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Lipids in Health and Disease

, 17:282 | Cite as

Fatty acids characterization and oxidative stability of spray dried designer egg powder

  • Amna Javed
  • Muhammad ImranEmail author
  • Nazir Ahmad
  • Abdullah Ijaz Hussain
Open Access
Research
  • 214 Downloads

Abstract

Background

Designer eggs (DEs) have gained positive importance in maintaining cholesterol level, triglyceride profile and protection towards cardiovascular diseases due to the presence of essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids. However, extreme heat conditions effect the quality as well as quantity of EFAs during the production of designer egg dried powder (DEDP). Therefore, the main mandate of research was the development of DEDP and determination of spray drying conditions impact on fatty acids composition of DEDP samples.

Methods

The DEs were produced, collected, de-shelled, homogenized and diluted before spray drying to get fine powder. The spray drying of DEs was carried out using a laboratory spray drier. An experimental design was used for the drying parameters, where the inlet air temperature was varied (160, 180 and 200 °C), feed flow rate (200, 300 and 400 mL/hr), atomization speed (16,000, 20,000 and 24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) at different levels. For convenience of experimental design coding was used. The DEDP was collected in a single cyclone separator and was stored after packaging for consecutive 2 months at 25 °C and 4 °C, respectively. The powder yield was calculated from the collected dry mass in the collecting vessel divided by the processed whole egg diluted matter. The total lipids of DEDP samples were determined gravimetrically. The esters of fatty acids in each sample were prepared and analyzed through Gas Chromatograph apparatus. The oxidative stability of DEDP samples was estimated by following standard procedure of peroxide value.

Results

The powder yield of DEDP as a result of different operating conditions was found in the range of 30.06 ± 0.22 g/500 mL to 62.10 ± 0.46 g/500 mL DEs sample. The decreasing trend in moisture content (4.4 ± 0.16% towards 4.0 ± 0.09%) and total fat content (45 ± 0.65 g/100 g towards 41 ± 0.35 g/100 g) in DEDP samples was observed with increased inlet and outlet temperature while fat content increased at high feed flow rate and atomization speed. In this study, loss of PUFAs in DEDP samples was followed due to their active role regarding to human health. For alpha-linolenic (ALA) fatty acids, maximum value at 4 °C observed was 127.32 ± 0.27 mg/50 g egg and 124.43 ± 0.32 mg/50 g egg while the minimum value observed for ALA was 100.15 ± 0.09 mg/50 g egg and 97.15 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg after 30 and 60 days storage, respectively. The significant decrease trend for eicosapentaenoic (EPA) fatty acids values from 11.78 ± 0.31 mg/50 g egg to 2.18 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg at 25 °C under spray dried conditions of inlet air temperature (180 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (80 °C) after 60 days storage period was noted. The docosahexaenoic (DHA) fatty acids value in DEDP was decreased from 15.49 ± 0.79 mg/50 g egg (0 day) to 10.10 ± 0.64 mg/50 g egg at 60 days (4 °C) and same decreasing trend was observed at 25 °C. The decreasing order for total omega-3 fatty acids retention in DEDP during storage intervals was found as 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 158.61 ± 1.53 mg/50 g egg > 148.03 ± 1.57 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 4 °C) and 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 151.56 ± 1.54 mg/50 g egg > 135.89 ± 1.62 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 25 °C). The peroxide value (PV) levels obtained in DEDP samples after 60 days were higher (0.78 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.02 meq/kg O2) when compared to initial readings at 0 day (0.65 ± 0.04 meq/kg O2). The PV of DEDP samples reached their maximum peaks after 60 days at 25 °C. The increasing order showed that lipid oxidation increased with storage. However, the overall PV never exceeded the limit of 10 (meq/kg) considered as a threshold limit.

Conclusions

Extreme hot conditions (> 180 °C) of spray dryer reduce the quality of designer egg dry powder. Extreme conditions assist PUFAs loss and decrease in storage stability due to high lipid oxidation.

Keywords

Lipid oxidation Storage stability Fatty acids profile Omega eggs Spray drying 

Background

Lipids are considered an important component of food as well as most biological systems. Mostly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids biosynthesized in the body, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) must be provided through the diet or other sources for maintenance of health [1, 2]. PUFAs poses biological and medicinal interest due to multiple beneficial effects on health, including anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anticancer activities etc. [3, 4, 5]. The designer eggs (DEs) are widely used regarding to human health in providing various essential fatty acids (EFAs) such as omega-3 (or) n-3 fatty acids; Alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA): C18:3n-3, Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA):C20:5n-3 and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA):C22:6n-3. DEs show beneficial effects regarding to improve the blood concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and high-density lipoproteins [6].

However, lipid oxidation negatively affects the integrity of biological systems and causes quality deterioration in food. The oxidative instability possesses objectionable off-flavors, loss of nutrients and bioactives that leads to formation of potentially toxic compounds, thus making the lipid or lipid containing foods unsuitable for human health [7]. Destructive irreversible cellular and tissue effects, pathophysiology of numerous diseases and variety of health conditions including inflammation, mutagenesis, atherosclerosis, carcinogenesis and aging process are associated with fatty acid oxidation products in human foods [8, 9, 10].

Spray drying is a suspended-particle technology which has a wide range of applications in mostly food, pharmaceutical and biotech industry. In spray drying process, a liquid droplet is rapidly dried, when it comes into contact with a stream of hot air (temperature range from 100 to 300 °C) and convert it into powder form [11]. Spray drying produces powder with good handling, easiness in transportation and highly functional in nature [12, 13, 14, 15, 16]. Moreover, dried egg and egg products drive the product manufacture’s attention for ready to use in baked, soups and meat products. The spray dried egg powder has been suggested to be the easily digestible and good source of nutrients from egg products [17]. A comprehensive literature search reported that no significant research has been done on the optimization of the spray drying parameters to produce highest quality designer egg dried powder (DEDP). The present study was undertaken to optimize the spray drying process under different ranges of inlet air temperature, feed flow rate, atomization speed and outlet air temperature to have maximum retention of PUFAs at the different storage periods and temperatures.

Methods

Raw materials

The raw materials such as chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) and other cereal grains were procured from grains commercial market, Punjab, Pakistan. The seeds were cleaned to remove any debris or field dirt and any other extraneous matters. The menhaden fish oil was obtained from commercial fish processing industry, Punjab, Pakistan.

Diet composition and feeding trial

The feeding trial was conducted on medium-heavy Leghorn layers (20 weeks old; uniform weight) in wire-mesh pens of commercial poultry house, Punjab, Pakistan. The birds were used to keep in 17 h light and 7 h dark day. All hens were fed on control diet from 20th week of their age before the trial which was helpful for baseline data. The temperature 25 ± 2 °C and humidity 70 ± 5% remained constant throughout the eight experimental weeks. The Leghorn layers were randomly distributed into control and designer feed treatments of 40 layers each. Each bird activity was observed on daily basis. Routine vaccination and medication were conducted as management suggested. The feed ingredient profile for control and designer eggs production has been presented in Table 1. The mixed crumble feed was produced weekly and packed in air tight feed bins to avoid oxidation and moisture build up and placed in dark cooled room to minimize the exposure to environment. The DEs were produced and collected after 8 weeks of feeding trial.
Table 1

Feed ingredient profile for control and designer eggs production

Treatment

Feed Ingredients (g/100 g)b

Corn

Wheat

Rice polishing

Canola meal

Flaxseed

Chia seed

Fish oil

Gluten (60%)

Soybean meal

Vegetablea oil

Dicalcium phosphate

Lime stone (ground)

Vitamin/mineral premix

Control feedc

35

5

15

15

5

8

8

1.5

7

0.5

Designer feedc

35

10

8

9

5

10

1

3

8

2

1.5

7

0.5

aCottonseed oil

bCrumble form of feed

cIsocaloric feeds

Sample preparation

The DEs (n = 600) were cautiously de-shelled and whole egg liquid (n = 20) for each treatment was collected in a graduated cylinder. Water was added to the whole egg liquid (60% protein: 40% yolk) and mixed well to make a fine dilution. The concentration of this continuous dilution was 1:1 ratio. Thereafter, homogenization of egg sample was carried out using a homogenizer. A sifting was conducted to eliminate the chalazas and the suspended matter. The whole egg sample was diluted before spray drying to get fine powder [18].

Spray drying procedure

A laboratory spray drier No. 1 (Anhydro A/S, Ostmarken 8, DK-2860 Soborg, Copenhagen, Denmark) was used in this study. The schematic diagram of the lab-scale spray dryer is demonstrated in Fig. 1. The internal diameter of representative spray dryer was 1.0 m and 2.6 m were height. The upper cylindrical portion of the unit is 1.3 m in height, and the lower conical section has a height of 1.3 m. The maximum inlet and outlet temperatures are 300 and 90 °C, respectively. Maximum atomizer speed is 50,000 rpm which is obtained by the power supply 0.736 kW electric motor. Air is heated by air heater using a power of 9 kW with compressed air consumption of 120 l/min and compressed air pressure of 4 kg/cm2 [19]. An experimental design was used for the drying parameters, where the inlet air temperature was varied (160, 180 and 200 °C), feed flow rate (200, 300 and 400 mL/hr), atomization speed (16,000, 20,000 and 24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) at different levels. For convenience of experimental design coding was used which is presented in Table 2. The designer egg dried powder (DEDP) from each treatment (500 mL) was collected in a single cyclone separator and was stored at 25 °C and 4 °C, respectively after packaging for consecutive 2 months.
Fig. 1

The schematic diagram of the lab-scale spray dryer

Table 2

Coded and actual levels of independent variables for optimization of response factors as determined by Box-Behnken design

Independent variables

Units

Coded levels

–1

0

+ 1

Inlet air temperature

°C

160

180

200

Feed flow rate

mL/hr

200

300

400

Atomization speed

rpm

16,000

20,000

24,000

Outlet air temperature

°C

60

70

80

Powder yield, total fat and fatty acids composition of DEDP

The powder yield was calculated from the collected dry mass in the collecting vessel divided by the processed whole egg diluted matter. The total lipids of DEDP samples were determined gravimetrically according to the AOAC [20] Method No. 923.07. The esters of fatty acids in each sample were prepared and analyzed through Gas Chromatograph apparatus equipped with an auto sampler, flame-ionization detector (FID) and supelco wax column (30 m × 0.25 μm film coating) according to AOCS [21]. Briefly, transferred 1 g DEDP sample to the screw capped tube (16 X 150 mm). Added 10 mL hexane containing 0.1% BHT (an antioxidant to help prevent the peroxidation of fatty acid containing double bonds). Caped the tube tightly and shaked vigorously for 1 min. Then put in ultrasonic water bath for 5 min. Centrifuged the tube at 1500 X g for 5 min. Put up the experimental tubes into a heating block heated to 60 °C and a stream of nitrogen gas was blown into the tube to facilitate evaporation of the hexane. Toluene (1 mL) was added to 50 mg of sample in a screw top test tube. Subsequently, 2 mL of boron trichloride–methanol solution was added and the mixture was flushed with nitrogen gas for 10 s and heated in a water bath at 60 °C for 10 min. Once cooled, water (2 mL) and hexane (2 mL) were added into the test tube and shaken lightly to extract the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). Anhydrous sodium sulfate was added to the hexane extracts to remove moisture then the anhydrous hexane extracts were transferred into a 10 mL volumetric flask and filled to volume with hexane. The moisture removal step was carried out twice to ensure maximum extraction of FAMEs from the oil. FAMEs were then analyzed by gas chromatography. The FAMEs samples (1 μL) were injected with Helium (1 mL/min) as a carrier gas onto the column, which was programmed for operating conditions such as column oven temperature 160 °C @ 0 min with subsequent increase of 3 °C/min until 180 °C. The column oven temperature was increased from 180 °C to 220 °C @ 1 °C/min and was held for 7.5 min at 220 °C. Split ratio was 50% with injector 240 °C and detector 250 °C temperatures. The peak areas and total fatty acids composition were calculated for each sample by retention time using Varian Chem Station software.

Peroxide value of DEDP

The peroxide value of DEDP samples was estimated by following the AOCS standard procedure (Method No. Cd 8–53) [21].

Statistical analysis

The analysis of experiments was carried out according to Montgomery [22]. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and the average values were taken as response. The significance of all terms was analyzed statistically by computing mean square at probability (p) of 0.05 using MATLAB® (Ver. 7.9.0) software (Mathworks, Inc., Natick, USA).

Results and discussion

The fatty acids analysis of poultry control and designer feed has been documented in Table 3. In this study, the effects of spray-drying conditions were majorly investigated (Inlet and outlet air temperatures, feed flow rate and atomization pressure) on powder yield along with retention of PUFAs. The powder yield of DEDP as a result of different operating conditions was found in the range of 30.06 ± 0.22 g/500 mL to 62.10 ± 0.46 g/500 mL DEs samples (Fig. 2). The inlet temperature, outlet temperature and the atomization speed were the most major factors affecting the powder yield of DEDP. The results showed that the powder yield decreased with increasing inlet temperature, outlet temperature and the atomization speed. The optimized conditions of inlet air temperature (198–199 °C), feed flow rate (398–399 mL/hr), atomization speed (16000–16,010 rpm) and outlet air temperature (76–77 °C) were found for maximum yield of DEDP samples (66.20 ± 0.20 g/500 mL).
Table 3

Fatty acids analysis of poultry control and designer feed

Treatment

Fatty acids (% of TFAa)

Palmitic

Stearic

Oleic

Linoleic

Linolenic

Arachidonic

Eicosapentaenoic

Docosahexaenoic

Control feed

12.76

15.48

28.33

37.57

2.41

0.5

0.34

0.06

Designer feed

8.33

10.89

23.12

39.45

10.64

0.25

1.44

0.72

aTotal fatty acids

Fig. 2

Impact of Spray drying conditions on powder yield in designer egg dried powder

The spray drying variables caused substantial changes in the whole egg powder yield shown by the previous studies. Same results concluded by Bahnasawy et al. [19] that the powder yield decreased slightly with increasing both atomization speed and drying temperature for all blends under study. These results may be due to production of DEDP with fine particles structure at higher temperature and speed conditions and these conditions force the very fine particles to go out with exhaust air. Atomizer is the heart of spray drying process that disperses material into precise particles so that surface area of the liquid material is increased. In this way, material is dispersed well within the dryer chamber. After atomization, the droplets produced should not be very huge as that condition developed partially dried powder and even nor so tiny in size or structure as that leads to difficulty in recovery of DEDP samples. The final shape and kind of dried powder product depends on the chemical and physical properties of the liquid material, dryer design and operative parameters [11, 23].

The trend in decrease of moisture content was observed with increase in conditions. The decreasing trend in moisture content was found from 4.4 ± 0.16% (highest value) towards 4.0 ± 0.09% (lowest value) in DEDP samples with changes in operating conditions especially inlet and outlet temperature. At the same time increased moisture content was detected at high feed flow rate. The data trend also showed that moisture content was inversely proportional to atomization speed of spray dryer. In a similar way, the total fat content decreased from 45 ± 0.65 g/100 g (highest value) to 41 ± 0.35 g/100 g (lowest value) in DEDP samples with increased inlet and outlet temperature while fat content increased at high feed flow rate and atomization speed.

The normal eggs possessed the ALA (0.78 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg), EPA (0.11 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg), DHA (0.14 ± 0.07 mg/50 g egg) and PV (0.324 meq/kg O2), respectively. Whereas, the designer eggs before spray drying process contained ALA (130.23 ± 0.28 mg/50 g egg), EPA (15.10 ± 0.37 mg/50 g egg), DHA (20.17 ± 0.67 mg/50 g egg), total omega-3 fatty acids (165.50 ± 2.21 mg/50 g egg) and PV (0.418 meq/kg O2), respectively. In this study, loss of PUFAs was followed due to their active role regarding to human health.

To check the reliability of fatty acid retention in DEDP, it was determined in 29 DEDP samples for 30 and 60 storage days at two different temperatures likewise 4 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The results demonstrated that the contents of alpha-linolenic fatty acids were not stable under variable storage intervals at different conditions (Table 4). The inlet air temperature and outlet air temperature were seen to be as major factors affecting the essential fatty acids content in samples. The alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids contents decreased significantly on storage at higher temperature as compared to lower temperature under different conditions. For alpha-linolenic fatty acids, maximum value at 4 °C observed was 127.32 ± 0.27 mg/50 g egg and 124.43 ± 0.32 mg/50 g egg (spray drying run 22) while the minimum value observed for ALA was 100.15 ± 0.09 mg/50 g egg and 97.15 ± 0.06 mg/50 g egg after 30 and 60 days, respectively. The changes calculated for ALA was 21.98% (at 4 °C after 30 days), 24.32% (at 4 °C after 60 days), 24.01% (at 25 °C after 30 days) and 27.80% (at 25 °C after 60 days), respectively.
Table 4

Impact of Spray drying conditions on alpha-linolenic fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals

Spray dryer process run

Independent variables

ALA (mg/50 g egg)

Inlet air temperature (°C)

Feed flow rate (mL/hr)

Atomization speed (rpm)

Outlet temperature (°C)

0 Day

Storage at Temperature 4 °C

Storage at Temperature 25 °C

30 Days

60 Days

30 Days

60 Days

1

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

127.57 ± 0.46ab

126.22 ± 0.41b

123.05 ± 0.44cd

123.12 ± 0.42cd

118.52 ± 0.41ef

2

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

118.81 ± 0.70ef

117.34 ± 0.62f

114.33 ± 0.61gh

114.25 ± 0.62gh

109.55 ± 0.67j

3

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

80 (+ 1)

116.58 ± 0.47fg

117.19 ± 0.44f

114.14 ± 0.47gh

112.37 ± 0.41hi

107.53 ± 0.44k

4

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

125.67 ± 0.54bc

124.05 ± 0.44c

121.76 ± 0.62d

121.53 ± 0.42d

116.43 ± 0.31fg

5

180 (0)

200 (−1)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

118.30 ± 0.19ef

117.04 ± 0.13f

114.75 ± 0.15gh

114.21 ± 0.14gh

109.51 ± 0.16j

6

160 (−1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

114.75 ± 0.61gh

113.66 ± 0.51h

110.45 ± 0.34ij

110.55 ± 0.43ij

105.87 ± 0.75l

7(C1)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

114.82 ± 0.70gh

113.55 ± 0.45h

110.76 ± 0.61ij

110.72 ± 0.67ij

105.01 ± 0.52l

8(C2)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

114.68 ± 0.54gh

113.35 ± 0.24h

110.41 ± 0.32ij

110.42 ± 0.31ij

105.42 ± 0.34l

9

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

60 (−1)

115.97 ± 0.87g

114.72 ± 0.61gh

111.95 ± 0.82i

111.32 ± 0.24i

106.45 ± 0.35kl

10

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

101.19 ± 0.12n

100.15 ± 0.09no

97.15 ± 0.06p

97.55 ± 0.08p

92.68 ± 0.13s

11(C3)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

114.76 ± 0.69gh

113.65 ± 0.53h

110.22 ± 0.54ij

110.01 ± 0.51ij

105.03 ± 0.42l

12(C4)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

114.75 ± 0.63gh

113.64 ± 0.57h

110.33 ± 0.64ij

110.43 ± 0.37ij

105.56 ± 0.46l

13

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

106.03 ± 0.31kl

105.44 ± 0.32l

102.55 ± 0.40mn

102.21 ± 0.22mn

97.56 ± 0.42p

14

200 (+ 1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

111.19 ± 0.49i

110.05 ± 0.43ij

107.61 ± 0.53k

107.31 ± 0.28k

102.61 ± 0.52mn

15

160 (−1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

124.61 ± 0.54c

123.55 ± 0.41cd

120.75 ± 0.65de

120.62 ± 0.56de

115.45 ± 0.38g

16

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

113.95 ± 0.84h

112.65 ± 0.54hi

109.74 ± 0.61j

109.32 ± 0.57j

104.33 ± 0.67lm

17

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

115.57 ± 0.43g

114.12 ± 0.35gh

111.32 ± 0.28i

111.46 ± 0.37i

106.78 ± 0.63kl

18

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

102.68 ± 0.63mn

101.62 ± 0.52n

98.33 ± 0.29op

98.63 ± 0.50op

93.98 ± 0.47r

19

160 (−1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

117.87 ± 0.71f

116.11 ± 0.64fg

113.55 ± 0.42h

113.15 ± 0.38h

108.09 ± 0.42jk

20

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

125.70 ± 0.62bc

124.62 ± 0.51c

121.32 ± 0.46d

121.43 ± 0.32d

116.35 ± 0.27fg

21

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

80 (+ 1)

103.92 ± 0.74m

102.01 ± 0.61mn

99.73 ± 0.66o

99.59 ± 0.46o

94.67 ± 0.54qr

22

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

60 (− 1)

128.37 ± 0.28a

127.32 ± 0.27ab

124.43 ± 0.32c

124.43 ± 0.31c

119.87 ± 0.41e

23

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

112.25 ± 0.72hi

111.95 ± 0.84i

108.11 ± 0.65jk

108.55 ± 0.47jk

103.34 ± 0.59m

24

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

127.47 ± 0.38ab

126.33 ± 0.24b

123.64 ± 0.45cd

123.78 ± 0.33cd

118.75 ± 0.42ef

25(C5)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

114.13 ± 0.20gh

113.01 ± 0.24h

110.01 ± 0.23ij

110.54 ± 0.37ij

105.34 ± 0.29l

26

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

114.88 ± 0.51gh

113.22 ± 0.44h

110.21 ± 0.33ij

110.43 ± 0.36ij

105.33 ± 0.21l

27

180 (0)

200 (−1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

105.01 ± 0.22l

104.00 ± 0.21lm

101.04 ± 0.32n

101.34 ± 0.29n

96.34 ± 0.23pq

28

200 (+ 1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

104.82 ± 0.56lm

103.54 ± 0.47m

100.23 ± 0.51no

100.32 ± 0.57no

95.96 ± 0.63q

29

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

114.19 ± 0.12gh

113.12 ± 0.15h

110.21 ± 0.16ij

110.65 ± 0.25ij

105.33 ± 0.29l

C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points

Experimental model = Box-Behnken design

Total number of spray drying treatments = 29

No of replicates = 03

a-svalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05)

The trend for effects of various storage time intervals for eicosapentaenoic fatty acids is shown in Table 5. The minimum value for EPA observed was 10.02 ± 0.21 mg/50 g egg under four factors of spray drier i.e. inlet air temperature (200 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (20,000 rpm), outlet air temperature (80 °C) stored at 4 °C after 30 days of storage. The EPA trend showed that significant decrease 11.78 ± 0.31 mg/50 g egg to 2.18 ± 0.14 mg/50 g egg at 25 °C under spray drier factors inlet air temperature (180 °C), feed flow rate (300 mL/hr), atomization speed (24,000 rpm) and outlet air temperature (80 °C) after 60 days storage period. The EPA changes were 31.13% (at 4 °C after 30 days), 61.64% (at 4 °C after 60 days), 51.89% (at 25 °C after 30 days) and 85.01% (at 25 °C after 60 days), respectively.
Table 5

Impact of Spray drying conditions on eicosapentaenoic fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals

Spray dryer process run

Independent variables

EPA (mg/50 g egg)

Inlet air temperature (°C)

Feed flow rate (mL/hr)

Atomization speed (rpm)

Outlet temperature (°C)

0 Day

Storage at Temperature 4 °C

Storage at Temperature 25 °C

30 Days

60 Days

30 Days

60 Days

1

160 (−1)

300 (0)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

14.51 ± 0.46a

13.22 ± 0.41ab

9.76 ± 0.41cd

10.92 ± 0.41c

5.14 ± 0.44ef

2

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

13.55 ± 0.38ab

12.15 ± 0.35b

8.81 ± 0.35d

9.91 ± 0.35cd

4.75 ± 0.32f

3

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

80 (+ 1)

13.22 ± 0.34ab

12.11 ± 0.32b

8.40 ± 0.32d

9.84 ± 0.32cd

4.72 ± 0.31f

4

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

14.25 ± 0.41a

13.05 ± 0.40ab

9.42 ± 0.40cd

10.89 ± 0.40c

5.69 ± 0.34ef

5

180 (0)

200 (−1)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

13.45 ± 0.39ab

12.19 ± 0.35b

5.58 ± 0.35ef

9.86 ± 0.35cd

4.88 ± 0.32f

6

160 (−1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

13.05 ± 0.33ab

12.00 ± 0.31b

8.82 ± 0.31d

9.00 ± 0.31cd

4.75 ± 0.29f

7(C1)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

13.09 ± 0.34ab

12.03 ± 0.32b

8.86 ± 0.32d

9.74 ± 0.32cd

4.65 ± 0.30f

8(C2)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

13.10 ± 0.38ab

12.15 ± 0.37b

8.87 ± 0.37d

9.72 ± 0.37cd

4.61 ± 0.31f

9

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

60 (−1)

13.05 ± 0.39ab

12.11 ± 0.35b

8.83 ± 0.35d

9.82 ± 0.35cd

4.67 ± 0.38f

10

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

11.53 ± 0.29bc

10.05 ± 0.21c

6.90 ± 0.21e

7.99 ± 0.21de

2.91 ± 0.27g

11(C3)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

13.11 ± 0.33ab

12.18 ± 0.30b

8.81 ± 0.30d

9.91 ± 0.30cd

4.62 ± 0.29f

12(C4)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

13.12 ± 0.38ab

12.11 ± 0.33b

8.82 ± 0.33d

9.92 ± 0.33cd

4.63 ± 0.31f

13

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

12.15 ± 0.28b

11.09 ± 0.22bc

7.11 ± 0.22de

8.00 ± 0.22d

3.89 ± 0.18fg

14

200 (+ 1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

12.72 ± 0.26b

11.18 ± 0.20bc

7.71 ± 0.20de

8.82 ± 0.20d

3.35 ± 0.23fg

15

160 (−1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

14.25 ± 0.45a

13.03 ± 0.41ab

9.15 ± 0.41cd

10.45 ± 0.41c

5.88 ± 0.28ef

16

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

12.93 ± 0.29b

11.53 ± 0.21bc

7.35 ± 0.21de

8.83 ± 0.21d

3.37 ± 0.32fg

17

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

13.24 ± 0.35ab

12.06 ± 0.33b

8.34 ± 0.33d

9.91 ± 0.33cd

4.67 ± 0.39f

18

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

11.75 ± 0.27bc

10.02 ± 0.21c

6.98 ± 0.21e

7.11 ± 0.21de

2.29 ± 0.15g

19

160 (−1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

13.45 ± 0.39ab

12.19 ± 0.31b

8.31 ± 0.31d

9.91 ± 0.31cd

4.22 ± 0.21f

20

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

14.26 ± 0.42a

13.10 ± 0.40ab

9.34 ± 0.40cd

10.13 ± 0.40c

5.67 ± 0.23ef

21

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

80 (+ 1)

11.78 ± 0.31bc

10.35 ± 0.28c

6.70 ± 0.28e

7.00 ± 0.28de

2.18 ± 0.14g

22

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

60 (− 1)

14.55 ± 0.46a

13.10 ± 0.37ab

9.59 ± 0.37cd

10.33 ± 0.37c

5.91 ± 0.27ef

23

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

12.72 ± 0.34b

11.31 ± 0.32bc

7.93 ± 0.32de

8.82 ± 0.32d

3.89 ± 0.30fg

24

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

14.55 ± 0.41a

13.13 ± 0.38ab

9.83 ± 0.38cd

10.81 ± 0.38c

5.86 ± 0.25ef

25(C5)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

13.08 ± 0.33ab

12.14 ± 0.30b

8.85 ± 0.30d

9.71 ± 0.30cd

4.51 ± 0.21f

26

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

13.05 ± 0.37ab

12.31 ± 0.31b

8.01 ± 0.31d

9.09 ± 0.31cd

4.42 ± 0.28f

27

180 (0)

200 (−1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

11.95 ± 0.29bc

10.72 ± 0.22c

6.02 ± 0.22e

7.22 ± 0.22de

2.39 ± 0.11g

28

200 (+ 1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

11.94 ± 0.32bc

10.70 ± 0.29c

6.00 ± 0.29e

7.73 ± 0.29de

2.26 ± 0.19g

29

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

13.05 ± 0.36ab

12.10 ± 0.31b

8.11 ± 0.31d

9.71 ± 0.31cd

4.54 ± 0.36f

C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points

Experimental model = Box-Behnken design

Total number of spray drying treatments = 29

No of replicates = 03

a-gvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05)

The minimum values for DEDP samples regarding to retention of docosahexaenoic fatty acids stored at two different storage temperatures 4 °C and 25 °C observed at the same spray drier conditions (0, 30 and 60 days) as shown in Table 6. The DHA value in DEDP was decreased from 15.49 ± 0.79 mg/50 g egg (0 day) to 10.10 ± 0.64 mg/50 g egg at 60 days (4 °C) and same decreasing trend was observed at 25 °C. The trend in percent changes calculated for EPA was 8.26% (at 4 °C after 30 days), 34.79% (at 4 °C after 60 days), 27.88% (at 25 °C after 30 days) and 61.20% (at 25 °C after 60 days), respectively. The decreasing order for total omega-3 fatty acids retention in DEDP obtained by keeping spray drier factors (i.e. inlet air temperature and feed flow rate at medium level whereas atomization and outlet air temperature at minimum level) during storage intervals was found 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 158.61 ± 1.53 mg/50 g egg > 148.03 ± 1.57 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 4 °C) and 162.33 ± 1.64 mg/50 g egg > 151.56 ± 1.54 mg/50 g egg > 135.89 ± 1.62 mg/50 g egg (0, 30 and 60 days stored at 25 °C) (Table 7).
Table 6

Impact of Spray drying conditions on docosahexaenoic fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals

Spray dryer process run

Independent variables

DHA (mg/50 g egg)

Inlet air temperature (°C)

Feed flow rate (mL/hr)

Atomization speed (rpm)

Outlet temperature (°C)

0 Day

Storage at Temperature 4 °C

Storage at Temperature 25 °C

30 Days

60 Days

30 Days

60 Days

1

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

19.46 ± 0.88a

18.21 ± 0.81ab

14.15 ± 0.79cd

15.15 ± 0.79c

10.45 ± 0.73ef

2

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

60 (− 1)

18.07 ± 0.85ab

17.85 ± 0.71b

13.65 ± 0.70d

14.65 ± 0.70cd

9.63 ± 0.71f

3

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

80 (+ 1)

17.62 ± 0.79b

16.40 ± 0.74bc

12.35 ± 0.71de

13.55 ± 0.71d

8.55 ± 0.67fg

4

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

19.32 ± 0.72a

18.20 ± 0.69ab

14.11 ± 0.63cd

15.22 ± 0.63c

10.76 ± 0.64ef

5

180 (0)

200 (−1)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

18.45 ± 0.73ab

17.21 ± 0.68b

13.18 ± 0.61d

14.00 ± 0.61cd

9.67 ± 0.65f

6

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

17.42 ± 0.81b

16.12 ± 0.78bc

12.02 ± 0.75de

13.51 ± 0.75d

8.45 ± 0.71fg

7(C1)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

17.44 ± 0.80b

16.11 ± 0.71bc

12.01 ± 0.70de

13.59 ± 0.70d

8.41 ± 0.63fg

8(C2)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

17.46 ± 0.78b

16.13 ± 0.72bc

12.03 ± 0.71de

13.58 ± 0.71d

8.66 ± 0.71fg

9

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

60 (−1)

17.48 ± 0.82b

16.18 ± 0.74bc

12.09 ± 0.75de

13.52 ± 0.75d

8.72 ± 0.72fg

10

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

15.49 ± 0.79c

14.21 ± 0.69cd

10.10 ± 0.64ef

11.17 ± 0.64e

6.01 ± 0.63h

11(C3)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

17.41 ± 0.83b

16.15 ± 0.81bc

12.04 ± 0.88de

13.49 ± 0.88d

8.58 ± 0.81fg

12(C4)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

17.43 ± 0.77b

16.19 ± 0.70bc

12.11 ± 0.73de

13.33 ± 0.73d

8.49 ± 0.73fg

13

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

16.27 ± 0.84bc

15.00 ± 0.72c

11.85 ± 0.81e

12.89 ± 0.81de

7.54 ± 0.82g

14

200 (+ 1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

17.08 ± 0.76b

16.22 ± 0.71bc

12.66 ± 0.73de

13.77 ± 0.73d

8.09 ± 0.71fg

15

160 (−1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

19.11 ± 0.72a

18.35 ± 0.70ab

14.63 ± 0.71cd

15.79 ± 0.71c

10.00 ± 0.72ef

16

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

17.23 ± 0.85b

16.01 ± 0.88bc

12.89 ± 0.83de

13.91 ± 0.83d

8.55 ± 0.83fg

17

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

17.65 ± 0.78b

16.39 ± 0.72bc

12.21 ± 0.76de

13.41 ± 0.76d

8.68 ± 0.75fg

18

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

15.62 ± 0.86c

14.39 ± 0.82cd

10.23 ± 0.85ef

11.81 ± 0.85e

6.58 ± 0.84h

19

160 (−1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

18.10 ± 0.89ab

17.90 ± 0.83b

13.59 ± 0.84d

14.73 ± 0.84cd

9.55 ± 0.82f

20

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

19.03 ± 0.91a

18.79 ± 0.93ab

14.61 ± 0.92cd

15.69 ± 0.92c

10.80 ± 0.91ef

21

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

80 (+ 1)

15.62 ± 0.69c

14.33 ± 0.63cd

10.11 ± 0.65ef

11.21 ± 0.65e

6.78 ± 0.65h

22

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

60 (−1)

19.41 ± 0.92a

18.19 ± 0.96ab

14.01 ± 0.93cd

15.31 ± 0.93c

10.11 ± 0.89ef

23

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

17.02 ± 0.75b

16.60 ± 0.71bc

12.49 ± 0.72de

13.69 ± 0.72d

8.41 ± 0.74fg

24

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

19.43 ± 0.88a

18.40 ± 0.82ab

14.23 ± 0.85cd

15.99 ± 0.85c

10.21 ± 0.85ef

25(C5)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

17.40 ± 0.72b

16.22 ± 0.76bc

12.09 ± 0.79de

13.40 ± 0.79d

8.55 ± 0.75fg

26

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

17.45 ± 0.82b

16.25 ± 0.79bc

12.10 ± 0.80de

13.05 ± 0.80d

8.59 ± 0.84fg

27

180 (0)

200 (−1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

16.04 ± 0.77bc

15.30 ± 0.71c

11.63 ± 0.75e

12.91 ± 0.75de

7.98 ± 0.73g

28

200 (+ 1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

16.09 ± 0.79bc

15.30 ± 0.74c

11.51 ± 0.76e

12.72 ± 0.76de

7.94 ± 0.72g

29

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

17.46 ± 0.83b

16.22 ± 0.81bc

12.00 ± 0.82de

13.20 ± 0.82d

8.12 ± 0.82fg

C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points

Experimental model = Box-Behnken design

Total number of spray drying treatments = 29

No of replicates = 03

a-hvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05)

Table 7

Impact of Spray drying conditions on total omega-3 fatty acids retention in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals

Spray dryer process run

Independent variables

Total omega-3 fatty acids (mg/50 g egg)

Inlet air temperature (°C)

Feed flow rate (mL/hr)

Atomization speed (rpm)

Outlet temperature (°C)

0 Day

Storage at Temperature 4 °C

Storage at Temperature 25 °C

30 Days

60 Days

30 Days

60 Days

1

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

161.54 ± 2.15ab

157.65 ± 2.21c

146.96 ± 2.28gh

149.19 ± 2.14f

134.11 ± 2.11m

2

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

150.43 ± 2.14ef

147.34 ± 2.22g

136.79 ± 2.07l

138.81 ± 2.01k

123.93 ± 2.02r

3

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

80 (+ 1)

147.40 ± 2.47g

145.7 ± 2.33h

134.89 ± 2.12m

135.76 ± 1.80lm

120.08 ± 1.93st

4

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

159.34 ± 1.88b

155.3 ± 1.84d

145.29 ± 1.91h

147.64 ± 1.65g

132.88 ± 1.44n

5

180 (0)

200 (−1)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

150.20 ± 2.11ef

146.44 ± 1.94gh

133.51 ± 1.72mn

138.07 ± 1.76k

124.06 ± 1.95qr

6

160 (−1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

145.22 ± 1.88h

141.78 ± 1.53ij

131.29 ± 1.61no

133.06 ± 1.57mn

119.07 ± 1.44t

7(C1)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

145.35 ± 1.52h

141.69 ± 1.88ij

131.63 ± 1.85no

134.75 ± 1.82m

118.77 ± 1.98tu

8(C2)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

145.24 ± 1.57h

141.52 ± 1.85ij

131.31 ± 1.96no

134.72 ± 1.74m

118.85 ± 1.96tu

9

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

60 (−1)

146.5 ± 1.78gh

142.91 ± 1.84i

132.87 ± 1.81n

134.16 ± 1.65m

119.84 ± 1.74t

10

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

128.21 ± 1.55p

124.41 ± 1.15qr

114.16 ± 1.32vw

116.71 ± 1.46uv

101.60 ± 1.65y

11(C3)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

145.28 ± 1.69h

141.78 ± 1.58ij

131.46 ± 1.75no

134.81 ± 1.84m

118.63 ± 1.78tu

12(C4)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

145.30 ± 1.63h

141.81 ± 1.52ij

131.56 ± 1.89no

134.68 ± 1.62m

118.78 ± 1.68tu

13

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

134.38 ± 1.81m

131.53 ± 1.61no

121.51 ± 1.72s

123.1 ± 1.74r

108.99 ± 1.83w

14

200 (+ 1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

140.97 ± 1.95j

137.45 ± 1.84kl

127.98 ± 1.81pq

129.9 ± 1.96op

114.05 ± 1.75vw

15

160 (−1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

157.92 ± 1.74c

154.93 ± 1.65de

144.53 ± 1.62hi

146.86 ± 1.56gh

131.33 ± 1.55no

16

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

154.08 ± 1.61de

140.19 ± 1.57j

129.98 ± 1.54op

132.06 ± 1.56n

116.25 ± 1.57uv

17

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

146.42 ± 1.84gh

142.57 ± 1.75i

131.85 ± 1.87no

134.78 ± 1.71m

120.13 ± 1.76st

18

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

130.0 ± 1.34o

126.03 ± 1.23q

115.54 ± 1.26v

117.55 ± 1.21u

102.85 ± 1.32xy

19

160 (− 1)

200 (− 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

149.42 ± 1.55f

146.2 ± 1.44gh

135.49 ± 1.48lm

137.79 ± 1.58kl

121.86 ± 1.41s

20

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

158.93 ± 1.72bc

156.51 ± 1.61cd

145.27 ± 1.85h

147.25 ± 1.74g

132.82 ± 1.68n

21

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

80 (+ 1)

131.24 ± 1.91no

126.69 ± 1.82q

116.54 ± 1.64uv

117.8 ± 1.88u

103.63 ± 1.77x

22

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

60 (−1)

162.33 ± 1.64a

158.61 ± 1.53bc

148.03 ± 1.57fg

151.56 ± 1.54e

135.89 ± 1.62lm

23

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

141.97 ± 1.46ij

139.86 ± 1.45jk

128.53 ± 1.46p

131.54 ± 1.53no

115.64 ± 1.32v

24

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

161.45 ± 1.51ab

157.86 ± 1.42c

147.7 ± 1.55g

150.81 ± 1.48ef

134.82 ± 1.37m

25(C5)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

145.45 ± 1.42h

141.67 ± 1.81ij

131.55 ± 1.72no

134.55 ± 1.93m

118.95 ± 1.58tu

26

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

145.38 ± 1.45h

141.78 ± 1.44ij

130.32 ± 1.33o

132.57 ± 1.32n

118.34 ± 1.41tu

27

180 (0)

200 (−1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

133.00 ± 1.32mn

130.02 ± 1.21o

118.69 ± 1.22tu

122.1 ± 1.34rs

106.71 ± 1.28wx

28

200 (+ 1)

200 (− 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

132.85 ± 1.25n

129.54 ± 1.24op

117.74 ± 1.28u

121.01 ± 1.22s

106.16 ± 1.31wx

29

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

144.7 ± 1.44hi

141.44 ± 1.32ij

130.32 ± 1.44o

133.58 ± 1.28mn

117.99 ± 1.33u

C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points

Experimental model = Box-Behnken design

Total number of spray drying treatments = 29

No of replicates = 03

a-yvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05)

The effects of various spray drier conditions and storage on peroxide value in DEDP have been shown in Table 8. The PV of DEDP samples reached their maximum peaks after 60 days at 25 °C. The increasing order shows that lipid oxidation increased with storage. The peroxides are considered as early oxidation products with relatively short induction periods during which they form, accumulate and dissipate. It seems true that the DEDP samples stored for 30 days at lower temperature were relatively stable than stored at higher temperature for 60 days. The overall PV never exceeded the limit of 10 (meq/kg) considered as a threshold limit. The PV levels obtained from 60 days in DEDP samples were higher (0.78 ± 0.06, 0.81 ± 0.02 meq/kg O2) when compared to initial readings 0 day (0.65 ± 0.04 meq/kg O2).
Table 8

Impact of spray drying conditions on peroxide value in designer egg dried powder at different days and storage intervals

Spray dryer process run

Independent variables

Peroxide value (meq/kg O2)

Inlet air temperature (°C)

Feed flow rate (mL/hr)

Atomization speed (rpm)

Outlet temperature (°C)

0 Day

Storage at Temperature 4 °C

Storage at Temperature 25 °C

30 Days

60 Days

30 Days

60 Days

1

160 (− 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

0.46 ± 0.05pq

0.52 ± 0.01n

0.59 ± 0.08jk

0.53 ± 0.04mn

0.62 ± 0.01i

2

180 (0)

200 (− 1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

0.45 ± 0.04q

0.51 ± 0.02no

0.58 ± 0.07k

0.52 ± 0.01n

0.61 ± 0.02ij

3

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

80 (+ 1)

0.58 ± 0.07k

0.64 ± 0.03h

0.71 ± 0.02de

0.65 ± 0.02gh

0.74 ± 0.03c

4

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

0.49 ± 0.08op

0.56 ± 0.04l

0.62 ± 0.01i

0.58 ± 0.05k

0.65 ± 0.04gh

5

180 (0)

200 (−1)

16,000 (− 1)

70 (0)

0.50 ± 0.01o

0.56 ± 0.05l

0.63 ± 0.02hi

0.57 ± 0.06kl

0.67 ± 0.05fg

6

160 (−1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

0.51 ± 0.02no

0.55 ± 0.03lm

0.62 ± 0.01i

0.58 ± 0.07k

0.68 ± 0.04f

7(C1)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.02mn

0.59 ± 0.08jk

0.66 ± 0.05g

0.60 ± 0.05j

0.69 ± 0.08ef

8(C2)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.04mn

0.59 ± 0.05jk

0.66 ± 0.06g

0.60 ± 0.04j

0.69 ± 0.06ef

9

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

60 (−1)

0.49 ± 0.08op

0.55 ± 0.04lm

0.62 ± 0.01i

0.56 ± 0.05l

0.65 ± 0.04gh

10

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

0.60 ± 0.05j

0.66 ± 0.05g

0.73 ± 0.02cd

0.67 ± 0.06fg

0.76 ± 0.05b

11(C3)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.09mn

0.59 ± 0.07jk

0.66 ± 0.04g

0.60 ± 0.03j

0.69 ± 0.07ef

12(C4)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.03mn

0.59 ± 0.02jk

0.66 ± 0.07g

0.60 ± 0.02j

0.69 ± 0.05ef

13

180 (0)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

0.58 ± 0.01k

0.64 ± 0.01h

0.71 ± 0.02de

0.65 ± 0.04gh

0.75 ± 0.03bc

14

200 (+ 1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.60 ± 0.05j

0.65 ± 0.04gh

0.72 ± 0.01d

0.67 ± 0.06fg

0.76 ± 0.05b

15

160 (−1)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.50 ± 0.04o

0.56 ± 0.05l

0.63 ± 0.02hi

0.57 ± 0.06kl

0.66 ± 0.05g

16

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

0.62 ± 0.01i

0.68 ± 0.07f

0.75 ± 0.04bc

0.67 ± 0.06fg

0.78 ± 0.07ab

17

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

0.55 ± 0.04lm

0.61 ± 0.05ij

0.68 ± 0.07f

0.62 ± 0.01i

0.71 ± 0.06de

18

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

80 (+ 1)

0.65 ± 0.04gh

0.71 ± 0.03de

0.78 ± 0.06ab

0.72 ± 0.01d

0.81 ± 0.02a

19

160 (−1)

200 (− 1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.46 ± 0.05pq

0.52 ± 0.04n

0.59 ± 0.08jk

0.54 ± 0.08m

0.63 ± 0.01hi

20

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.02mn

0.59 ± 0.01jk

0.66 ± 0.05g

0.60 ± 0.04j

0.69 ± 0.08ef

21

180 (0)

300 (0)

24,000 (+ 1)

80 (+ 1)

0.62 ± 0.01i

0.68 ± 0.02f

0.75 ± 0.04bc

0.69 ± 0.08ef

0.78 ± 0.07ab

22

180 (0)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

60 (− 1)

0.45 ± 0.04q

0.51 ± 0.03no

0.58 ± 0.07k

0.52 ± 0.04n

0.61 ± 0.02ij

23

180 (0)

400 (+ 1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

0.57 ± 0.06kl

0.63 ± 0.05hi

0.70 ± 0.06e

0.54 ± 0.03m

0.63 ± 0.02hi

24

160 (−1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

0.42 ± 0.01r

0.48 ± 0.02p

0.55 ± 0.01lm

0.50 ± 0.08o

0.59 ± 0.07jk

25(C5)

180 (0)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.02mn

0.59 ± 0.04jk

0.66 ± 0.02g

0.60 ± 0.01j

0.69 ± 0.04ef

26

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

16,000 (−1)

70 (0)

0.56 ± 0.05l

0.62 ± 0.04i

0.69 ± 0.03ef

0.63 ± 0.02hi

0.72 ± 0.01d

27

180 (0)

200 (−1)

24,000 (+ 1)

70 (0)

0.53 ± 0.02mn

0.59 ± 0.01jk

0.67 ± 0.02fg

0.60 ± 0.04j

0.69 ± 0.08ef

28

200 (+ 1)

200 (−1)

20,000 (0)

70 (0)

0.56 ± 0.05l

0.62 ± 0.04i

0.69 ± 0.08ef

0.63 ± 0.02hi

0.72 ± 0.01d

29

200 (+ 1)

300 (0)

20,000 (0)

60 (−1)

0.52 ± 0.01n

0.58 ± 0.02k

0.65 ± 0.04gh

0.69 ± 0.08ef

0.74 ± 0.03c

C1,C2,C3,C4,C5represent spraying drying process at center points

Experimental model = Box-Behnken design

Total number of spray drying treatments = 29

No of replicates = 03

a-rvalues with similar letters show homogenous group within row and column (p > 0.05)

The regression equations regarding the response factors at different days and storage intervals after spray drying process have been summarized in the Table 9. The optimized conditions of inlet air temperature (161–162 °C), feed flow rate (310–320 mL/hr), atomization speed (16550–16,600 rpm) and outlet air temperature (61–62 °C) were found for maximum retention of fatty acids at 25 °C after 60 days as ALA (123–124 mg/50 g egg), EPA (6.3–6.4 mg/50 g egg), DHA (11.6–11.8 mg/50 g egg), total omega-3 fatty acids (141–142 mg/50 g egg) and PV (0.60–0.61 meq/kg O2) of DEDP samples, respectively.
Table 9

Regression equations for response factors at different days and storage intervals after spray drying process

Response factor

Storage conditions

Regression equation

Powder Yield

at O day

Y = +  46.10 + 7.96X1 + 6.01X2 + 4.04X3 + 6.02X4 + 0.0250X1X2–0.0450X1X3 + 0.0253X1X4 + 0.0256X2X3 + 0.0251X2X4–6.10X3X4 + 0.9350X12 + 2.92X22 - 0.0525X32 - 2.02X42

ALA

at O day

Y = +  114.63–6.57X1 + 3.54X2–6.53X3–5.98X4–0.0925X1X2–0.2175X1X3 + 0.0975X1X4–0.04X2X3 + 0.2650X2X4–0.0650X3X4–0.5215X12 + 0.4060X22 + 0.4410X32 + 1.03X42

after 3O days at 4 °C

Y = +  113.44–6.52X1 + 3.62X2–6.59X3–5.82X4–0.2325X1X2–0.1275X1X3 + 0.1775X1X4 + 0.0925X2X3 + 0.1250X2X4–0.6450X3X4–0.6762X12 + 0.4050X22 + 0.6250X32 + 1.10X42

after 6O days at 4 °C

Y = +  110.35–6.59X1 + 3.57X2–6.62X3–5.88X4 + 0.0450X1X2–0.1150X1X3 + 0.1100X1X4 + 0.1250X2X3− 0.0600X2X4–0.4825X3X4–0.6251X12 + 0.5299X22 + 0.6037X32 + 1.33X42

after 3O days at 25 °C

Y = +  110.42–6.48X1 + 3.61X2–6.42X3–6.03X4–0.1200X1X2–0.0775X1X3 + 0.0750X1X4–0.0025X2X3− 0.0425X2X4 + 0.0825X3X4–0.4374X12 + 0.3963X22 + 0.4776X32 + 1.06X42

after 6O days at 25 °C

Y = +  105.27–6.46X1 + 3.46X2–6.48X3–5.96X4–0.1775X1X2 + 0.0002X1X3 + 0.1550X1X4 + 0.0400X2X3− 0.0275X2X4 + 0.1400X3X4–0.2706X12 + 0.5007X22 + 0.6182X32 + 1.21X42

EPA

at O day

Y = +  13.10–0.7508X1 + 0.3867X2–0.7467X3–0.6608X4–0.0050X1X2–0.0150X1X3 + 0.0025X1X4–0.0100X2X3 + 0.0200X2X4 + 0.0150X3X4–0.0367X12 + 0.0296X22 - 0.0329X32 + 0.0858X42

after 3O days at 4 °C

Y = +  12.12–0.7725X1 + 0.3467X2–0.7908X3–0.7067X4–0.0900X1X2–0.2600X1X3–0.2525X1X4–0.0800X2X3− 0.1150X2X4–0.1925X3X4–0.1789X12–0.1477X22 - 0.1064X32 – 0.0777X42

after 6O days at 4 °C

Y = +  8.84–0.8750X1 + 0.7558X2–0.4567X3–0.8092X4 + 0.2175X1X2–0.0425X1X3 + 0.0900X1X4–0.4625X2X3− 0.0925X2X4–0.2350X3X4–0.2227X12–0.8714X22 - 0.4777X32 – 0.0289X42

after 3O days at 25 °C

Y = +  9.80–0.8792X1 + 0.4425X2–0.8600X3–0.8983X4 + 0.1375X1X2 + 0.2050X1X3–0.4250X1X4 + 0.3325X2X3− 0.0375X2X4–0.5825X3X4–0.2229X12–0.3329X22 - 0.4017X32 – 0.1342X42

after 6O days at 25 °C

Y = +  4.60–0.8958X1 + 0.4550X2–0.8292X3–0.8583X4–0.1425X1X2 + 0.2800X1X3–0.2650X1X4 + 0.1775X2X3− 0.3650X2X4–0.3250X3X4–0.2782X12–0.2845X22 - 0.1232X32 + 0.0030X42

DHA

at O day

Y = +  17.43–0.9983X1 + 0.4808X2–1.03X3–0.9300X4–0.0050X1X2 + 0.0200X1X3–0.0150X1X + 0.1000X2X3− 0.0725X2X4–0.0175X3X4 + 0.0010X12 + 0.1823X22 + 0.0172X32 + 0.1035X42

after 3O days at 4 °C

Y = +  16.16–1.07X1 + 0.4675X2–1.03X3–0.1.04X4 + 0.1175X1X2 + 0.0125X1X3 + 0.0450X1X

- 0.0700X2X3 + 0.1650X2X4–0.0150X3X4 + 0.0808X12 + 0.6771X22 + 0.0596X32 + 0.0308X42

after 6O days at 4 °C

Y = +  12.06–1.02X1 + 0.4983X2–0.9958X3–0.8708X4 + 0.0275X1X2 + 0.0350X1X3 + 0.0625X1X - 0.1425X2X3 + 0.1450X2X4–0.0800X3X4 + 0.0516X12 + 0.9716X22 - 0.0222X32 + 0.0878X42

after 3O days at 25 °C

Y = +  13.48–1.07X1 + 0.5142X2–0.8950X3–0.9258X4–0.0025X1X2–0.0600X1X3 + 0.2975X1X - 0.2275X2X3 + 0.1125X2X4–0.1375X3X4 + 0.0131X12 + 0.7218X22 - 0.1794X32 + 0.0593X42

after 6O days at 25 °C

Y = +  8.54–1.00X1 + 0.3583X2–0.9850X3–0.9058X4–0.0750X1X2–0.1450X1X3–0.0025X1X - 0.1750X2X3− 0.0300X2X4–0.0950X3X4 + 0.1923X12 + 0.5889X22 + 0.0389X32 + 0.0027X42

TOFA

at O day

Y = +  145.32–8.32X1 + 5.24X2–8.30X3–6.77X4–0.0950X1X2 + 0.2125X1X3 + 0.0825X1X + 0.0600X2X3 + 2.70X2X4–0.0825X3X4–1.06X12 + 1.36X22 - 0.0837X32 + 1.96X42

after 3O days at 4 °C

Y = +  141.69–8.36X1 + 4.43X2–8.42X3–7.56X4–0.2050X1X2 + 0.3750X1X3–0.0300X1X - 0.0575X2X3 + 0.1750X2X4–0.8275X3X4–0.7562X12 + 0.9526X22 + 0.5838X32 + 1.06X42

after 6O days at 4 °C

Y = +  131.50–8.48X1 + 4.82X2–8.08X3–7.57X4 + 0.3000X1X2–0.1225X1X3 + 0.2675X1X - 0.4800X2X3− 0.0075X2X4–0.7975X3X4–0.9235X12 + 0.5053X22 - 0.0260X32 + 1.26X42

after 3O days at 25 °C

Y = +  134.70–8.43X1 + 4.53X2–8.25X3–7.96X4–0.0450X1X2 + 0.0675X1X3 + 0.0001X1X + 0.0650X2X3 + 0.0325X2X4–0.1400X3X4–1.19X12 + 0.3461X22 - 0.4489X32 + 0.5311X42

after 6O days at 25 °C

Y = +  118.80–8.37X1 + 4.27X2–8.23X3–7.79X4–0.3950X1X2–0.4250X1X3–0.1125X1X + 0.0425X2X3 - 4225X2X4–0.1000X3X4–0.9022X12 + 0.6441X22 + 0.2828X32 + 0.9691X42

PV

at O day

Y = +  0.5300 + 0.0492X1 + 0.0192X2 + 0.0200X3 + 0.0650X4 + 0.0001X1X2–0.0025X1X3 + 0.0001X1X + 0.0025X2X3 + 0.0001X2X4 + 0.0001X3X4 + 0.0004X12 + 0.0003X22 + 0.0017X32 + 0.0042X42

after 3O days at 4 °C

Y = +  0.5900 + 0.0500X1 + 0.0192X2 + 0.0183X3 + 0.0642X4–0.0025X1X2 + 0.0026X1X3 + 0.0002X1X + 0.0027X2X3− 0.0028X2X4 + 0.0003X3X4–0.0025X12 + 0.0013X22 + 0.0001X32 + 0.0062X42

after 6O days at 4 °C

Y = +  0.6600 + 0.0501X1 + 0.0175X2 + 0.0192X3 + 0.0650X4–0.0023X1X2 + 0.0025X1X3 + 0.0001X1X + 0.0002X2X3 + 0.0003X2X4 + 0.0001X3X4–0.0022X12 + 0.0012X22 + 0.0012X32 + 0.0050X42

after 3O days at 25 °C

Y = +  0.6000 + 0.0558X1 + 0.0100X2 + 0.0117X3 + 0.0525X4 + 0.0025X1X2–0.0024X1X3–0.0225X1X - 0.0226X2X3− 0.0100X2X4 + 0.0001X3X4 + 0.0146X12–0.0117X22 - 0.0116X32 + 0.0171X42

after 6O days at 25 °C

Y = +  0.6900 + 0.0517X1 + 0.0083X2 + 0.0116X3 + 0.0600X4 + 0.0024X1X2–0.0050X1X3–0.0125X1X - 0.0200X2X3− 0.0025X2X4 + 0.0002X3X4 + 0.0113X12–0.0087X22 - 0.0088X32 + 0.0137X42

X1 = Inlet air temperature; X2 = Feed flow rate; X3 = Atomization speed; X4 = Outlet air temperature

ALA Alpha-linolenic fatty acids, EPA Eicosapentaenoic fatty acids, DHA Docosahexaenoic fatty acids, TOFA Total omega-3 fatty acids, PV Peroxide value

Several authors, in accordance with our results, report the effect of storage temperature on egg powder fatty acids composition. Deslypere et al. [24] results also conclude that storage at lower temperatures for several months yielded no perceptible changes in n-3 PUFAs of fat tissue aspirates which is compatible with our results. This study showed that PUFAs loses increases with storage which is in accordance with observation of Terao et al. [25] that egg lipids underwent high oxidation during spray-drying; moreover, they observed that this oxidation significantly increases during storage (1 and 3 months). Furthermore, several previous research studies described monounsaturated fatty acid and PUFAs losses during extensive heat processing [26, 27, 28]. In addition, some studies have been focused only on n-3 PUFAs losses because of their high nutritional relevance [29].

In the case of DEDP, the loss of essential fatty acids was already predicted because the PUFAS content were high in DEDP samples and the heat treatment applied was severe. The thermal effects could be clearly observed at high outlet air temperatures, in accordance with other published reports. With increase of temperature, retention of PUFAs decreases and browning of powder increased, but lower temperature cause retention of moisture and low-quality powder with increased drying time [30, 31]. High temperature treatment causes protein denaturation and modifies lipoprotein structure. This change leads to decreased oxidative stability of egg lipids [32]. Higher temperature conditions in spray dryer causes higher losses of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs and also less favorable to omega-6/omega-3 and PUFA/SFA ratios. Mostly C20:4n-6 and C22:6n-3 PUFAs are destroyed at high temperature [33].

The safety and quality of powdered eggs depend on at least two critical steps as the drying process itself and the storage conditions such as length and temperature. The drying process uses high temperatures that can accelerate reactions between lipids and molecular oxygen, resulting in losses of nutritional and sensory properties of egg products. At the same time, there is an increasing interest on the consumption of food that have a higher content of omega-3 PUFAs than conventional foods. However, this increase in the unsaturation of fatty acid can lead to an increase of lipid oxidation, especially during the drying process or the storage.

Unsaturated fatty acid losses have been widely reported as an indicator of lipid oxidation. As a rule, in foods, susceptibility to oxidation of phospholipids increases with the unsaturation [34]. The spray-dried eggs are highly oxidized and very susceptible to oxidation in comparison with raw eggs [35]. This fact is related to the structure of phospholipids in the raw yolk that protect against oxidation. Phospholipids are interwoven in the exterior structure of low-density lipoprotein and this compact surface prevents the contact of oxygen with the lipid core of the particle [36].

Egg powder was produced under high temperature scales, which led to many changes in egg components, resulting in lower retention of PUFAs in DEDP samples during storage. Food industries of using spray dried omega food materials are facing the problem of oxidation as these possessed unstable PUFAs during processing and storage. Several appropriate methods have been applied to reduce or prevent lipid oxidation of spray dried powders in order to improve final functional food quality. The most commonly used method is the addition of antioxidants. A combination of antioxidants with inert gas packaging can strongly stabilize the spray dried omega food products. Major finding supports that spray drying of whole egg at moderate conditions of air inlet temperature, feed flow rate, atomization speed and outlet air temperature resulted in a product that enhanced considerably the retention of PUFAs and good quality powder that could further be used for development of functional food products. Thereby, it could be concluded that slight lipid oxidation mostly occurs during spray-drying but this oxidation rate may be enhanced during storage. So, care should be taken during storage of DEDP samples.

Conclusion

The results of present study demonstrated the optimized conditions of inlet air temperature (198–199 °C), feed flow rate (398–399 mL/hr), atomization speed (16000–16,010 rpm) and outlet air temperature (76–77 °C) for maximum yield of designer egg dried powder samples (66.20 ± 0.20 g/500 mL). The inlet and outlet air temperature were seen to be as major factors affecting the essential fatty acids content in spray dried samples. Furthermore, the results from this work will aid in the formulation of healthy food products supplemented with designer egg dried powder and may address a critical industrial demand in terms of formulation options. Additional studies should be undertaken to enhance the shelf life of omega food products by supplementation of antioxidants and gradual reduction of oxidation process. Furthermore, future studies should focus on treatment of nutritional disorders through the functional foods and their absorption, metabolism and distribution pattern into biological tissues.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are highly obliged to the Library Department, Government College University Faisalabad (GCUF) and IT Department, Higher Education Commission (HEC, Islamabad) for access to journals, books and valuable database.

Funding

The authors are highly obliged to the Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Home Economics for providing chemicals to carried out the analysis of the samples.

Availability of data and materials

The dataset supporting the conclusions of this article is included within the article.

Authors’ contributions

AJ conceptualized, performed, analyzed and MI provided the technical assistance while NA and AIH guided for drafting the manuscript. “It’s also confirmed that all the authors read and approved the final manuscript”.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not Applicable.

Consent for publication

Not Applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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© The Author(s). 2018

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amna Javed
    • 1
  • Muhammad Imran
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nazir Ahmad
    • 2
  • Abdullah Ijaz Hussain
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Food Science, Nutrition and Home EconomicsGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Home and Food Sciences, Faculty of Life SciencesGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Physical SciencesGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

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