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Lipids in Health and Disease

, 18:101 | Cite as

Intake of arachidonic acid-containing lipids in adult humans: dietary surveys and clinical trials

  • Hiroshi KawashimaEmail author
Open Access
Review

Abstract

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have important roles in physiological homeostasis. Numerous studies have provided extensive information about the roles of n-3 LCPUFA, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the major n-6 LCPUFAs and its biological aspects have been well studied. However, nutritional information for ARA is limited, especially in adult humans. This review presents a framework of dietary ARA intake and the effects of ARA supplementation on LCPUFA metabolism in adult humans, and the nutritional significance of ARA and LCPUFA is discussed.

Keywords

Arachidonic acid Dietary survey Docosahexaenoic acid Eicosapentaenoic acid Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid 

Abbreviations

ALA

α-linolenic acid

ARA

Arachidonic acid

DHA

Docosahexaenoic acid

DR

Dietary record

EPA

Eicosapentaenoic acid

FFQ

Food frequency questionnaire

LA

Linoleic acid

LCPUFA

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids

PL

Phospholipids

RBC

Red blood cells

Background

Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) are the main constituents of biomembranes and have important roles in physiological homeostasis. LCPUFAs consist of two individual series, namely, n-6 and n-3 series. Humans cannot synthesize n-6 and n-3 PUFAs de novo, and convert linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) obtained from foods to n-6 and n-3 LCPUFAs, respectively. LCPUFAs in the body are consequently derived from both the conversion of LA or ALA and the direct intake of respective LCPUFAs (Fig. 1). The major n-6 LCPUFA is arachidonic acid (ARA), and the major n-3 LCPUFAs are docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). The importance of dietary intake of DHA and EPA has been extensively studied [1, 2, 3], but there is limited information for n-6 LCPUFA. Studies of ARA have focused on biological aspects, and many lipid mediators from ARA have been discovered and contribute to its medical application [4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. However, little attention has been paid to the dietary intake and clinical effects of ARA itself in adult humans [10], although the knowledge in infant nutrition has progressed exceptionally [11, 12]. Recently, the efficacy of ARA supplementation has been reported in the fields of cognitive attention and memory [13, 14, 15], mood states [16], coronary circulation [17] and cirrhosis [18, 19]; and further nutritional understanding of ARA intake is expected.
Fig. 1

Scheme of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) metabolism. LCPUFA in the body has two origins. One is the direct incorporation from dietary animal foods, and the other is the biosynthesis from n-6 or n-3 precursor PUFA, linoleic acid (LA) or α–linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. All the fatty acids including LCPUFA are mainly metabolized to CO2 by β–oxidation and excreted in the breath

The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the impact of ARA intake in adult humans. The author outlines the dietary intake of ARA from daily foods in adult humans of various countries, and reviews clinical trials of supplementation of ARA-containing lipids.

Food sources of ARA

ARA is found only in animal-derived foods because plants cannot synthesize C-20 LCPUFAs. The main food sources of ARA are meat, poultry, eggs, fish and dairy foods, as shown in Table 1 [20, 21]. ARA is contained in most animal foods [22, 23]; however, the contents of ARA are moderate, < 200 mg per 100 g of these foods, revealing the wide but small distribution of ARA in major animal foods. This is in stark contrast to the case of DHA/EPA. DHA/EPA is only found in seafood, however the content of DHA/EPA reaches from several hundred mg to more than 1 g per 100 g of fish. These data suggest that ARA intake may fluctuate less with the intake of certain animal food groups, in contrast to the case of DHA/EPA in fish.
Table 1

Content of ARA and the other fatty acids per 100 g edible portion of animal foods

Food group

Ref.a

Total fat (mg)

Fatty acids (mg)b

PA

OA

LA

ARA

EPA

DHA

Meats and poultry

 Pork, loin, whole, lean and fat, raw

C

12,580

2720

5140

1110

80

0

0

 Pork, medium type breed, loin, lean and fat, raw

J

22,600

5600

9100

1900

68

0

12

 Chicken, broiler, thigh, meat and skin, raw

C

16,610

3511

5832

3096

104

4

7

 Chicken, broiler, thigh, meat with skin, raw

J

14,200

3300

5800

1600

79

1

7

 Beef, hip, inside (top) round steak, boneless, lean, raw

C

2210

520

910

120

40

0

0

 Beef, inside round, lean, raw

J

4300

890

1500

120

24

4

1

Eggs

 Chicken, whole, fresh or frozen, raw

C

10,010

2218

3810

1109

156

2

72

 Hen, whole, raw

J

10,300

2100

3500

1300

150

0

120

Fishes and seafoods

 Salmon, pink (humpback), raw

C

6700

1044

1108

102

127

547

859

 Pink salmon, raw

J

6600

790

920

81

31

400

690

 Flatfish (flounder or sole or plaice), raw

C

1930

282

358

45

30

137

108

 Righteye flounder, brown sole, raw

J

1300

150

140

10

50

100

72

 Sardine, pacific, canned in tomato sauce, drained with bones

C

10,450

1738

1851

123

190

532

864

 Sardine, Japanese pilchard, canned products, in tomato sauce

J

10,800

1900

1200

140

160

1300

1100

Milk and dairy products

 Cheese, cream

C

34,240

8497

7923

1032

50

0

0

 Cheese, cream

J

33,000

8700

6400

570

38

20

6

aC, Canadian nutrient file version 2015 [20]; J, Standard tables of food composition in Japan 2015 (seventh revised edition) [21]

bPA palmitic acid, OA oleic acid, LA linoleic acid, ARA arachidonic acid, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid, DHA docosahexaenoic acid

Table 2 shows the contribution of each food to ARA intake [24, 25, 26, 27, 28]. The proportion of meat and poultry is high (43–62%) in Europe [24, 25] and the United States [26], but is only 20–30% in Japan [27] and Korea [28]. The contribution of eggs is high in Japan. Fish and seafood, the main sources of DHA/EPA, are also significant sources of ARA (4.9–12.2%) in all the countries. In elderly Japanese, the contribution of fish to ARA intake reached approximately 30% and was equal to that of meat [29]. It is equivocal that foods of plant origin are described as contributors to ARA intake in some studies (potato, rice and pasta, 7.1% [25]; nuts. 9% [26]), as these plants cannot synthesize ARA or C-20 LCPUFAs. This suggests that the qualitative or quantitative accuracy of ARA content in food composition tables is not always complete, which may be one of the reasons why the calculation of ARA intake seems inaccurate in some cases, as described below.
Table 2

Food sources of ARA (% of the total ARA intake)a

Food group

France [24]

UK [25]

USA [26]

Japan [27]

Korea [28]

Meats and poultry

50.3

62.3

43

22.5

28.4

Eggs

16.9

11.1

19

47.2

17.9

Fishes and seafoods

11.1

4.9

9

11.1

12.2

Milk and dairy products

1.1

ndb

nd

3.0

14.3

Sweet product

11.6

nd

nd

nd

nd

Plant origin

 Cereals, fruit and vegetable

2.9

nd

nd

nd

nd

 Potato, rice and pasta

nd

7.1

nd

nd

nd

 Nuts

0.0

nd

9

nd

nd

Total of each percentage does not reach 100% due to lack of the minor contributors

aOriginal data are classified to the nearest food group

bnd not described

Dietary intake of ARA

Dietary intakes of LCPUFA in 175 countries were estimated using food balance sheets from the Food and Agriculture Organization and food composition tables [30]. The calculated ARA intakes ranged from 101 to 351 mg/day in advanced countries, and 44–331 mg/day in developing countries. This is a useful calculation derived from the statistical data of international agriculture and trade; however, it is only an estimation for individual countries and is not based on accurate amounts of LCPUFAs derived from direct measurements of food consumption of individuals or specific groups. The author therefore reviewed the studies to investigate the amount of dietary ARA using nutritional survey methods.

Table 3 shows data compiled from surveys of more than 1000 healthy adults in a study and published from January 2001 [24, 25, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41]. The data were obtained from various areas, i.e., Europe, North America, Africa, Asia and Oceania. The amounts of dietary ARA intake range widely from 9 to 290 mg/day. The large differences may be attributable to the survey method or the dietary habits in individual countries. First, with respect to the survey methods, it is notable that similar amounts of ARA intake were reported in four studies [24, 32, 38, 40] using dietary record (DR) or 24-h diet recall (169–230 (male) and 117–160 (female) mg/day). Generally, the quantitative accuracy of DR or 24-h recall is thought to be superior to that of the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Most of the other studies using DR or 24-h recall with smaller numbers of participants also reported that ARA intakes were around 100 mg/day or more, although there are some exceptions (Table 4) [28, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48]. These studies suggest that ARA intake, at least in advanced countries, is 100–250 mg/day for normal healthy adults. This is a similar but narrower range compared to the calculation from the statistical data described above [30]. ARA intake in the tens of mg per day reported in some surveys is similar to or less than that of American vegetarians (3–44 mg/day) [37], and seems too low. Similar results were reported in the other studies with limited numbers of participants in Germany [49], Norway [50], Canada [51, 52] and Japan [27, 29, 53, 54]. Studies reporting that ARA intake is several mg/day are likely to contain errors in their calculation methods. To accurately assess the amount of ARA intake, it may be important to reexamine and revise the ARA content reported in various food composition tables.
Table 3

Dietary survey of intake of ARA, EPA and DHA in adult humans (> 1000 participants in a study and from January 2001)

Country

Participant

Dietary surveyc

LCPUFA intake (mg/day)d

Ref.

Sexa

Age (y)b

Other classification

N

ARA

EPA

DHA

Europe

 Finland

M&F

30–49

1212

FFQ

95 ± 0.84e

160 ± 3.1e

420 ± 8.7e

[31]

50-79

980

97 ± 1.1e

190 ± 4.6e

510 ± 13e

 

 France

M

45–63

2099

ten 24-h DR

204 ± 66

150 ± 112

273 ± 191

[24]

F

35–63

2785

152 ± 49

118 ± 94

226 ± 171

 

 Germany

M

45–65

Heidelberg

1013

24-h recall

230 ± 250

100 ± 300

190 ± 480

[32]

 

Potsdam

1032

230 ± 250

130 ± 380

210 ± 490

 

F

35–64

Heidelberg

1078

160 ± 190

70 ± 230

140 ± 330

 
 

Potsdam

898

140 ± 160

80 ± 230

140 ± 280

 

 Spain

F

20–79

1865

FFQ

290 ± 110

220 ± 90

300 ± 120

[33]

 United Kingdom

M&F

16–79

1455

FFQ

9f

290f

380f

[25]

North America

 United States

F

> 45

Health Professional

37,547

FFQ

70f

20f

60f

[34]

 United States

M&F

> 30

2837

FFQ

120 ± 80

45 ± 50

82 ± 73

[35]

 United States

F

< 65

1500

FFQ

70 ± 60

40 ± 50

90 ± 90

[36]

 United States &Canada

M&F

> 30

Nonvegetarian

33,634

FFQ

84 ± 0.3e

ndg

182 ± 1.2e

[37]

 

Semi-vegetarian

4042

27 ± 0.7e

nd

70 ± 3.6e

 
 

Pesco vegetarian

6583

44 ± 0.6e

nd

187 ± 2.8e

 
 

Lacto-ovo vegetarian

21,799

13 ± 0.3e

nd

34 ± 1.5e

 
 

Strict vegetarian

5694

3 ± 0.6e

nd

18 ± 3e

 

Africa, Asia and Oceania

 Australia

M

> 19

5081

24-h recall

191 ± 2e

91 ± 3e

117 ± 5e

[38]

F

> 19

5770

117 ± 2e

60 ± 2e

83 ± 3e

 

 China

F

40–70

74,943

FFQ

50f

ndh

ndh

[39]

 Japan

M

40–49

241

3-day DR

179 ± 66

233 ± 211

437 ± 331

[40]

50–59

268

185 ± 64

368 ± 296

662 ± 476

 

60–69

262

182 ± 63

403 ± 263

718 ± 422

 

70–79

243

171 ± 64

390 ± 257

692 ± 437

 

F

40–49

263

153 ± 52

217 ± 185

414 ± 305

 

50–59

259

148 ± 51

268 ± 202

487 ± 322

 

60–69

261

149 ± 53

300 ± 196

532 ± 312

 

70–79

245

144 ± 55

300 ± 219

525 ± 340

 

 South Africa

M

> 35

Rural

333

FFQ

34f

38f

62f

[41]

 

Urban

393

102f

61f

101f

 

F

> 35

Rural

633

33f

33f

52f

 
 

Urban

591

94f

46f

83f

 

aM male, F female

bMean or range

cFFQ food frequency questionnaire, DR diet record

dData are the mean ± SD without annotation. Original data are rounded to nearest mg

eMean ± SE

fMedian

gnd not described

hMedian of (EPA + DHA) is 70 mg/d

Table 4

Dietary survey of intake of ARA, EPA and DHA in adult humans (< 1000 participants by DR or 24-h recall)

Country

Participant

Dietary Surveyc

LCPUFA intake (mg/day)d

Ref.

Sexa

Age (y)b

Other classification

N

ARA

EPA

DHA

Bangladeshi

F

16–50

Mothers of children 2–4 y

455

24-h recall

40

30

30

[42]

Belgium

F

18–39

641

2-day DR

56 ± 47

78 ± 156

131 ± 247

[43]

Brazil

F

18–35

Pregnant women

41

24-h recall

90

0.2

20

[44]

China

F

27.0

Changzhou area

82

7-day DR

110 ± 40

50 ± 40

40 ± 60

[45]

27.8

Wenzhou area

20

140 ± 60

120 ± 130

180 ± 230

 

Japan

F

40–49

Spring season

71

7-day DR

134 ± 39

277 ± 13

755 ± 357

[46]

Korea

M

30–85

107

3-day DR

135 ± 161

279 ± 690

172 ± 1114

[28]

F

30–85

117

99 ± 116

159 ± 271

235 ± 1479

 

South Africa

F

32.8

Urban Northern Cape

83

24-h recall

97

33

54

[47]

32.9

Urban coastal Western Cape

81

105

36

67

 

34.8

Rural Limpopo Province

85

39

8

24

 

United States

M

49

Pakistan-origin

106

24-h recall

200 ± 700

30 ± 70

90 ± 20

[48]

49

India-origin

34

160 ± 140

10 ± 10

40 ± 40

 

46

Bangladesh-origin

34

200 ± 140

200 ± 30

300 ± 400

 

F

48

Pakistan-origin

117

200 ± 100

40 ± 100

100 ± 200

 

49

India-origin

37

100 ± 100

40 ± 100

70 ± 200

 

49

Bangladesh-origin

33

200 ± 100

300 ± 500

400 ± 800

 

aM male, F female

bMean or range

cFFQ food frequency questionnaire, DR diet record

dData are the mean ± SD or median. Original data are rounded to nearest mg

Second, with respect to dietary habits in individual countries, it is expected that ARA intake is associated with the amount of animal food intake. This is strongly suggested by the study of vegetarians, where the strictness of animal food avoidance is proportional to the decrease in ARA intake [37]. Although a similar situation may be infrequent in advanced countries, it may occur in developing countries. ARA intake was reported to be 33–34 [41] or 39 mg/day [47] in rural areas of South Africa, which is approximately one-third of that in respective urban areas. In any case, it is expected that additional high-quality nutritional data of dietary ARA intake in various countries and groups will accumulate.

ARA source by fermentation technique

Numerous studies for infant nutrition have clarified that DHA and ARA are present in breast milk, that infants themselves have only a weak ability to synthesize DHA and ARA endogenously from ALA and LA, and that addition of DHA and ARA to infant formula is preferred for development of infants [11, 12]. Fish oil is a good source for DHA, and has been used for an ingredient of infant formula. However, as described above, the contents of ARA are moderate in common foods. Since there was no practical source for ARA, a new ARA oil with high-quality was needed. In order to obtain oil with high ARA content for addition to infant formula, a microbial fermentation oil was developed in 1987 [55, 56]. The fungus Mortierella alpina accumulates large amounts of ARA-containing lipids in its cells [57], and an industrial production process for it has been established [58, 59]. This oil has been used for infant formula worldwide [60]. At the same time, ARA oil is now used for adult humans, especially the elderly, making it possible to investigate the physiological roles and efficacy of ARA [61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68].

Supplementation of ARA-containing lipids

Table 5 summarizes the clinical trials reporting changes in ARA composition of blood in adult humans with ARA supplementation [16, 17, 19, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74]. The ARA-containing lipids of M. alpina were used for ARA supplementation in all nine studies. The conditions of the trials are different from each other. Doses of ARA as free ARA were 82.8–3600 mg/day with or without DHA/EPA. Supplementation periods were from 14 days to 3 months. Fatty acid analyses were conducted using plasma phospholipids (PL) or red blood cells (RBC). Interestingly, the smallest dose of ARA (82.8 mg/day for 3 weeks) resulted in a significant increase of ARA composition in plasma PL and RBC [69]. The second smallest dose of ARA (120 mg/day for 4 weeks) with DHA/EPA (300/100 mg/kg) also increased ARA composition of plasma PL [16]. These doses of ARA are equal to or less than the standard dietary ARA intake (100–250 mg/day), as reviewed above. These data support that dietary ARA intake from daily foods should contribute to the increase or maintenance of plasma ARA composition, which may have been understated so far. All the doses of ARA increased blood ARA levels regardless of co-supplementation with DHA/EPA. Correlation between the dose of ARA supplementation and the change of plasma ARA composition is shown in Fig. 2. The increase in plasma ARA composition is dose-dependent over a range of 82–3600 mg/kg (r = 0.87).
Table 5

Increase of ARA composition in blood by ARA supplementation to adult humans

Participant

Supplementation

Samplec

LCPUFA composition in blood (%)d

Ref.

Sexa

Age (y)b

n

Oil

Dose (mg/day)

Period

ARA

DHA

 

ARA

EPA

DHA

Pre

Post

Change

Pre

Post

Change

 

F

18–23

23

ARA oil

82.8

0.2

0

3 weeks

Plasma PL

7.4 ± 0.8

nde

0.7 ± 0.8*

5.6 ± 0.8

nd

− 0.5 ± 0.7

[69]

23

Placebo

0

0

0

7.6 ± 1.1

nd

−0.4 ± 1.0

5.6 ± 1.0

nd

−0.5 ± 0.8

23

ARA oil

82.8

0.2

0

RBC

10.2 ± 0.8

nd

1.1 ± 0.4*

6.4 ± 0.5

nd

0.1 ± 0.4

23

Placebo

0

0

0

10.5 ± 0.8

nd

0.5 ± 0.3

6.5 ± 0.6

nd

0.0 ± 0.3

M

55–64

51

ARA oil + fish oil

120

100

300

4 weeks

Plasma PL

8.6 ± 0.2

9.3 ± 0.2#

0.7 ± 0.1*

7.0 ± 0.2

7.8 ± 0.2#

0.8 ± 0.2*

[16]

49

Placebo

0

0

0

8.9 ± 0.2

9.1 ± 0.2

0.2 ± 0.1

6.9 ± 0.2

7.2 ± 0.2

0.2 ± 0.1

M&F

65 ± 3

13

ARA oil + fish oil

240

0

240

3 months

RBC

8.8 ± 1.5

12.5 ± 1.4#

nd

6.0 ± 1.7

10.4 ± 1.3#

nd

[17]

65 ± 3

15

Placebo

0

0

0

10.0 ± 1.1

10.4 ± 1.2

nd

7.6 ± 2.2

8.5 ± 1.1

nd

M&F

56–70

8

ARA oil

700

0

0

12 weeks

Plasma PL

9.3 ± 0.4f,*#

17.2 ± 0.5f,*#

nd

3.7 ± 0.3f

3.7 ± 0.4f

nd

[70]

56–69

8

Placebo

0

0

0

8.6 ± 0.3f

9.0 ± 0.9f

nd

3.4 ± 0.4f

3.3 ± 0.4f

nd

M

55–70

22

ARA oil

720

0

0

4 weeks

Plasma PL

8.8 ± 1.3

14.3 ± 2.1#

nd

nd

nd

nd

[71]

22

ARA oil

240

0

0

8.6 ± 0.9

11.2 ± 1.5#

nd

nd

nd

nd

20

Placebo

0

0

0

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

nd

M

26–60

12

ARA oil

838

0

0

4 weeks

Plasma PL

9.6 ± 0.4

13.9 ± 0.4*#

nd

7.7 ± 0.3

7.4 ± 0.3

nd

[72]

12

Placebo

0

0

0

  

9.5 ± 0.4

9.3 ± 0.4

nd

8.6 ± 0.4

8.4 ± 0.4

nd

 

M

20–39

10

ARA oil

1500

0

0

50 days

Plasma PL

nd

19.0g,*

nd

nd

nd

nd

[73]

10

Placebo

0

0

0

nd

10.3g

nd

nd

nd

nd

M&F

67 ± 2.4

15

ARA oil

2000

0

0

8 weeks

Plasma PL

8.5 ± 0.6

13.1 ± 1.0#

nd

nd

nd

nd

[19]

62 ± 2.3

15

Placebo

0

0

0

8.4 ± 0.6

8.0 ± 0.4

nd

nd

nd

nd

67 ± 2.4

15

ARA oil

2000

0

0

RBC

13.8 ± 1.1

14.8 ± 0.9#

nd

nd

nd

nd

62 ± 2.3

15

Placebo

0

0

0

10.3 ± 0.8

12.2 ± 0.9

nd

nd

nd

nd

M

19–39

8

ARA oil + algal oil

3600

0

2900

14 days

Plasma PL

nd

24.7 ± 1.5f,††††

nd

nd

6.1 ± 0.3f,††††

nd

[74]

19–39

8

ARA oil + algal oil

2200

0

1700

nd

19.9 ± 1.5f,†††

nd

nd

5.3 ± 0.5f,†††

nd

19–39

8

ARA oil + algal oil

800

0

600

nd

15.0 ± 1.6f,††

nd

nd

3.4 ± 0.4f,††

nd

19–39

8

Placebo

0

0

0

nd

12.7 ± 2.0f,†

nd

nd

2.2 ± 0.4f,†

nd

*significant difference at p < 0.05 vs. the placebo group

#significant difference at p < 0.05 vs. the pre-value

†,††,†††,††††Values with different number of daggers are significantly different at p < 0.05

aM male, F female

bMean ± SD or range

cPL phospholipids, RBC red blood cells

dData are the mean ± SD without annotation

end not described

fMean ± SE

gMean

Fig. 2

Correlation between the dose of ARA supplementation and the change of plasma ARA composition. The change of plasma ARA composition was calculated from Table 5. Neither the number of participants, supplementation period nor the existence or non-existence of DHA/EPA was taken into account. Data from individual studies are indicated with the same symbol

ARA supplementation does not result in decreased DHA/EPA composition as shown in Table 5. DHA/EPA composition was unchanged by 700 mg [70] or 838 mg [72] of ARA per day. In the same manner, 240 and 720 mg [71] or 1500 mg [73] of ARA per day did not change DHA/EPA composition. In contrast, it is well known that ARA composition is decreased by DHA/EPA supplementation [75, 76]. Interestingly, it is commonly observed that ARA supplementation results in large decreases in LA composition [71, 72, 73, 74]. It appears that the capacity for exchange or retention in the body is in the following order DHA/EPA > ARA > LA. The substrate specificities of various acyl transfer reactions are thought to be related to this phenomenon; however, the details are unclear. It is important to consider the mechanism of LCPUFA metabolism, which requires further clarification.

Conclusion

This review of dietary surveys of ARA intake indicates that ARA is obtained from a wide variety of animal foods, such as meat, poultry, egg, fish and dairy foods, and that the amount of ARA intake is 100–250 mg/day in advanced counties. Meanwhile, ARA intake may be in the tens of mg/day in developing countries. The review also demonstrates that ARA supplementation (82 or 120 mg/day for 3–4 weeks) at a dose equal to or less than the dietary ARA intake increases plasma ARA composition; that plasma ARA composition is ARA dose-dependently increased in the range of 82–3600 mg/day; and that ARA supplementation decreases plasma LA composition, but not DHA/EPA composition. ARA intake from foods or supplementation is thought to have a great impact on LCPUFA metabolism. The continued accumulation of evidence from large and well-designed dietary surveys and clinical trials is expected to confirm this.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The author is grateful to Institute for Health Care Science, Suntory Wellness Ltd., for scientific suggestion to carry out this work.

Funding

This study received no external funding.

Availability of data and materials

Not applicable.

Author’s contributions

The author read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

HK is an employee of the Suntory Holdings Group.

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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Institute, Suntory Global Innovation Center Ltd.SeikaJapan

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