Analysis of the surface-roughening phenomenon in P-added bake-hardened steel sheets

  • Nam Hoon GooEmail author
  • Chungu Kang
Case study


The surface-roughening problem with phosphorous-added bake-hardened steel sheets was investigated. Surface undulation in the sheets occurs after 2% to 3% deformation during press forming action and disappears with further deformation over 10%. The roughened sheets exhibit heterogeneity of the elemental P (phosphorous) distribution, and the segregation of P increases the hardiness of ferrite grains locally. This local strengthening of ferrite grains causes a concentration of strains in the other ferrite regions that do not contain the elemental P-segregation. The strain concentration is because of the surface undulation in the sheets under small amount of straining. The evolution of the deformation texture and the corresponding Lankford values are shown using a series of viscoplastic self-consistent (VSPC) simulations, which indicated that a strong {554}[225] texture develops, and subsequently, the Lankford value increases in the non-segregated ferrite region. The higher Lankford value makes it more difficult to deform the sheet in the through-thickness direction. The different texture developments of the segregated and segregation-free regions are the main causes of the disappearance of the surface undulation with a high amount of plastic straining greater than 10%. Finally, we conclude that the segregation of P inherited from hot band affects the plastic deformation and developed textures of the thin steel sheets.


Ghost line defect Plastic anisotropy Surface roughening Deformation texture 


Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Goo and Kang; licensee Springer. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Sheet product design groupHyundai Steel Co.DangJinSouth Korea

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