# Numerical solutions of nonlinear fractional model arising in the appearance of the strip patterns in two-dimensional systems

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## Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of modified analytical technique based on auxiliary parameters and residual power series method (RPSM) for Newell–Whitehead–Segel (NWS) equations of arbitrary order. The NWS equation is well defined and a famous nonlinear physical model, which is characterized by the presence of the strip patterns in two-dimensional systems and application in many areas such as mechanics, chemistry, and bioengineering. In this paper, we implement a modified analytical method based on auxiliary parameters and residual power series techniques to obtain quick and accurate solutions of the time-fractional NWS equations. Comparison of the obtained solutions with the present solutions reveal that both powerful analytical techniques are productive, fruitful, and adequate in solving any kind of nonlinear partial differential equations arising in several physical phenomena. We addressed \(L_{2}\) and \(L_{\infty }\) norms in both cases. Through error analysis and numerical simulation, we have compared approximate solutions obtained by two present aforesaid methods and noted excellent agreement. In this study, we use the fractional operators in Caputo sense.

## Keywords

Homotopy analysis transform method (HATM) Homotopy polynomial (HP) Newell–Whitehead–Segal (NWS) equation Residual power series method## MSC

26A33 465M22## 1 Introduction

Differential equations of nonlinear nature are a practically very useful device for recitation of different physical phenomena, particularly when it is fractional in character. In support of illustration, these equations are gradually more applied to the problems related to diverse branches of engineering [1, 2, 3, 4]. An enormous attempt has been taken throughout the previously years to get healthy and proficient arithmetical and logical methods for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations (FDEs) [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]. This work emphasized that the NSW equation is taken to find the solutions using aforesaid methods. The modified homotopy analysis transform method (MHATM) method is a combination of the Laplace transform and homotopy analysis methods with HP [15, 16, 17, 18]. The RPSM is constructed from the generalized Taylor series, which is a prevailing technique for solving nonlinear FDEs [19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24]. The advantage of the RPSM method is that it is not affected by computational round-off errors and also does not require large computer memory and extensive time. Moreover, this method computes the coefficients of the power series by a chain of equations with one or more variables, which indicates a better convergence of the RPSM.

Recently, the NWS equation gained more attention because NWS plays a vital part in nonlinear systems. The NWS equation describes the appearance of the stripe pattern in two-dimensional systems. Moreover, as this is an important model in the field of fluid dynamics, it has numerous applications in fluid dynamics such as traveling wave patterns in binary fluids. A new approach using ADM to evaluate the numerical solution of TFNWS is mentioned in [25]. In [26] the authors analyzed the fractional NWS equation for Riemann fractional space–time, space, and time derivatives. Two methods, Laplace decomposition and finite difference, to solve the numerical approximation of NWS equations are given in [27]. Investigations related to the mathematical biological model in connection with the NWS equation are presented by Korkmaz [28]. Approximate solutions of the NWS using a new iterative method are given in [29]. In [30] the authors gave a comparative study on the reduced transform method and ADM insight of NWS equation, and in [31] a combined form of ADM and Elzaki method is used to solve the NWS equations. Numerous papers studied the solutions of NWS equation by applying different approaches. In [32] the tanh function technique is used to get the exact solution of generalized NWS, and in [33] the HPM is used to solve the nonlinear NWS differential equations. To approximate the solutions of NWS equation from fluid mechanics, Macías-Díaz and Ruiz-Ramírez [34] proposed a method called the finite-difference method. The class of NWS equations with Lie and “nonclassical” symmetry points of view was studied in [35]. Some papers used the variational iteration method (VIM) or modified VIM to solve the NWS equations [36, 37]. Graham [38] studied the two-dimensional NWS equations (also see [39]. Kumar and Sharma [40] combined the HAM and Sumudu transform (ST) to solve the NWS equation. The linear and nonlinear NWS equations are evaluated in [41] with the help of HPM and a hybrid of the Fourier transform and ADM. The NWS amplitude equation and algebraic traveling wave NWS equation were studied in [42] and [43], respectively. For more detail on fractional-order NWS equations in diverse points of view, we refer the interesting readers to the recent papers [44, 45].

*c*is positive integer,

*k*,

*a*, and \(b \in \mathbb{R}\) (real numbers) with \(k>0\), and \(D^{\lambda }\) is the Caputo derivative of order

*λ*. The first term \(D=\frac{\partial \xi }{\partial \eta }\) represents the variation of \(\xi (\eta ,t)\) with time and fixed location. The term \(D^{2}=\frac{\partial ^{2} \xi }{\partial \eta ^{2}}\) denotes the variation with variable

*η*at a particular time, and the remaining term \(a\xi - b \xi ^{c}\) signifies the effect of the source term. Various methods are applied to solve different types of NWS equations in physics [31, 46, 47, 48, 49].

### Theorem 1.1

*Let*

*f*

*be a function represented by a fractional power series*(

*FPS*)

*at*\(t=t_{0}\)

*If*\(D^{k\lambda + l} f(t)\)

*are continuous on*\((t_{0},t_{0}+\mathbb{R})\), \(k=0,1,2,\ldots\) ,

*then the coefficients*\(d_{kl}\)

*are given by*

*where*\(D^{k \lambda } = D^{\lambda }\), \(D^{\lambda },\ldots,D^{\lambda }\) (

*k*

*times*),

*and the radius of convergence is*\(\mathbb{R}\).

## 2 Basic idea of MHATM

### 2.1 The analytical procedure

*η*,

*t*, and

*z*. Generalizing the traditional homotopy analysis methods [50], we construct the zero-order deformation equation

*ħ*is a nonzero auxiliary parameter, which helps us to increase the convergence, \(H(\eta ,t)\) is an auxiliary function, \(\xi _{0}(\eta ,t)\) is an initial guess of \(\xi (\eta ,t)\), and \(\aleph (\eta ,t;z)\) is an unknown function.

*m*th-order deformation equation

To illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the MHATM, we consider two examples.

### Example 1

*m*th-order deformation equation

*m*th-order deformation equation is

### Example 2

*m*th-order deformation equation:

### 2.2 Convergence analysis

### Theorem 2.1

*The obtained series solution*(2.8)

*converges if*

### Proof

Since the series (2.8), that is, \(\xi (\eta ,t)= \xi _{0} ( \eta ,t)+\sum_{m=1}^{\infty }\xi _{m} (\eta ,t)\), converges, we can write \(S(t)= \sum_{m=0}^{\infty }\xi _{m} (\eta ,t)\), and by the necessary condition for the convergence of the series we have that \(\lim_{m\rightarrow +\infty } \xi _{m} (\eta ,t)=0\).

*m*th-order deforming equation is

### Proof

## 3 Basic idea of residual power series method

### 3.1 The analytical procedure

We consider the following problems for the applications of the RPS technique.

### Example 3

### Example 4

### 3.2 Convergence analysis

### Theorem 3.1

(Convergence Theorem)

*Suppose that*\(f_{kl}(\eta )\)*has an FPS representation of the form*\(f_{kl}(\eta )=\sum_{k=0}^{\infty }\sum_{l=0}^{m-1} c_{kl}(\eta )t^{l+k\lambda }\), \(0\leq m-1 < \lambda \leq m\), *with radius of convergence*\(\Re (>0)\). *Then the series uniformly converges on*\([-s, s]\), *where*\(0< s<\Re \).

### Proof

Let \(\xi _{kl}(\eta )= c_{kl}(\eta )t^{l+k\lambda }\). Since ℜ is the radius of convergence of the FPS, the series absolutely converges for all *t* such that \(\vert t \vert <\Re \).

Hence the series is absolute convergent for all *t* such that \(\vert t \vert \leq s <\Re \) (as \(0< s<\Re \)).

Therefore the series \(\sum_{k=0}^{\infty }\sum_{l=0}^{m-1} c_{kl}( \eta )s^{l+k\lambda }\) converges.

Now \(\vert \xi _{kl}(\eta ) \vert = \vert c_{kl}(\eta )t^{l+k \lambda } \vert \leq \vert c_{kl}(\eta ) \vert s^{l+k\lambda }\) for all *t* such that \(\vert t \vert \leq s\).

Let \(M_{kl}= \vert c_{kl}(\eta ) \vert s^{l+k\lambda }\) for \(k,l,\lambda \in \mathbb{N}\).

Then \(\sum_{k=0}^{\infty }\sum_{l=0}^{m-1}M_{kl}\) is a convergent series of positive real numbers, and for all \(k,l,\lambda \in \mathbb{N}\), \(\vert \xi _{kl}(\eta ) \vert \leq M_{kl}\) for all \(t\in [-s,s]\).

By Weierstrass’ *M* test the series \(\sum_{k=0}^{\infty }\sum_{l=0} ^{m-1}\xi _{kl}(\eta )\) uniformly converges on \([-s,s]\).

Consequently, the fractional power series \(\sum_{k=0}^{\infty }\sum_{l=0}^{m-1} c_{kl}(\eta )t^{l+k\lambda }\) uniformly converges on \([-s,s]\). □

## 4 Numerical output and discussion

In this subsection, we discuss the obtained results through the different three-dimensional and two-dimensional figures.

\(L_{2}\) and \(L_{\infty }\) error norm when \(\beta =1\)

x | \(L_{2}\) error norm | \(L_{\infty }\) error norm |
---|---|---|

0.1 | 1.90588 × 10 | 4.55191 × 10 |

0.2 | 1.47661 × 10 | 5.66214 × 10 |

0.3 | 7.91959 × 10 | 8.88178 × 10 |

\(L_{2}\) and \(L_{\infty }\) error norm when \(\beta =1\)

| \(L_{2}\) error norm | \(L_{\infty }\) error norm |
---|---|---|

0.1 | 2.67902 × 10 | 7.07209 × 10 |

0.2 | 2.51277 × 10 | 7.67880 × 10 |

0.3 | 2.93262 × 10 | 7.75736 × 10 |

*ħ*-curve of TFNSW Eq. (1.1) for different values of

*λ*. We see that the adequate range of

*ħ*is \(-1.9\leq \hbar <0\).

*λ*.

*ħ*-curve is given, which is also known as converging manage parameter. In this case, we can select that parameter in the range of \(-1.6< \hbar < -0.4\).

### 4.1 Comparison study

## 5 Concluding remarks

In this study, we proposed two powerful analytical methods for the solution of fractional Newell–Whitehead–Segel equations, which have the potential applications in bioengineering. To obtain the estimated solutions of the time-fractional Newell–Whitehead–Segel equations, we successfully applied the MHATM and RPSM. The accuracy and efficiency of the MHATM and RPSM are explained by examples. Moreover, the convergence analysis of both methods is discussed in detail. The results obtained for MHATM and RPSM are compared and plotted. From the figures we observe that the solution obtained by the MHATM and RPSM methods coincide with the exact solution, and both methods are consistent and efficient for solving fractional Newell–Whitehead–Segal equations. The fast convergence to the exact solutions of MHATM and RPSM shows that these methods are very suitable to solve FDEs. We conclude that the MHATM and RPSM methods are very effective and accurate techniques in the field of fractional-order differential equations. As a future work, we can implement the HAM to estimate the analytical solutions of fractional partial differential equations arising in engineering science by replacing the Laplace transform by a natural transform and the Caputo fractional operator by new fractional operators.

## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The author Dr. Sunil Kumar would like to acknowledge the financial support received from the National Board for Higher Mathematics, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India (Approval No. 2/48(20)/2016/NBHM(R.P.)/R and D II/1014).

### Availability of data and materials

None.

### Authors’ contributions

Writing the original Manuscript: SK, AK, and KSN; conceptualization: SK and SM; methodology: SK and MA; software: SK, AK, KSN, and MA; formal analysis: SM, KSN, and MA; All authors read and approve the final manuscript.

### Funding

Not applicable.

### Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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