-th pixel is denoted n4(i) and the set of corresponding superpixel labels is \(l_{4}(i) = \left \{X_{\text {SP}}^{t}(j)\vert j \in n_{4}(i)\right \}\). Details of the edge cost function will be described along with Fig. 4.
Fig. 4

Example of the edge cost function. a Input image of the frame t. b Clipping around the i-th pixel. Edge probability \(p^{t}_{\text {edge}} = 0.9\) on the left side (as represented by red) and \(p^{t}_{\text {edge}} = 0.9\) in the middle and on the right side (as represented by blue). c Edge cost of assigning the label l1 to the i-th pixel cedge(i,l1)=−0.1 while cedge(i,l2)=−0.9; therefore, l2 is more likely to be assigned to the i-th pixel

Figure 4 shows that the i-th pixel’s four-connected neighbors are j1 (whose superpixel label is l1) and j2, j3, and j4 (whose superpixel labels are l2). The edge probability is represented in pseudo-color, where the edge probability for a red pixel is 0.9 while that for a blue pixel is 0.1, i.e., there is an edge on the left side of the i-th pixel. According to Eq. 3, cedge(i,l1) = − 0.1 and cedge(i,l2) = − 0.9, it is more difficult to assign the label l1 than the label l2 to the i-th pixel. As a result, the edge cost function helps preserve the object boundary.

We repeat this process until \(X_{\text {SP}}^{t}\) stops changing. An example of an ESS result is shown in Fig. 5. We see that the object boundaries (e.g., boundaries between a pedestrian and background) are well preserved.
Fig. 5

Example of the ESS. a Input image. b Edge probability map (represented by pseudo-color). c ESS result. The pedestrian’s boundary is well preserved by the ESS

After obtaining the superpixels for each frame independently, the set of all superpixel labels is defined as \(\mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}} = \mathop {\bigcup }_{t=1}^{T}{\mathcal {L}^{t}_{\text {SP}}}\). Moreover, we denote the set of all pixels as \(\mathcal {L}_{\mathrm {P}} = \mathop {\bigcup }_{t=1}^{T}{\mathcal {L}^{t}_{\mathrm {P}}}\). For simplicity, the superpixel segmentation for all frames is defined as
$$ X_{\text{SP}}: \mathcal{L}_{P} \rightarrow \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}. $$
(4)

3.4 Superpixel-wise labeling

Given superpixel segmentation results and a set of bounding box sequences for nTR pedestrians \(\text {TR} = \left \{tr_{i} | i \in \mathcal {L}_{\text {TR}}\right \}\), where tri is the bounding box trajectory for the i-th pedestrian, we consider mapping the superpixel labels \(\mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}\) into one of the pedestrian labels \(\mathcal {L}_{\text {TR}} = \left \{l_{1}^{\text {TR}},..., l_{n_{\text {TR}}}^{\text {TR}}\right \}\), where \(l_{m}^{\text {TR}}\) is the m-th pedestrian’s label, or a background label \(l_{\text {BG}}^{\text {TR}}\). For simplicity, we denote all labels by \(\hat {\mathcal {L}}_{\text {TR}} = \mathcal {L}_{\text {TR}} \bigcup \left \{l_{\text {BG}}^{\text {TR}}\right \}\). The problem of mapping from superpixels’ labels \(\mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}\) to \(\hat {\mathcal {L}}_{\text {TR}}\) (i.e., the superpixel-wise labeling problem) can be formulated as
$$ X_{\text{CRF}}: \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}} \rightarrow \hat{\mathcal{L}}_{\text{TR}}. $$
(5)
We then formulate the problem of optimizing XCRF as a multi-label CRF problem:
$$ X_{\text{CRF}}^{*} = \arg\min_{X_{\text{CRF}}}E(X_{\text{CRF}}), $$
(6)
where the energy function E(XCRF) is defined as
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} E(X_{\text{CRF}}) &=& \sum \limits_{p\in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}} E_{\text{Data}}\left(p, X_{\text{CRF}}(p)\right)\\ &+&\omega_{\mathrm{S}} \sum \limits_{(p, q) \in \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{S}}} E_{\mathrm{S}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) \\ &+&\omega_{\mathrm{T}} \sum \limits_{(p, q) \in \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{T}}} E_{\mathrm{T}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right). \end{array} $$
(7)

Here, the first term is the data term while the second and third terms are respectively spatial and temporal pairwise terms. ωS and ωT are respectively the weights of spatial and temporal pairwise terms. The definitions of \( \mathcal {N}_{\mathrm {S}}\), \(\mathcal {N}_{\mathrm {T}}\), EData, ES, and ET are explained in the following sections.

The multi-label CRF problem can then be solved using the graph-cut with α-expansion algorithm [39], which is widely used for CRF inference. The algorithm iterates each possible label (i.e., the label α in a given CRF), and in each iteration, the algorithm segments the α and the non- α components with the graph-cut. The energy function of the CRF in this work contains spatial and temporal pairwise terms, and the graph-cut with α-expansion algorithm is thus adopted in a spatio-temporally consistent way.

3.4.1 Data term

The data term defined as
$$ \sum \limits_{p\in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}}E_{\text{Data}}\left(p, X_{\text{CRF}}(p)\right) $$
(8)

contains two components, namely a pedestrian term \(E_{\text {Data}}\left (p,X_{\text {CRF}}(p)\not =l_{\text {BG}}^{\text {TR}}\right)\) and background term \(E_{\text {Data}}\left (p, X_{\text {CRF}}(p)=l_{\text {BG}}^{\text {TR}}\right)\) for an arbitrary superpixel p.

We use RefineNet [31], a CNN-based semantic segmentation method, for the background term. Given an input image, RefineNet predicts the pixel-wise probability distribution of a set of object classes. In this work, we adopt a pre-trained model on the Cityscapes dataset [40] using Residual Net (ResNet) [33], which contains 20 object classes. We extract the probability of the label "person" in the input image denoted pHm(i) for the i-th pixel. The pixel-wise human score of the i-th pixel is then defined as
$$ h_{\text{Hm}}^{'}(i) = -\text{log}\left(1-p_{\text{Hm}}(i)\right). $$
(9)
The superpixel-wise human score of the p-th superpixel is defined as the mean pixel-wise human score of the pixels inside the p-th superpixel, which is denoted hHm(p). An example of the pixel-wise and superpixel-wise human score map is shown in Fig. 6. It is clear that the superpixel-wise human score map can be directly used as the background data term:
$$ E_{\text{Data}}\left(p, X_{\text{CRF}}(p)=l_{\text{BG}}^{\text{TR}}\right) = h_{\text{Hm}}(p). $$
(10)
Fig. 6

Example of the background term. a Input image. b Human score map from RefineNet. c Background term

We subsequently sample and train a GMM for multiple pedestrians to define the pedestrian term. We denote a set of pixels belonging to the k-th superpixel as uk={i|XSP(i)=k} and pixels inside the bounding box trajectory of the i-th pedestrian ti as \(\mathcal {U}_{i}\). If the k-th superpixel overlaps with the bounding box sequence of the i-th pedestrian ti (i.e., \(u_{k} \bigcap \mathcal {U}_{i}\not =\emptyset \)), it is sampled for the GMM training of the i-th pedestrian. A superpixel may sometimes overlap with multiple trajectories and we thus adopt a winner-takes-all strategy by which the pedestrian closest to the camera (i.e., the pedestrian with the lowest bound of the bounding box) takes the superpixel.

After the superpixel sampling, we train the GMM for each trajectory according to the mean color of the superpixel. θi denotes the GMM parameters of the i-th pedestrian. Moreover, we hypothesize that all superpixels outside the bounding box ti are hard to be assigned with pedestrian label \(l_{i}^{\text {TR}}\); therefore, the pedestrian term for those superpixels is set with a sufficiently large constant. Finally, the pedestrian term is defined as
$$ {{}\begin{aligned} E_{\text{Data}}\left(p, X_{\text{CRF}}(p)=l_{i}^{\text{TR}}\right) =\left\{ \begin{array}{cc} C & u_{p} \cup \mathcal{U}_{i} = \emptyset \\ -\text{log}\left(p_{\text{GMM}}\left(\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(p); {\theta}_{i}\right)\right) & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right., \end{aligned}} $$
(11)
where C is a sufficiently large constant and pGMM(μapp(p);θi) is the probability density of the mean appearance μapp(p) of the p-th superpixel for the i-th pedestrian. An example of the pedestrian term is shown in Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of the pedestrian term. a Input image and pedestrian’s bounding box. b Pedestrian term of the pedestrian inside the bounding box. Outside the bounding box, the pedestrian term is set as a sufficiently large constant

3.4.2 Spatial pairwise term

The spatial pairwise term
$$ \sum \limits_{(p, q) \in \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{S}}} E_{\mathrm{S}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p) X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) $$
(12)
is used to maintain the spatial consistency of XCRF. A set of spatial neighbors \(\mathcal {N}_{\mathrm {S}}\) is first defined as
$$ \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{S}} = \left\{(p, q)| p \in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}, q \in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}, \text{conn}_{\mathrm{S}}(p, q) = 1\right\}, $$
(13)
where connS(p,q) is the spatial connectivity function and is defined as
$$ {{}\begin{aligned} \text{conn}_{\mathrm{S}}(p, q) =\left\{ \begin{array}{cc} 1 & \exists{i, j, t}; X_{\text{SP}}^{t}(i)=p, X_{\text{SP}}^{t}(j)\,=\,q, \text{i, j are four-connected neighbors} \\ 0 & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right.. \end{aligned}} $$
(14)

We then use the color and edge probability to formulate the spatial pairwise energy function ES.

A color-based pairwise energy function is defined as
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} {{}\begin{aligned} &E_{\mathrm{S}}^{\text{Color}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) \\ &=\left\{ \begin{array}{llc} 0 & \text{X}_{\text{CRF}}(p) = X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\\ \exp{\left(-\lambda\| \boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(p) -\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(q)\|^{2}\right)} & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right., \end{aligned}} \end{array} $$
(15)
and following previous work [41], a parameter λ is subsequently defined as
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} \lambda = \frac{2}{|\mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{S}}|} \sum_{(p, q) \in \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{S}}}{ \| \boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(p) - \boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(q) \|^{2}} \end{array} $$
(16)
to adapt to high and low color contrast. An example of color-based pairwise energy is shown in Fig. 8.
Fig. 8

Example of color-based pairwise energy. a Input image. b Color-based pairwise energy. If the colors between pedestrians or between a pedestrian and the background are similar, the color-based pairwise energy fails to preserve the object’s boundary; e.g., the pedestrian’s boundary inside the white bounding box in b

The color-based pairwise energy function may sometimes fail to maintain spatial consistency when the colors of different pedestrians or a pedestrian and the background are similar as shown in the white bounding box in Fig. 8. We therefore further include the edge probability in the spatial pairwise energy function.

We denote by pedge(j) the edge probability at the j-th pixel. An edge-based pairwise energy function is subsequently defined as
$$ {{}\begin{aligned} E_{\mathrm{S}}^{\text{Edge}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) =\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 & \text{\(X_{\text{CRF}}(p) = X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\)}\\ <1 - p_{\text{edge}}(j)>_{\text{p, q}} & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right., \end{aligned}} $$
(17)
where \(p, q\in \mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}\) and <.>p, q denote the expectation over the pixels on the boundary between two spatially neighboring superpixels p and q. An example of the edge-based pairwise energy function is shown in Fig. 9. The boundary of the pedestrian inside the white bounding box in Fig. 9 is better preserved than that in Fig. 8.
Fig. 9

Example of edge-based pairwise energy. a Input image. b Edge-based spatial pairwise energy. The pedestrian’s boundary in the bounding box in b is better preserved than the same region in Fig. 8

Finally, the spatial pairwise energy is defined as the weighted sum of color-based and edge-based pairwise energy:
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} {{}\begin{aligned} E_{\mathrm{S}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) &= (1-\omega_{e})E_{\mathrm{S}}^{\text{Color}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) \\&+ \omega_{e}E_{\mathrm{S}}^{\text{Edge}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right), \end{aligned}} \end{array} $$
(18)

where ωe is a hyperparameter that controls the weight of edge-based spatial pairwise energy.

3.4.3 OT-based temporal pairwise term

A temporal pairwise term defined as
$$ \sum \limits_{(p, q) \in \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{T}}} E_{\mathrm{T}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) $$
(19)
is introduced for the purpose of maintaining the temporal consistency of superpixel-wise labeling. \(\mathcal {N}_{\mathrm {T}}\) is a set of temporal neighbors defined as
$$ \mathcal{N}_{\mathrm{T}} = \left\{(p, q)| p \in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}, q \in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}, \text{conn}_{\mathrm{T}}(p, q) = 1\right\}, $$
(20)

where connT is the temporal connectivity function.

Different from spatial connectivity, which can be easily defined according to the pixel lattice structure, the temporal connectivity must involve object motion information. To the best of our knowledge, optical flow is the most popular motion information used to define temporal connectivity. However, optical flow usually fails to handle the large displacement that often occurs for the pedestrian leg and arm. We therefore introduce OT-based temporal connectivity for better motion estimation.

The OT distance, also known as the earth mover’s distance, is a useful distance with which to compare two probability distributions. The OT problem is described as follows.

Given two probability distributions r=[r1,...,rm]T and c=[c1,...,cn]T and a cost matrix \(M \in \mathbb {R}_{+}^{m\times n}\), the OT problem is to find a transportation matrix P such that
$$ P^{*} = \arg\min_{P\in \mathcal{P }(\boldsymbol{r}, \boldsymbol{c})} {\langle P, M\rangle_{\mathrm{F}}}, $$
(21)

where 〈·,·〉F denotes the Frobenius dot product. \(\mathcal {P}(r, c)=\left \{ P\in \mathbb {R}_{+}^{m\times n} \vert P\boldsymbol {1}_{n}=\boldsymbol {r}, P^{T}\boldsymbol {1}_{m}=\boldsymbol {c}\right \}\), where 1m and 1n are m- and n-dimensional vectors of ones.

In this study, we formulate motion estimation as an OT problem. We denote superpixel labels in frame t by \(\mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}^{t} = \left \{l_{1}^{t},..., l_{|\mathcal {L}_{SP}^{t}|}^{t}\right \}\) and then define a superpixel size vector in frame t as \(\hat {\boldsymbol {A}}^{t} = \left [A^{t}_{1},... A^{t}_{|\mathcal {L}_{SP}^{t}|}\right ]\), where \(A^{t}_{i}\) is the size of the \(l_{i}^{t}\)-th superpixel. The normalized size vector is then defined as \(\boldsymbol {A}^{t}=\hat {\boldsymbol {A}}^{t}/|\mathcal {L}_{P}^{t}|\). Because ||At||=1 and \(\forall i\in \left \{1,..., |\mathcal {L}_{SP}^{t}|\right \}, \boldsymbol {A}^{t}(i)\geq 0\), At is a probability distribution. We therefore treat the normalized size vector in two consecutive frames At and At+1 as the input of an OT problem.

Moreover, the cost matrix between frames t and t+1 is defined as
$$ M_{t, t+1} = \left\{m(i,j)\vert 1 \leq i \leq \vert\mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}^{t} \vert, 1 \leq j \leq \vert\mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}^{t+1} \vert \right\}, $$
(22)
where m(i,j) is defined as
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} m(i, j) &=&\|\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{loc}}(l_{i}^{t})-\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{loc}}\left(l_{j}^{t+1}\right)\|^{2} \\ &+& \eta_{\text{app}} \|\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(l_{i}^{t})-\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}\left(l_{j}^{t+1}\right)\|^{2} \\ &+& \eta_{\text{Hm}} \left(h_{\text{Hm}}(l_{i}^{t}) - h_{\text{Hm}}\left(l_{j}^{t+1}\right)\right)^{2}. \end{array} $$
(23)

The first item of m(i,j) encourages transportation between spatially nearer superpixels while the second term encourages transportation between superpixels that appear similar. Furthermore, we include the third term to encourage transportation between superpixels in the pedestrian region.

The OT between frames t and t+1 is defined as
$$ P^{*}_{t, t+1} = \arg\min_{P\in \mathcal{P}\left(\boldsymbol{A}^{t},\boldsymbol{A}^{t+1}\right)} \langle P, M_{t, t+1}\rangle_{\mathrm{F}}. $$
(24)
Subsequently, the temporal connectivity is defined as
$$ {{}\begin{aligned} \text{conn}_{\mathrm{T}}(p, q) =\left\{ \begin{array}{cl} 1 & \exists i, j, t; p = l_{i}^{t}, q = l_{j}^{t+1}, P^{*}_{t, t+1}(i, j) \geq \text{th}_{\text{temp}} \\ 0 & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right., \end{aligned}} $$
(25)
where thtemp is the threshold of temporal connectivity, \(l_{i}^{t} \in \mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}^{t}\) and \(l_{j}^{t+1} \in \mathcal {L}_{\text {SP}}^{t+1}\). An example of OT-based temporal connectivity is shown in Fig. 10. In Fig. 10a, we manually select the superpixels belonging to a pedestrian in frame t. All the temporally connected superpixels are shown in Fig. 10b. The temporal consistency is well preserved by the OT-based temporal connectivity.
Fig. 10

Example of OT-based temporal connectivity. a Manually selected pedestrian’s superpixel in frame t. b OT-based temporal connected superpixels in frame t+1

Finally, the temporal pairwise energy is defined as
$$\begin{array}{@{}rcl@{}} {{}\begin{aligned} &E_{\mathrm{T}}\left(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\right) \\ &=\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 0 & \text{X}_{\text{CRF}}(p)=X_{\text{CRF}}(q)\\ \exp{(-\lambda\| \boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(p) -\boldsymbol{\mu}_{\text{app}}(q)\|^{2})} & \text{otherwise} \end{array} \right., \end{aligned}} \end{array} $$
(26)

where the definition of λ is the same as in Eq. (16).

4 Experiments

4.1 Experimental setting

4.1.1 Datasets

We test our proposed method on four publicly available image sequences: TUD-Stadtmitte, TUD-Campus, TUD-Crossing and PETS2009 S2L1. Each sequence contains a long-term occlusion that makes segmentation highly challenging. Furthermore, TUD-Stadtmitte and TUD-Campus present the challenges of low contrast and similar clothing.

We use manually annotated pedestrian bounding box trajectories for each dataset when we test the proposed method as well as the other baseline methods. We also annotate ground-truth pedestrian silhouettes (instance segmentation) for the evaluation of pedestrian silhouette extraction.

4.1.2 Evaluation metrics

For the instance-level evaluation, we adopt mean and weighted intersections over union (M.IoU and W.IoU) to evaluate experimental results. M.IoU is a measure of the instance-wise IoU for each ground-truth instance averaged over all frames while W.IoU further weights the sizes of segments.

For simplicity, we denote the mapping from the pixel to the pedestrian’s label as the composition of superpixel segmentation and superpixel-wise labeling:
$$ X = X_{\text{SP}} \cdot X_{\text{CRF}}. $$
(27)
The set of pixels assigned with pedestrian’s label i (i.e., the mask-type result of pedestrian i) is then denoted yi={p|X(p)=i}. Correspondingly, the ground truth set of the pixel of pedestrian i is \(y_{i}^{*}\). M.IoU and W.IoU are defined as
$$ M. \text{IoU} = \frac{1}{n_{\text{TR}}}\sum_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}IoU(y_{i}, y_{i}^{*}), $$
(28)
$$ W. \text{IoU} = w_{i}\sum_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}IoU (y_{i}, y_{i}^{*}), $$
(29)
$$ w_{i}=\frac{\vert y_{i}^{*} \vert}{\sum_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}\vert y_{i}^{*} \vert}, $$
(30)

where nTR is the number of pedestrian trajectories.

For the semantic-level evaluation, we use the pedestrian IoU (P.IoU) to illustrate that the proposed method improves the semantic-level segmentation performance as
$$ P. \text{IoU} =\text{IoU}\left(\bigcup_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}y_{i}, \bigcup_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}y_{i}^{*}\right). $$
(31)
Furthermore, we compute IoUs along the boundary regions to verity that the object boundaries are well preserved as suggested. For this purpose, we define a boundary region of a pedestrian silhouette as a subtracted region between a dilated region and an eroded region (see Fig. 12 for examples) and then define the IoU for the boundary region. More specifically, for instance-level evaluation, given the i-th pedestrian region yi, we compute the dilated region \(y_{i}^{Di}\) and also the eroded region \(y_{i}^{Er}\) and then compute the boundary region \(y_{i}^{B}\) as \(y_{i}^{B}=\ y_{i}^{Di}\setminus y_{i}^{Er}\). We similarly define the boundary region \(y_{i}^{B\ast }\) of the ground-truth region \(y_{i}^{B\ast }\) for the i-th pedestrian. We then define the mean IoU along the boundary regions (denoted M.IoUB) as
$$ M. \text{IoU}_{B}= \frac{1}{n_{\text{TR}}}\sum_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}{\text{IoU}\left(y_{i}^{B}, y_{i}^{B\ast}\right)}, $$
(32)
where nTR is the number of pedestrian trajectories. For semantic-level evaluation, we similarly define the pedestrian IoU for the boundary region (denoted P.IoUB) as
$$ P. \text{IoU}_{B} =\text{IoU}\left(\bigcup_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}y_{i}^{B\ast}, \bigcup_{i=1}^{n_{\text{TR}}}y_{i}^{B\ast}\right). $$
(33)

Finally, we adopt the computational time as an evaluation metric with which to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of the proposed method.

4.1.3 Baseline methods

For instance-level segmentation, we adopt the methods of Milan et al. [26], He et al. [32] and Ochs et al. [16] as baseline methods. For fair comparison, we modify the baseline methods as follows.

Milan’s method generates an overcomplete set of trajectory hypotheses and then assigns superpixels to trajectories. We substitute the trajectory hypothesis with the trajectory ground truth and eliminate the update of the trajectory.

He’s method and Ochs’s method have different pedestrian labeling schemes and thus need to be relabeled. We use a greedy assignment method by which, from the largest ground-truth segments to the smallest, we assign label i of trajectory tri to the segment with the highest IoU with \(y_{i}^{*}\). Moreover, because He’s method generates multi-category instance-level segmentation, we apply the greedy assignment to both human segments and bag segments for the reason that the ground truth of the pedestrian contains both human and bag regions.

We adopt Lin’s method (i.e., RefineNet [31]) as a baseline method for the semantic-level segmentation. We use a pre-trained model on the Cityscapes dataset [40] whose output contains 20 labels. We focus only on the quality of the pedestrian silhouette and thus convert the original RefineNet output into a binary mask that only contains the "human" label and “non-human” label. An example of the binary mask is shown in the second column of Fig. 15.

4.1.4 Implementation details

The pedestrian bounding box trajectories used in the experiment are manual annotations. For the ESS, we set α=0.7 and β=0.7, and to keep the average size of superpixels the same, we set γ=545 for TUD-Stadtmitte, γ=560 for TUD-Campus, γ=475 for TUD-Crossing and γ=300 for PETS2009; i.e., there are approximately 2000 superpixels per frame for TUD datasets and 2850 per frame for PETS2009.

Thresholds thHm and thtemp are set as 0.5. In the spatial pairwise term, ωe is set as 300 while for CRF, ωS is set as 8 and ωT is set as 12. Finally, to handle an arbitrary length of frames, we use a batch process that sets the batch length as 20 frames.

Both instance-level and semantic-level evaluations are conducted on a personal computer with an Intel I7 CPU, 64 GB memory and a NVIDIA GTX 1080Ti GPU. We further address the use of the GPU for each method as follows.

For Ochs’s method and Milan’s method, GPUs are not used in the computation because no GPU version of codes was provided. For He’s method, the experiments are conducted using GPUs. For the proposed method, we only use a GPU for the RefineNet-based background term and not other parts.

4.2 Component comparison

4.2.1 Superpixel

To demonstrate the merits of the ESS, we run a component comparison experiment in which the SLIC superpixel [27] is used in a baseline method. We tune the number of SLIC superpixels to be the same as the number of ESSs. The experimental results presented in Table 1 show that the ESS outperforms the SLIC superpixel.
Table 1

Component comparisonon TUD-Campus

 

M. IoU [%]

W. IoU [%]

M. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

SLIC + OT

46.22

77.55

15.26

8.5

ESS + optical flow

44.41

77.09

14.79

11.4

ESS + OT (Proposed)

48.08

77.89

16.85

9.6

The best performance data were italicized

4.2.2 Temporal pairwise term

We run another component comparison experiment to demonstrate the merits of the OT-based temporal pairwise term compared with the optical-flow-based temporal pairwise term. We follow Liu’s work [42] for the optical-flow calculation. We then define an optical-flow-based connectivity function connflow(p,q) with which to substitute connT(p,q).

We denote the average motion vector of superpixel p in frame t as μflow(p), where \(p\in \mathcal {L}^{t}_{\text {SP}}\) and the integral rounding of the vector is [μflow(p)] with [·] being the integral rounding function. The set of pixel location vectors of the p-th superpixel is \(\mathcal {V}_{p}=\left \{\boldsymbol {v}_{\text {loc}}(j) \vert X_{\text {SP}}(j) = p\right \}\), and the corresponding locations in frame t+1 obtained via [μflow(p)] are denoted \(\hat {\mathcal {V}_{p}}=\left \{ \boldsymbol {v}_{\text {loc}}(j) + \left [\boldsymbol {\mu }_{\text {flow}}(p)\right ] \vert X_{\text {SP}}(j) = p\right \}\). Moreover, denoting by \(q\in \mathcal {L}^{t+1}_{\text {SP}}\) a superpixel whose pixel location vector set is \(\mathcal {V}_{q}\), the optical-flow-based temporal connectivity function is then defined as
$$ \text{conn}_{\text{flow}}(p, q) =\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 1 & \vert \mathcal{V}_{p} \bigcup \mathcal{V}_{q}\vert /|\mathcal{L}_{SP}^{t}| \geq {th}_{\text{temp}} \\ 0 & \text{otherwise} \end{array}.\right. $$
(34)
A set of optical-flow-based temporal neighbors is then defined as
$$ \mathcal{N}_{\text{flow}} = \left\{(p, q)| p \in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}, q \in \mathcal{L}_{\text{SP}}, \text{conn}_{\text{flow}}(p, q) = 1\right\}. $$
(35)
Subsequently, the optical-flow-based temporal pairwise term is defined similarly to Eq. 19:
$$ \sum \limits_{(p, q) \in \mathcal{N}_{\text{flow}}} E_{\mathrm{T}}(p, q, X_{\text{CRF}}(p), X_{\text{CRF}}(q)). $$
(36)

We then substitute the OT-based temporal pairwise term with the optical-flow-based term and run the component comparison experiment without changing other settings on the TUD-Campus dataset.

The experimental results are also given in Table 1. The OT-based temporal term performs better than the optical-flow-based temporal term.

4.3 Experimental results

4.3.1 Instance-level evaluation

The instance-level experimental result is presented in Table 2 while examples of visualization mask-type and edge-type results are respectively shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12.
Fig. 11

Instance-level mask-type result

Fig. 12

Instance-level edge-type result

Table 2

Instance-level results

 

TUD-Stadtmitte

 

M. IoU [%]

W. IoU [%]

M. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

Ochs’s

13.19

25.96

3.39

1255

Milan’s

50.97

44.80

20.70

209

He’s

70.36

79.21

20.23

0.5

Proposed

57.48

81.12

20.44

17.7

 

TUD-Campus

 

M. IoU [%]

W. IoU [%]

M. IoU B[%]

Time [min]

Ochs’s

15.08

34.87

2.85

500

Milan’s

51.38

49.29

14.27

83

He’s

63.92

71.54

13.04

0.2

Proposed

48.08

77.89

16.85

9.6

 

TUD-Crossing

 

M. IoU [%]

W. IoU [%]

M. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

Ochs’s

6.5

26.65

1.50

1512

Milan’s

14.30

22.87

5.89

240

He’s

38.00

56.17

10.08

0.65

Proposed

30.83

64.18

13.54

20.5

 

PETS2009

 

M. IoU [%]

W. IoU [%]

M. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

Ochs’s

14.41

29.54

5.40

4355

Milan’s

33.17

34.39

2.24

870

He’s

79.25

85.61

42.11

2.1

Proposed

68.20

80.61

37.75

118

The best performance data were italicized

The proposed method outperforms Ochs’s and Milan’s methods for all metrics. On the TUD datasets, the proposed method outperforms He’s method in terms of W.IoU and M.IoUB while underperforming He’s method in terms of M.IoU. Furthermore, on the PETS2009 dataset, the proposed method fails to outperform He’s method.

The performance of the proposed method compared with He’s method is explained below.

The sizes of ESSs are almost the same because the third term in Eq. 2 controls the size of the superpixels. Therefore, more superpixels are used to represent a larger pedestrian; i.e., a larger pedestrian is more robust against superpixel labeling error. As a result, our proposed method works better on large pedestrians than small pedestrians as shown in Fig. 13 and Fig. 14. Because the TUD datasets have a higher proportion of large pedestrians, compared with He’s method, the proposed method has a higher W.IoU, which gives a higher weight to the large pedestrian and results in a lower M.IoU, which normalizes the size of the pedestrian. However, on the PETS2009 dataset, because most pedestrians are small, the proposed method fails to outperform He’s method in terms of both M.IoU and W.IoU. The equally sized ESSs are considered the main drawback of the proposed method.
Fig. 13

Instance-level mask-type result for large pedestrians

Fig. 14

Instance-level mask-type result for small pedestrians

Fig. 15

Examples of failure cases

Another drawback of our proposed method is a lack of ability to handle occlusion. Figure 15 shows that the proposed method fails to segment the two pedestrians in frame t because of heavy occlusion. This relates to our adoption of a color-based GMM for pedestrian modeling, which may fail when the appearances of two pedestrians are similar.

4.3.2 Semantic-level evaluation

We also run a semantic-level experiment to illustrate that the use of the proposed method improves the performance of semantic segmentation. Results are presented in Table 3. On all datasets, the proposed method has a much better P.IoU and P.IoUB. This is because not only does the ESS preserve the pedestrian boundary better but also the OT-based temporal pairwise term eliminates the temporally inconsistent segments. Examples of semantic-level mask-type and edge-type results are shown in Fig. 16 and Fig. 17.
Fig. 16

Semantic-level mask-type result

Fig. 17

Semantic-level edge-type result

Table 3

Semantic-level results

 

TUD-Stadtmitte

TUD-Campus

 

P. IoU [%]

P. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

P. IoU [%]

P. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

Lin’s (RefineNet)

72.74

11.10

1.1

71.74

10.15

0.5

Proposed

79.12

30.00

17.7

80.45

24.05

9.6

 

TUD-Crossing

PETS2009

 

P. IoU [%]

P. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

P. IoU [%]

P. IoU B [%]

Time [min]

Lin’s (ReFineNet)

73.75

12.26

1.3

57.68

11.62

6.7

Proposed

78.82

28.27

20.5

75.42

79.12

118

The best performance data were italicized

4.3.3 Sensitivity analysis

We conduct an analysis of the sensitivity of the segmentation accuracy on the number of superpixels. We test the performance for an approximately exponentially increasing superpixel number on the TUD-Campus dataset and present the results in Table 4. Although the performance increases with the number of superpixels, the computational time is unacceptable if the number is too great; for example, 5000 superpixels per frame. In conclusion, 2000 superpixels per frame is considered a good tradeoff between the segmentation quality and processing time.
Table 4

Sensitivity analysis on TUD-Campus

SP amount

M. IoU [%]

W. IoU [%]

M. IoU B[%]

Time [min]

500

38.27

64.16

11.28

2.8

1000

43.36

73.25

14.48

5.3

2000

48.08

77.89

16.85

9.6

5000

52.08

79.67

17.21

30.1

5 Conclusion

We proposed a method of extracting multiple pedestrian silhouettes. The proposed method is formulated as a CRF inference problem that incorporates the ESS, semantic segmentation-based human score, and OT-based temporal pairwise term. In addition, we tested the proposed method on public datasets and achieved competitive performance.

A detector of human parts [43] and multiple-detector fusion for the tracking of multiple objects [44] have recently been developed, and a future avenue of research will apply the human-part detector to occlusion reasoning.

Footnotes

  1. 1.

    Code for the ESS is released at https://github.com/pdollar/edges.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank Glenn Pennycook, MSc, from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac) for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Authors’ contributions

YY executed the experiments, analyzed results, and wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. MY managed the advisor position for the collection of data, designed the experiment, and reviewed the manuscript. YY supervised the design of the work and provided technical support and conceptual advice. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding

This work was supported by a JSPS Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) JP18H04115.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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© The Author(s) 2019

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Institute of Scientific and Industrial ResearchOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

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