Prediction of microstructure evolution during multi-stand shape rolling of nickel-base superalloys

  • Kannan SubramanianEmail author
  • Harish P Cherukuri


In this paper, a comprehensive numerical approach to predict the microstructure of nickel-base superalloys during multi-stand shape rolling is presented. This approach takes into account the severe deformation that occurs during each pass and also the possible reheating between passes. In predicting the grain size at the end of the rolling process, microstructural events such as dynamic recrystallization (DRX), metadynamic recrystallization (MDRX), and static grain growth are captured at every deformation step for superalloys. Empirical relationships between the average grain size from various microstructural processes and the macroscopic variables such as temperature (T) and effective strain ( ε ̄ Open image in new window) and strain rate ( ε ̄ ̇ Open image in new window) form the basis for the current work. These empirical relationships are based on Avrami equations. The macroscopic variables are calculated using a finite element analysis package wherein the material being rolled is modeled as a non-Newtonian fluid with viscosity that depends on the effective strain rate, strain, and temperature. A two-dimensional transient thermal analysis is carried out between passes that can capture the MDRX and/or static grain growth during the microstructural evolution. The presented microstructure prediction algorithm continuously updates two families of grains, namely, the recrystallized family and strained family at the start of deformation in any given pass. In addition, the algorithm calculates various subgroups within these two families at every deformation step within a pass. As the material undergoes deformation between the rolls, recrystallization equations are invoked depending on critical strain and strain rate conditions that are characteristics of superalloys. This approach predicts the microstructural evolution based on recrystallization kinetics and static grain growth only. The methodology was successfully applied to predict the microstructure evolution during the multi-pass rolling of nickel-base superalloys. The predicted results for Alloy 718 for a 4-stand rolling followed by air cooling and for a 16-stand rolling followed by a combination of air and water cooling are also compared with experimental observations.


Multi-stand Multi-pass Shape rolling Microstructure Modeling Nickel-base Superalloys 



Financial support for this research work is provided by ATI Allvac, Monroe, NC. The authors express gratitude towards Drs. Minisandram and Thomas from ATI Allvac for their valuable inputs on Alloy 718 and multi-stand rolling simulation.

Supplementary material

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© Subramanian and Cherukuri; licensee Springer. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stress Engineering Services, Inc.MetairieUSA
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteNCUSA

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