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Health Economics Review

, 9:2 | Cite as

Correction to: CancerCostMod: a model of the healthcare expenditure, patient resource use, and patient co-payment costs for Australian cancer patients

  • Nicole BatesEmail author
  • Emily Callander
  • Daniel Lindsay
  • Kerrianne Watt
Open Access
Correction

Correction to: Health Economics Review (2018) 8:28

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-018-0212-8

Correction

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported errors on their article.

In Tables 3 and 4 of this manuscript, the costs presented in the “hospital episodes”, “total cost to the health care system” and “average health care cost per person” columns were incorrect. Consequently, the numbers in the “Ratios” and “standard errors” columns related to the Hospital Episodes section of Table 5 were incorrect. The corrected Tables are shown below.
Table 3

Total cost of cancer during the first 12-months post-diagnosis by cancer type1

  

COST TO THE AUSTRALIAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM (AUD)

Patient co-payment5 (AUD)

N2

Hospital episodes3

ED presentations

MBS rebate4

PBS rebate

Total cost to the healthcare system

Average healthcare cost per person (SD)

Total

Average per person (SD)

All cancers combined

123,900

3,824,163,400

88,103,100

263,243,600

631,804,300

4,807,314,400

38,800 (42,900)

127,673,700

1000 (2000)

Prostate cancer

20,700

374,172,600

6,416,200

36,828, 600

38,650,600

456,068,000

22,000 (18,700)

16,324,000

800 (1200)

Breast cancer

15,400

377,396,200

6,744,700

36,690, 600

170,956,200

591,787,700

38,300 (31,300)

21,040, 900

1400 (1500)

Colorectal cancer

14,800

643,503,400

11,849,400

30,563,000

71,878,900

757,794,700

51,300 (39,800)

16,979,500

1100 (1800)

Blood and lymphatic system

13,300

616,132,000

13,286,600

40,503,100

176,947,100

846,868,700

63,600 (73,600)

24,655,400

1900 (4100)

Melanoma of the skin

12,300

70,844,800

1,575,700

23,174,800

12,506,700

108,102,000

8800 (13,400)

4,945,100

400 (500)

Tracheal, bronchus and lung cancer

11,100

434,675,600

15,618,400

24,164,600

45,331,000

519,789,700

46,800 (35,700)

10,168,700

900 (1700)

Digestive organs

10,100

433,725,600

12,668,100

20,303,100

31,119,600

497,816,400

49,400 (38,400)

11,273,000

1100 (2000)

Cancers of the urinary tract

6200

202,334,900

5,022,300

10,703,000

17,623,000

235,683,200

38,000 (32,600)

4,816,000

800 (1100)

Gynaecological cancers

5200

159,616,700

3,121,600

10,475,000

16,774,700

189,988,000

36,400 (32,700)

5,171,800

1000 (1600)

Head and neck

4000

141,306,700

2,478,200

10,264,700

9,019,700

163,069,400

40,500 (47,200)

2,374,400

600 (1200)

Other or ill-defined cancers

2700

76,240,900

2,316,900

4,295,300

6,051,400

88,904,500

32,800 (31,500)

2,239,700

800 (1700)

Thyroid and other endocrine glands

2600

55,221,900

799,400

4,195,500

3,631,300

63,848,200

24,600 (35,800)

1,180,600

500 (600)

Eye, brain and CNS

1900

114,903,700

3,113,900

3,324,700

17,342,800

138,685,000

71,800 (73,200)

2,830,000

1500 (2300)

Mesothelioma, Kaposi Sarcoma, and soft tissue

1600

69,741,200

1,882,200

3,245,200

9,187,200

84,055,900

51,500 (47,800)

2,080,100

1300 (2200)

Male genital organs, exc prostate

900

19,635,700

678,900

2,190,200

2,267,400

24,772,300

26,800 (30,900)

643,200

700 (1200)

Other skin cancer

800

15,355,100

283,300

1,749,400

1,456,800

18,844,600

22,700 (30,200)

541,900

700 (1100)

1Weighted results reported, and rounded to the nearest 100

2Excluding broad cancer types with less than 500 individuals (‘bone’, and ‘other thoracic and respiratory organs’)

3Admitted and non-admitted hospital episodes

4MBS rebate, excluding items included as non-admitted hospital episodes

5MBS and PBS patient co-payment

Table 4

Total cost of cancer for the first 12-months post-diagnosis, by population groups1

  

COST TO THE AUSTRALIAN HEALTHCARE SYSTEM (AUD)

Patient co-payment4 (AUD)

n

Hospital episodes2

ED presentations

MBS rebate3

PBS rebate

Total cost to the healthcare system

Average healthcare cost per person (SD)

Total

Average per person (SD)

Weighted total

123,900

3,824,163,400

88,103,100

263,243,600

631,804,300

4,807,314,400

38,800 (42,900)

127,673,700

1000 (2000)

Indigenous status

 Non-Indigenous Australian

121,800

3,749,654,000

85,643,100

259,009,200

623,618,600

4,717,924,900

38,700 (42,800)

126,913,100

1000 (2000)

 Indigenous Australian

2100

74,509,400

2,459,900

4,234,500

8,185,700

89,389,500

42,700 (48,800)

760,600

400 (800)

Rurality5

 Metropolitan

58,500

1,738,821,800

38,505,200

125,884,200

306,909,000

2,210,120,300

37,800 (39,900)

65,570,600

1100 (1900)

 Regional

54,500

1,721,146,800

42,165,900

116,837,100

270,755,900

2,150,905,700

39,500 (43,800)

52,061,400

1000 (1900)

 Remote

10,200

352,165,600

6,805,500

19,718,200

52,844,900

431,534,200

42,200 (53,800)

9,831,600

1000 (2500)

IRSD6 Quintiles5

 Q1 (Most disadvantaged)

11,300

387,822,900

11,248,900

21,232,900

47,295,500

467,600,300

41,400 (44,100)

9,226,300

800 (1900)

 Q2

5700

183,953,200

3,180,500

11,653,000

28,801,500

227,588,200

39,800 (43,700)

4,900,200

900 (1800)

 Q3

19,900

635,646,500

14,727,500

41,726,900

102,484,100

794,585,000

39,900 (48,500)

17,757,000

1100 (1800)

 Q4

56,000

1,715,299,900

42,010,300

128,352,200

288,661,500

2,174,323,900

38,800 (42,000)

59,401,200

1100 (1800)

 Q5 (Least disadvantaged)

30,200

889,411,700

16,309,300

59,474,600

163,267,300

1,128,462,900

37,300 (40,200)

36,179,100

1200 (2000)

1Weighted results reported, and rounded to the nearest 100

2Admitted and non-admitted hospital episodes

3MBS rebate, excluding items included as non-admitted hospital episodes

4MBS and PBS patient co-payment

5Excluding individuals with missing postcodes

6Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage

Table 5

Five generalized linear models of the cost of cancer for the first 12-months1

 

Hospital episodes2

ED presentations

MBS rebate3

PBS rebates

Patient co-payment4

Ratio

Estimate (SE)

Ratio

Estimate (SE)

Ratio

Estimate (SE)

Ratio

Estimate (SE)

Ratio

Estimate (SE)

Intercept

 

8.5519 (0.0483) ***

5.4363 (0.0728) ***

5.7499 (0.0382) ***

6.8536 (0.0721) ***

4.7398 (0.0593) ***

Age

1.01

0.0062 (0.0005) ***

1.01

0.0103 (0.0008) ***

1.00

−0.0021 (0.0004) ***

0.99

−0.0109 (0.0008) ***

1.00

0.0033 (0.0006) ***

Female

0.88

−0.1267 (0.0167) ***

0.95

−0.0537 (0.0262) *

0.95

−0.0551 (0.0129) ***

0.85

−0.1597 (0.0234) ***

0.98

−0.0214 (0.0192)

Indigenous Australians

1.02

0.0220 (0.0525)

1.23

0.2095 (0.0752) **

0.92

−0.0888 (0.0402) *

0.82

−0.1928 (0.0735) **

0.39

−0.9315 (0.0619) ***

Inner and outer regional area

1.04

0.0364 (0.0165) *

1.02

0.0196 (0.0275)

0.99

−0.0138 (0.0126)

1.04

0.0366 (0.0231)

0.94

−0.0571 (0.0189) **

Remote and very remote area

1.10

0.0947 (0.0268) ***

1.03

0.0322 (0.0454)

0.90

−0.1092 (0.0207) ***

1.10

0.0912 (0.0381) *

0.98

−0.0219 (0.0311)

IRSD5 Q2

1.02

0.0214 (0.0373)

1.00

0.0004 (0.0626)

1.07

0.0675 (0.0289) *

1.05

0.0474 (0.0519)

1.00

−0.0026 (0.0432)

IRSD5 Q3

0.98

−0.0232 (0.0279)

1.01

0.0097 (0.0420)

1.08

0.0805 (0.0216) ***

1.11

0.1053 (0.0389) **

1.00

−0.0020 (0.0324)

IRSD5 Q4

0.95

−0.0510 (0.0250) *

0.98

−0.0215 (0.0368)

1.18

0.1642 (0.0193) ***

1.17

0.1582 (0.0348) ***

1.23

0.2033 (0.0289) ***

IRSD5 Q5 (least disadvantaged)

0.93

−0.0700 (0.0293) *

0.94

−0.0603 (0.0467)

1.00

0.0016 (0.0226)

1.19

0.1703 (0.0411) ***

1.32

0.2746 (0.0338) ***

*p-value < 0.05

**p-value < 0.01

***p-value < 0.001

1Adjusted for age at diagnosis, sex, Indigenous status, rurality, IRSD quintiles, and broad cancer type

2Admitted and non-admitted hospital episodes

3MBS rebate, excluding items included as non-admitted hospital episodes

4MBS and PBS co-payment is the cost to the patient

5Index of Relative Socio-Economic Disadvantage

Subsequently, the following sentences needed to be corrected. Corrected content is shown in bold:

Abstract, Results, Discussion

The total initial cost associated with newly diagnosed cancer for the healthcare system is $4.8 billion. Hospital episodes accounted for 80% of the healthcare expenditure, followed by PBS (13%) and MBS (5%).

Results, subheading “Results of Cost of cancer during the first 12-months post-diagnosis by population group”, 2nd paragraph:

Indigenous Australians had significantly higher costs for ED presentations (23% higher), but significantly lower costs for MBS rebates (8% lower), PBS rebates (18% lower), and patient co-payments (61% lower) compared to non-Indigenous Australians. [The words “for hospital episodes (22%)” have been removed from the sentence].

The costs for hospital episodes were significantly higher in the first 12-months post-diagnosis with increasing remoteness, 4% for people living in inner and outer regional areas, and 10% higher for people living in remote and very remote areas compared to those living in metropolitan areas. [these percents were previously reported as 6% and 15% higher, respectively].

Compared to those living in the most disadvantaged areas (IRSD Q1), those in quintiles 4–5 had decreasing costs associated with hospital episodes [quintiles 3–4 were previously reported].

Reference

  1. 1.
    Bates N, Callander E, Lindsay D, et al. CancerCostMod: a model of the healthcare expenditure, patient resource use, and patient co-payment costs for Australian cancer patients. Health Econ Rev. 2018;8:–28.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13561-018-0212-8.

Copyright information

© The Author(s). 2019

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicole Bates
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Emily Callander
    • 2
  • Daniel Lindsay
    • 1
  • Kerrianne Watt
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences (CPHMVS)James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  2. 2.Australian Institute of Tropical Health and Medicine (AITHM)James Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia

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