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BMC Genomics

, 19:951 | Cite as

Identification and characterization of SSR, SNP and InDel molecular markers from RNA-Seq data of guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, L. Taub.) roots

  • Omika Thakur
  • Gursharn Singh RandhawaEmail author
Open Access
Research article
  • 428 Downloads
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Plant genomics

Abstract

Background

Guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, L. Taub.] is an important industrial crop because of the commercial applications of the galactomannan gum contained in its seeds. Plant breeding programmes based on marker-assisted selection require a rich resource of molecular markers. As limited numbers of such markers are available for guar, molecular breeding programmes have not been undertaken for the genetic improvement of this important crop. Hence, the present work was done to enrich the molecular markers resource of guar by identifying high quality SSR, SNP and InDel markers from the RNA-Seq data of the roots of two guar varieties.

Results

We carried out RNA-Seq analysis of the roots of two guar varieties, namely, RGC-1066 and M-83. A total of 102,479 unigenes with an average length of 1016 bp were assembled from about 30 million high quality pair-end reads generated by an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The assembled unigenes had 86.55% complete and 97.71% partially conserved eukaryotic genes (CEGs). The functional annotation of assembled unigenes using BLASTX against six databases showed that the guar unigenes were most similar to Glycine max. We could assign GO terms to 45,200 unigenes using the UniProt database. The screening of 102,479 unigenes with MISA and SAMtools version 1.4 softwares resulted in the identification of 25,040 high-confidence molecular markers which consisted of 18,792 SSRs, 5999 SNPs and 249 InDels. These markers tagged most of the genes involved in root development, stress tolerance and other general metabolic activities. Each of the 25,040 molecular markers was characterized, particularly with respect to its position in the unigene. For 71% of the molecular markers, we could determine the names, products and functions of the unigenes. About 80% of the markers, from a random sample of molecular markers, showed PCR amplification.

Conclusions

We have identified and characterized 25,040 high confidence SSR, SNP and InDel molecular markers in guar. It is expected that these markers will be useful in molecular breeding programmes and will also be helpful in studying molecular mechanisms of root development, stress tolerance and gum synthesis in guar.

Keywords

RNA-Seq Molecular markers Simple sequence repeats Single nucleotide polymorphisms Insertions and deletions Marker-assisted selection 

Abbreviations

AS-PCR

Allele-specific PCR

CEGMA

Core eukaryotic gene mapping approach

CEGs

Conserved eukaryotic genes

EC

Enzyme code

GO

Gene ontology

InDel

Insertion-deletion

ISSR

Inter simple sequence repeat

NSG

Next generation sequencing

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

RAPD

Random amplified polymorphic DNA

rDNA

Ribosomal DNA

RNA-Seq

Ribonucleic acid sequence

SCAR

Sequence characterized amplified region

SNP

Single nucleotide polymorphism

SSR

Simple sequence repeat

Background

Guar [Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, L. Taub.] is a diploid, annual and drought-tolerant leguminous crop mainly cultivated in the semi-arid areas of India, Pakistan and the United States of America. It is generally grown in marginal soils having nitrogen and water deficiencies and often containing high salt concentrations. Traditionally grown for fodder, green manure and vegetable purposes, guar has recently been recognized as an important industrial crop because of the presence of gum in its seeds [1, 2]. The guar gum, which is mainly galactomannan, is a natural thickener used in petroleum, food, paper, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries [3]. It has also shown a potential in the treatment of diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea, high cholesterol and diabetes [4, 5, 6]. Due to the high demand of guar gum all over the world, improved varieties of guar, having increased amounts of high quality gum and also able to grow under adverse conditions, have become a necessity.

The plant breeding programmes based on marker-assisted selection require the availability of a large number of molecular markers for gene tagging, genetic mapping and map-based cloning of important genes [7, 8]. Six molecular markers, namely, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), ribosomal DNA (rDNA), inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR), sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR), simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been identified in guar [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17]. The last two markers, namely, SSRs and SNPs, are considered very important for genetic mapping and plant breeding programmes [18]. Insertions and deletions (InDels) have been also found to be very valuable markers in the plant breeding programmes [19]. As the guar genome has not been sequenced, fewer SSR and SNP markers, are available for guar as compared to those available in other well-studied legume crops like soybean, Lotus, Medicago, pigeonpea and chickpea [20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25]. Therefore, further research is needed to generate a large number of SSR, SNP and InDel markers for guar.

The sequencing of cDNA pools obtained from RNA samples from various tissues, using the next generation sequencing (NSG) technique, provides a large collection of expressed sequences. This approach, called RNA-Seq technology, can be used for generating SSR and SNP molecular markers [26, 27]. The molecular markers, thus generated, are likely to show more transferability than the other markers because of their presence in the genomic regions that are more conserved [28]. The RNA-Seq approach has been successfully used to generate SSR and SNP molecular markers in guar [16, 17]. However, the number of the markers obtained is still far less than those available in the other legumes, for which the complete genomic sequences are available. Moreover, there is only one report of SNP identification in guar [16] and in the report the characterization of identified SNP markers has not been done. The SNP markers need thorough characterization for their appropriate and efficient use. The breeding programmes for obtaining improved varieties of guar had limited success so far because of the shortage of useful molecular markers. Hence, the present work was started with the objective of identifying and characterizing SSR, SNP and InDel markers from the root tissue of guar to enrich the molecular marker resource of this important industrial crop. The root tissue was selected as the root specific processes are considered of particular importance in the abiotic stress responses of plants [29]. The two varieties, namely, RGC-1066 and M-83 having contrasting characters were selected for this work as these were expected to show significant genetic differences.

Results

RNA seq and De novo transcriptome assembly of guar root

The RNA-Seq of roots of guar varieties RGC-1066 and M-83 by the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform generated 29,623,208 and 29,853,028 raw pair-end reads, respectively. The data summary of the guar root transcriptome assembly has been presented in Table 1. The % Q > 30 and % GC for RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties were about 87 and about 44, respectively. The numbers of clean reads generated after trimming adaptors and removing low quality bases were 17,305,480 and 17,517,086 in guar varieties RGC-1066 and M-83, respectively. The % Q > 30 and % GC of clean reads of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties were 97 and 44, respectively (Table 1). The de novo assembly of clean reads by Trinity program generated 1,22,206 contigs. The mean % GC of unigenes was 40 and the longest unigene was 16,844 bp. The clustering of assembled contigs using CD-HIT version 4.5.4 generated 1,02479 unigenes, with mean % GC of 39.82 and longest unigene 16,844 bp (Additional file 1: Table S1). The sequence length and GC content distributions of assembled unigenes before and after CD-HIT are shown in Fig 1a, b. The lengths of 51,229 unigenes were < 500 bp whereas 51,250 unigenes had the lengths more than 500 bp. A total of 32,949 unigenes had over 1000 bp and 1297 unigenes over 5000 bp lengths. The average length and N50 value of the unigenes were 1016.62 bp and 1907 bp, respectively (Table 2). The unigenes assembly had 86.55% complete and 97.71% partial conserved eukaryotic genes (CEGs) against the 248 CEGs as reference (Additional file 2: Table S2).
Table 1

The data summary of de novo transcriptome assembly of guar root

Sample name

RGC-1066

M-83

No. of raw reads

29,623,208

29,853,028

No. of bases/Mb

2962.32

2985.3

GC %

44.89

44.435

Q_30

86.755

87.67

Read length

100 X 2

100 X 2

No. of clean reads

17,305,480

17,517,086

No. of bases/Mb

1612.14

1637.48

GC %

44.27

43.625

Q_30

97.345

97.51

Read length

100 X 2

100 X 2

Fig. 1

Functional annotation of guar root transcriptome a. Length distribution b. GC distribution c. Distribution of total sequences obtained from Blast2GO three step processes including BLASTX, mapping and annotation of guar root transcriptome d. BLASTX E-value distribution

Table 2

Statistics of de novo assembly of root transcriptome of guar

Characteristic

Details

Total number of transcripts

1,02479

Min length

201

Max length

16,844

Average length

1016.62

Standard deviation

1150.28

Median length

500

Number of contigs < 500 bp

51,229

Number of contigs ≥500 bp

51,250

Number of contigs ≥1000 bp

32,949

Number of contigs ≥2000 bp

15,360

Number of contigs ≥5000 bp

1297

N50

1907

Contigs in N50

16,574

GC content

39.82%

Functional annotation of guar root transcriptome

The functional annotation of assembled unigenes of guar root was done using BLASTX against NCBI, UniProt, Pathway, Nt, Pfam and Uniref90 databases, with an E-value cutoff 1e− 5 and % identity cutoff 40. A total of 54,249 unigenes were found to have at least one significant hit in UniProt and NCBI databases (Fig 1c). For the remaining 38,965 unigenes, no BLASTX hits were recorded. The top BLASTX hits of unigenes showed that 45.65% guar unigenes had maximum similarity with Glycine max, 32.79% with Cajanus cajan,15.28% with Cicer arietinum, 15.06% with Glycine soja,11.86% with Phaseolus vulgaris, 10.53% with Medicago truncatula and remaining with other legume plants (Additional file 3: Figure S1). About 91.31% of the assembled unigenes had similarity of more than 60% at protein level with the existing proteins in NCBI database. The E-value distribution of 37.32% sequences ranged from 1e− 50 to 1e− 6 (Fig 1d). The similarity distribution analysis indicated that 59.74% sequences had similarity more than 80 and 40.26% sequences more than 40% with the sequences in NCBI (Fig 2a). Out of the total 102,479 unigenes, we could annotate and assign GO terms to 45,200 unigenes using the UniProt database (Fig 1c). The GO terms were distributed into 60 functional groups which were classified into three categories, namely, cellular components (2106), molecular functions (3889) and biological processes (3392). The top GO terms were ATP binding (2096), nucleus (1046), nucleic acid binding (1045), protein kinase activity (781), ADP binding (774), zinc ion binding (726), metal ion binding (717) and RNA binding (704) (Fig 3; Additional file 4: Table S3). A total of 7426 unigenes were grouped into six enzyme codes: Oxidoreductases (2207), Transferases (3907), Hydrolases (2527), Lyases (255), Isomerases (305) and Ligases (656) (Fig 2b). The most frequent terms among the unigenes annotated by KAAS were “metabolic pathways (905)”, “biosynthesis of secondary metabolities (407)”, “biosynthesis of antibiotics (211)”, “microbial metabolism in diverse environments (157)” and “ribosome (130)” (Additional file 5: Table S4).
Fig. 2

Similarity distributions and enzyme code distributions of assembled unigenes of root transcriptome of guar varieties RGC-1066 and M-83 a. Similarity distributions of the top BLAST hits for each sequence against the Nr database b. Enzyme code distributions

Fig. 3

Distribution of biological, molecular and cellular component categories in unigenes of guar root transcriptome

Identification and characterization of 18,792 SSR markers

In order to reduce the bias of transcript length and noise at low level of expression, the unigenes having fragments per kilobase of transcript per million mapped reads (FPKM) ≥1 were selected to identify simple sequence repeats (SSRs) [30]. A total of 18,792 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) belonging to 8 classes of microsatellites were identified in 93,402 unigenes having FPKM ≥1. The characteristics of all the identified SSRs, namely, length of SSR, type of SSR, size of SSR and start and end positions of SSR, have been given in Additional file 6: Table S5. Out of the total 18,792 SSRs, 9983 (52.62%) SSRs were mono-nucleotide, 3455 (18.21%) di-nucleotide, 3914 (20.63%) tri-nucleotide, 373 (1.97%) tetra-nucleotide, 70 (0.37%) penta-nucleotide, 58 (0.31%) hexa-nucleotide, 1073 (5.7%) c1 and 46 (0.25%) c2 motifs. The ‘c1’ are compound motifs containing two types of repeats separated by few nucleotides and c2 are compound motifs in which two types of repeats are not separated by a nucleotide stretch. For each identified SSR, an attempt was made to find the name and characteristics (function/protein product) of the gene containing the SSR. We succeeded in doing so for 12,600 SSRs. The detailed data for mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, c and c* SSRs have been presented in Additional file 7: Table S6, Additional file 8: Table S7, Additional file 9: Table S8, Additional file 10: Table S9, Additional file 11: Table S10, Additional file 12: Table S11, Additional file 13: Table S12, Additional file 14: Table S13.

For 1732 dinucleotide SSRs, the repeat number varied from 6 to 9, while the repeat number for 2050 trinucleotides, 201 tetranucleotides, 67 pentanucleotides and 50 hexanucleotides were ≤ 5 (Table 3). On an average, the unigenes contained 1 SSR per 5.45 kb. A total of 1073 (5.66%) SSRs were repeated more than 10 times whereas 46 (0.24%) SSRs were repeated more than 20 times. The most abundant class of repeat motifs were mononucleotides (52.62%) followed by tri-nucleotides (20.63%) and dinucleotides (18.21%). The distribution frequencies and per cent distribution of SSRs have been given in Table 4 and Additional file 15: Table S14. The motifs AG, AGG, AAAG, AGAAAG, CT, TTC, CTTT, ATGAG and TGCTAT were more prevalent than the other motifs in the root transcriptome of guar (Additional file 7: Table S6, Additional file 8: Table S7, Additional file 9: Table S8, Additional file 10: Table S9, Additional file 11: Table S10, Additional file 12: Table S11, Additional file 13: Table S12, Additional file 14: Table S13). Out of 20 randomly chosen SSRs, 15 showed amplification in both guar varieties, 3 in RGC-1066 variety and 2 in M-83 variety. The results of amplification of 7 SSRs in both guar varieties have been shown in Additional file 16: Figure S2A.
Table 3

Repeat numbers of different SSRs obtained from the guar root transcriptome

Repeat type

Repeat numbers

Total number of repeats

≤5

6 to 9

≥10

Mononucleotides

9983

9983

Dinucleotides

1732

1723

3455

Trinucleotides

2050

1334

530

3914

Tetranucleotides

201

172

373

Pentanucleotides

67

3

70

Hexanucleotides

50

8

58

Table 4

Percentage distribution frequencies of SSR motif repeats in guar root transcriptome

Repeat number

Repeat type

Mono-

Di-

Tri-

Tetra-

Penta-

Hexa-

c

c*

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5

0

0

11

1

0.3

0.2

0

0

6

0

5

5

0.4

0.01

0.01

0

0

7

0

3

2

0.1

0

0

2

0

8

0

1

2

0.01

0

0

1

0

9

0

1

1

0

0

0

0.1

0

10

14

0.4

0.1

0

0

0

0

0

11

7

0.4

0.4

0

0

0

0

0

12

4

0.05

0.2

0

0

0

0

0

13

3

0.05

0.1

0

0

0

0

0.1

14

2

0.06

0.01

0

0

0

0

0.01

15

2

0.03

0.1

0

0

0

0

0

16

1

0.01

0.1

0

0

0

0

0

17

1

0

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

18

0.4

0.02

0

0

0

0

0

0

19

0.2

0.01

0

0

0

0

0

0

20

0.1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

≥20

0.6

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

5999 SNPs identified and characterized

A total of 27,446, 14,578 and 5999 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at read depths (RDs) of 2, 5 and 10, respectively, in the RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar (Fig 4a, c). On an average, 1 SNP per 17.08 kb was found in the unigenes, at RD10. The SNPs obtained at higher RDs are considered to be high-confidence SNPs as compared to the ones obtained at lower RDs. Hence the SNPs obtained at the RD of 10 were used for further study. At this RD, the varieties RGC-1066 and M-83 were found to contain 2479 and 2870 SNPs, respectively (Additional file 17: Table S15). The SNP names, description/annotation of the SNP-containing unigenes, and alleles and positions of 4851 SNPs have been given in the Additional file 18: Table S16. These SNPs were found to be located in 2400 unigenes. The highest number of SNPs was found in the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (506) unigene. A total of 86 SNPs were found in 47 transcription factors which are involved in intracellular signaling, stress tolerance, regulation of cell cycle, cell growth, apoptosis and defense mechanisms. The LOC101508115 and Gag-Pol polyprotein unigenes, which are involved in nucleic acid binding and DNA integration, contained 58 and 49 SNPs, respectively.
Fig. 4

Number and frequency distributions of nucleotide-level variants in root transcriptomes of RGC-1066 and M-83 guar varieties a. SNP distribution at read depths (RD) 2, 5 and 10 b. InDels distribution at read depths (RD) 2, 5 and 10 c. SNPs distribution in the UniProt annotated unigenes d. Frequency distribution of SNPs in various gene functions of unigenes

The transition and transversion analysis of the SNPs has been presented in the Table 5. The total number of transition and transversion mutations were 3033 (62%) and 1803 (38%), respectively, with a Ts/Tv ratio of 1.72 (Table 5). Among the transition mutations, T/C and A/G showed high occurrences of 18.7 and 17.8%, respectively. The A/T and T/A mutations had high occurrences of 6.1 and 5.6%, respectively, among the transversion mutations. Five SNPs, namely, OT2, OT3, OT105, OT243 and OT4846, randomly selected for validation showed PCR amplification (Additional file 16: Figure S2B).
Table 5

Transition vs transversion mutation rate, type and ratio determined from the transcriptomes of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar

Transition type

Occurance/Numbera

Percent occurance (%)

A/G

865

17.8

C/T

585

12.04

G/A

673

13.9

T/C

910

18.7

Transversion type

Occurance/Numbera

Percent occurance (%)

A/C

206

4.2

A/T

297

6.1

C/G

202

4.1

G/T

214

4.4

C/A

232

4.8

T/A

275

5.6

G/C

140

2.9

T/G

237

4.9

Transition/Transversion ratio: 1.72

aOut of 4907 SNPs

Sixteen SNPs were found to be located in 6 unigenes associated with root development (Table 6; Additional file 19: Table S17; Fig 4d). These unigenes encode for cellulose synthase A and D5 like proteins which are involved in mannan synthesis, root hair morphogenesis and root cell wall biosynthesis. Nine transition and 7 transversion mutations were found in these six unigenes.
Table 6

Characteristics of the SNPs located in genes involved in root development of guar

S. No.

SNP name

Gene name

SNP Allele

Position

Gene description

Gene function

1

OT3537

KK1_009388/ LOC100798193 GLYMA_06G069600

G/T

594

cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 1 [UDP-forming]

Transportation of mannose, nucleotide-sugar transport

2

OT2789

-do-

C/A

898

-do-

β (1,4) Mannan synthesis

3

OT2790

-do-

C/A

899

-do-

-do-

4

OT2791

-do-

T/C

917

-do-

-do-

5

OT2792

-do-

A/G

959

-do-

-do-

6

OT2793

-do-

T/C

960

-do-

-do-

7

OT2794

-do-

G/T

1322

-do-

-do-

8

OT4846

LOC100797597 GLYMA_03G217500

T/A

344

cellulose synthase-like protein D5

-do-

9

OT1382

LR48_Vigan02g201500

T/A

901

cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 2 [UDP-forming]-like

-do-

10

OT3553

LOC100789704 GLYMA_12G002500

A/C

1528

receptor-like protein kinase HSL1-like isoform X1

Regulation of root development

11

OT3554

-do-

A/G

3027

-do-

-do-

12

OT3555

-do-

A/G

3037

-do-

-do-

13

OT3861

LOC100780184 GLYMA_08G111400

A/G

2864

uncharacterized protein LOC100780184

Root cell wall biosynthesis

14

OT3862

-do-

A/G

5661

-do-

-do-

15

OT3863

-do-

A/G

7007

-do-

-do-

16

OT4656

LOC100795671 GLYMA_12G192000

T/C

2145

cellulose synthase-like protein B3-like

Root hair morphogenesis

A total of 27 SNPs were found in 14 unigenes involved in defense responses, hypersensitive responses, negative regulation of p53, heat and cold stress responses (Table 7; Fig 4d; Additional file 20: Table S18). These unigenes, encoding for NB-LRR, NB-ARC, transcription factors, heat shock proteins, ring finger and zinc finger domain containing proteins, were found to contain 13 transition and 14 transversion mutations.
Table 7

Characteristics of SNPs located in guar unigenes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses

S. No.

SNP name

Gene name

SNP allele

SNP position

Gene description

Gene function

1

OT769

MTR_2g078070

A/G

3008

NBS-LRR type

Defense response

2

OT1113

KK1_009739

G/T

272

Disease resistance protein RGA2

Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) resistance

3

OT1114

-do-

A/G

428

-do-

-do-

4

OT1115

-do-

A/G

485

-do-

-do-

5

OT1116

-do-

A/C

1845

-do-

-do-

6

OT1161

MTR_3g035960

A/T

978

NBS-LRR type disease resistance protein

R (Resistance) genes, plant defense

7

OT1162

-do-

T/C

1196

-do-

-do-

8

OT1163

-do-

A/G

2357

-do-

-do-

9

OT1431

KK1_033834

C/T

493

Disease resistance RPP13-like protein 1

Plant hypersensitive response, disease resistance

10

OT1432

-do-

A/G

528

-do-

-do-

11

OT1433

-do-

T/G

548

-do-

-do-

12

OT1434

-do-

C/A

549

-do-

-do-

13

OT1435

-do-

T/G

550

-do-

-do-

14

OT1436

-do-

T/A

593

-do-

-do-

15

OT1437

-do-

G/A

1323

-do-

-do-

16

OT1881

MTR_3g466750

C/G

1389

NB-ARC domain disease resistance protein

Defense response

17

OT1916

MTR_3g020890

A/G

290

NB-LRR type disease resistance protein Rps1-k-2

Phytophthora resistance

18

OT2923

KK1_021617

 

588

S-norcoclaurine synthase

Pathogen related (PR) 10 protein, defense response

19

OT2924

-do-

C/G

648

-do-

-do-

20

OT3720

MTR_2g020040

G/A

876

RING finger and CHY zinc finger domain-containing protein

Negative regulation of p53

21

OT67

KK1_005680

C/T

228

KK1_005680

Response to freezing

22

OT458

TCM_044345

G/A

2522

dnaJ protein homolog

Response to heat stress

23

OT543

KK1_034657

T/A

718

Heat shock factor protein HSF24

Response to heat stress

24

OT3934

LOC100818430 GLYMA_13G105700

A/T

218

heat stress transcription factor A-2-like

Response to heat stress

25

OT3935

-do-

G/T

590

-do-

-do-

26

OT1691

KK1_001069

A/T

79

Heat stress transcription factor A-5

Response to heat stress

27

OT1738

LOC100820566 GLYMA_13G225700

C/T

146

Heat stress transcription factor A-4a-like

Response to heat stress

Fourteen SNPs were located in 7 unigenes involved in galactomannan synthesis (Table 8). Six SNPs were found in the KK1_009388 gene encoding cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 1 involved in biosynthesis of mannan. These unigenes conatained 5 transitions and 9 transversions.
Table 8

Characteristics of the SNPs located in genes involved in galactomannan synthesis in guar

S. No.

SNP name

SNP allele

Type of SNP

Position

Gene name

Gene description

Function

1

OT697

T/A

TV

1856

LOC106775241

PREDICTED: callose synthase 11-like [Vignaradiata var. radiata]

Control delivery of UDP-Glc to the synthase

2

OT698

A/G

TT

4865

-do-

-do-

-do-

3

OT1715

C/G

TV

5925

glysoja_027079

Callose synthase 3 [Glycine soja]

-do-

4

OT4075

A/T

TV

2011

KK1_031323

Callose synthase 3 [Cajanuscajan]

-do-

5

OT4076

C/G

TV

3624

-do-

-do-

-do-

6

OT4342

T/C

TT

6780

LOC100787540 GLYMA_10G295100

PREDICTED: callose synthase 9-like isoform 1 [Glycine max]

-do-

7

OT1366

T/A

TV

901

LR48_Vigan02g201500

PREDICTED: cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 2 [UDP-forming]-like [Vignaangularis]

-do-

8

OT2742

C/A

TV

898

KK1_009388

Cellulose synthase A catalytic subunit 1 [UDP-forming] [Cajanuscajan]

Mannan biosynthesis

9

OT2743

C/A

TV

899

-do-

-do-

-do-

10

OT2744

T/C

TT

917

-do-

-do-

-do-

11

OT2745

A/G

TT

959

-do-

-do-

-do-

12

OT2746

T/C

TT

960

-do-

-do-

-do-

13

OT2747

G/T

TV

1322

-do-

-do-

-do-

14

OT3490

G/T

TV

594

LOC100798193 GLYMA_06G069600

hypothetical protein GLYMA_06G069600 [Glycine max]

-do-

Abbreviations: TT Transition, TV Transversion, UDP-Glc Uridine diphosphate glucose

Identification and characterization of 249 InDel markers

A total of 720, 427 and 249 InDels (insertions+deletions) were recorded in the RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar at RDs 2, 5 and 10, respectively (Fig 4b). Among the high-confidence 249 InDels, 160 (64.26%) were insertions whereas 89 (35.74%) were deletion mutations (Additional file 21: Table S19). Each of the two guar varieties was found to contain more insertions as compared to deletions. The main characteristics of 249 high-confidence InDels have been given in Additional file 19: Table S17. On an average, one insertion per 282.5 kb was found in the annotated unigenes. The high-confidence 160 insertions were found to be located in 153 unigenes. The average size of an insertion was 1.49 bp with the range of 1–17 bp. The longest insertion of 17 bp was found to be present in LOC101504041 gene involved in N-acetyltransferase activity. On an average, one deletion was found per 507.9 kb in the annotated unigenes. These deletions were distributed in 87 unigenes. The average size of a deletion was 3.02 bp with variations of 1-18 bp. The longest deletion of 18 bp was located in the LOC100793810 GLYMA_07G170000 gene involved in tRNA methyltransferase activity and tRNA methylation.

Differrential gene expression and metabolic network analyses

Out of 404 unigenes (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted p-value < 0.05) differentially expressed by more than two-fold in the two studied varieties of guar, 227 and 177 unigenes were found to be upregulated in the RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties, respectively (Figs 5, 6; Additional file 22: Table S20, Additional file 23: Table S21). The Fig 6 shows the top 20% of differentially expressed genes of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties and the hierarchical distances of these genes. The detailed description of the differentially expressed genes has been presented in the Additional file 22: Table S20, Additional file 23: Table S21.
Fig. 5

Distribution of differentially expressed genes in the roots of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar (a) FPKM plot (b) MA plot (log2Fold change vs Base mean) (c) Volcano plot (−log10pval vs log2Foldchange) (d) Pie padj plot (e) Pie pval plot (f) Bar plot of log2foldchange of upregulated, downregulated and non-significant unigenes

Fig. 6

Heat-map representation of highly upregulated and downregulated differentially expressed genes in the roots of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar

Discussion

Genetic improvement of the industrially important guar crop has been so far accomplished following the traditional plant breeding approaches without using molecular markers. A molecular plant breeding programme requires a rich resource of molecular markers which is lacking for the guar crop. As the genome of guar has not been sequenced yet, obtaining such markers is not easy.

Among the various molecular markers, SSRs, SNPs and InDels are considered to be very valuable. Recently, development of SSR [13, 15, 16, 17] and SNP [16] markers has been reported in guar. However, these markers are less in number in comparison to those available for the model crops, and do not cover all the expressed regions of guar genome. Further, these markers have not been well characterized. We report here the development and characterization of SSR, SNP and InDel markers for the guar crop by sequencing of the root transcriptome.

By de novo assembly and clustering of high quality sequence reads obtained from RNA-Seq of roots of two guar varieties, RGC-1066 and M-83 having contrasting phenotypic characters, we generated 102,479 unigenes. From the RNA-Seq of leaf tissues of these two varieties, Tanwar et al. [16] reported the generation of 62,146 unigenes. Rawal et al. [17] obtained 127,706 unigenes from the RNA-Seq of three tissues, namely, leaves, shoots and flowers of guar variety RGC936. The comparisons of our sequence data with those of the above two reports indicates that the unigenes obtained by us have a good coverage of guar root transcriptome which is a prerequite for obtaining sufficient number of genic markers covering most of the genes. The CEGMA analysis showed that the unigenes obtained had 86.55% complete and 97.71% partial CEGs, indicating that our collection of unigenes was suitable for obtaining a sufficient number of molecular markers for a wide variety of guar genes expressing in roots [31, 32, 33]. Similar results have been obtained in the leaf transcriptomic analysis of guar [16]. Rawal et al. [17] have, however, reported more completedness in their transcriptomic library derived from the flower, leaf and shoot tissues of guar.

As the guar genome has not been sequenced, sequence similarity search of the 102,479 assembled unigenes was carried out by using BLASTX against six databases. A total of 54,249 unigenes had at least one significant match in blast hit results with E-value < 10− 6 showing that these unigenes are protein coding. The main reason for not getting hits for the remaining unigenes is that very low amounts of genomic data is available for guar in the known databases. These unigenes appear to be guar specific and may be useful for further research to obtain novel gene products, introduce new traits in other organisms and understand some biological mechanisms at the molecular level. The highest similarity (45.65%) of the assembled unigenes was found with G. max genes. Tanwar et al. [16] also reported 41.91% similarity of the guar unigenes with the genes of G. max. The leaf and root transcriptomic analyses of guar shows that G. max may be used as a suitable reference species for guar genetic analysis.

By screening of 102,479 unigenes assembled from the RNA-Seq data of two guar varieties, we obtained 25,040 high-confidence molecular markers which consist of 18,792 SSRs, 5999 SNPs and 249 InDels. The validation of random samples of these markers indicated that PCR amplification of most of these markers would be possible. The molecular markers identified by us have tagged most of the genes involved in root development, stress tolerance and other general metabolic activities. Each molecular marker has been characterized, particularly with respect to its precise position in the unigene containing it. For about 70% of the markers, we have been able to determine the characteristics of the genes containing these markers. We hope that the high-confidence molecular markers obtained by us, along with the others previously reported, will be helpful in studying molecular mechanisms of root development, stress tolerance and gum synthesis in guar. These markers are expected to contribute significantly to the breeding programmes based on marker-assisted selection, to develop improved varieties of guar.

Although we have enriched the guar molecular markers resource, this resource is still less than those available for the well-studied legume crops like soybean, Lotus, Medicago, pigeonpea and chickpea. Further research work, similar to ours, is needed to analyze the RNA-Seq data of other tissues of guar to obtain more molecular markers. The newly discovered molecular markers have to be characterized thoroughly. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) would be better for a segregating population to obtain a high-density linkage map. The availability of the complete genomic sequence of guar will be highly helpful for the genetic improvement of this important crop.

Conclusions

A total of 102,479 unigenes were assembled from the RNA-Seq data of two guar varieties, namely, RGC-1066 and M-83. The screening of these unigenes resulted in the identification of 25,040 high-confidence molecular markers which consisted of 18,792 SSRs, 5999 SNPs and 249 InDels. These molecular markers have been found to tag most of the genes involved in root development, stress tolerance and other general metabolic activities. All the molecular markers have been characterized, particularly with respect to their positions in the unigenes. We could determine the names, products and functions of the unigenes for 71% of the molecular markers.

Methods

Plant material and growth conditions

The seeds of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar were obtained from Rajasthan Agricultural Research Institute, Durgapura, Jaipur (India). The RGC-1066 is a commercial gum-producing variety having hairy leaf surface and purple colour flowers. The beans of the M-83 variety are used as a vegetable. This variety has glabrous leaves and white flowers. The plants were grown under field conditions at Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee. The root samples of each variety were collected on the 25th day of seed sowing and sent to SciGenome Labs Pvt. Ltd., Cochin (India) for RNA-Seq.

Transcriptome sequencing

Three independent biological and technical replicates were used for cDNA library preparation and sequencing. The total RNA was extracted from the roots of each guar variety using AmbionR Plant RNA isolation kit and cDNA library was prepared using TruSeq Stranded Total RNA Sample Prep Guide. The sequencing of cDNA library was carried out on Illumina HiSeq 2500 machine to obtain the raw reads. As per the sequencing strategy of the machine, the average read length was 100 bp.

De novo assembly, clustering and functional annotation

The adaptor and repetitive sequences from raw reads were removed by Trimmomatic, NGS-pipe and Fast QC v0.11.5 softwares [34] to generate clean reads. The clean reads from three independent biological replicates of each variety were assembled into a fastafile by using the Trinity program.The reads in a fastafile are known as unigenes. The clustering and quality checking of unigenes were done using CD-HIT v4.6.6 [35] and CEGMA (Core Eukaryotic Gene Mapping Approach) [16]. Functional annotation of guar root transcriptome was done using BLASTX tool of BLAST2GO suite. Homologs of assembled unigenes were searched in NCBI, UniProt, Pathway, Nt, Pfam and Uniref90 databases with default parameters. The BLAST+ results were used to retrieve Gene Ontology (GO), and enzyme code (EC) terms using BLAST2GO suite. The functional and comparative analysis of othe assembled unigenes was done using TRAPID tool [36] to find closely related species. To understand the molecular datasets obtained at biological and functional level, the assembled unigenes were further annotated with KAAS (KEGG Automatic Annotation Server: http://www.genome..jp/kegg/kaas/) [37].

Mining, validation and in silico analysis of SSRs

The mining of mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, and compound SSR markers was done using MISA tool, followed by validation and in silico analysis as given in [16]. Twenty SSR markers were randomly selected for validation. The primers were designed for these markers using Primer3 tool [38]. PCR with the above primers was carried out on the DNA samples extracted from the roots of RGC-1066 and M-83 guar varieties using DNeasy Plant Mini Kit (QIAGEN). The amplified PCR products were visualized on 3% agarose gel.

Identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels)

The high quality clean transcriptomic sequence reads of two guar varieties RGC-1066 and M-83 were mapped on to the assembled unigenes using Bowtie2 version 2.3.2 software [39] (http://bowtie-bio.sourceforge.net/index.shtml) to obtain BAM files. These files were used to identify each read that mapped to only one position of the reference genome (de novo assembly). The FastQC version 0.11.5 tool (http://www.bioinformatics.babraham.ac.uk/projects/fastqc/) was used for base quality filtration. The identification of SNPs and InDels was done using SAMtools version 1.4 software [40], by setting default parameters at read depths 2, 5 and 10. The SNPs and InDels obtained were manually characterized.

Validation of SNPs by AS-PCR (allele-specific PCR)

Allele specific PCR [41] was performed for the validation of SNPs. The DNA was extracted by CTAB method from the root of a 25 day old guar plant. Three primers, namely, forward, reverse and allele specific, were designed for amplification of each gene. The PCR amplification was performed using Applied Biosystem Veriti 96-well thermal cycler in a 20 μl reaction volume containing 150 ng of genomic DNA, 1X Taq buffer, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.2 mM dNTP, 0.5 mM primers and 1 unit of Taq Polymerase. The gene sequences were amplified from genomic DNA of each guar variety at initial denaturation of 94 °C for 5 mins, 30 cycles of denaturation at 94 °C for 30s, annealing at 60 °C for 45 s, extension at 72 °C for 60s and final extension of 10 min at 72 °C. The amplified PCR products were visualized on 1.5% agarose gel and documented on gel documentation unit (Bio-Rad).

Identification of differentially expressed genes

The differential gene expression and metabolic network analyses of unigenes of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar were performed using DeSeq2 program (http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/DESeq2.html) [42] and plant metabolic network database (http://www.plantcyc.org).

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Prof. Sudesh Kumar, RARI, Jaipur for providing the seed material and Dr. Umesh Kumar Tanwar, Warsaw, Poland for useful suggestions. Financial support for this work in the form of Assistantship to Omika Thakur by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Govt. of India, is gratefully acknowledged. We are thankful to Dr. Ravinder Singh and Dr. Ankita Gurao for their kind help in proofreading.

Funding

This work was not supported by any research grant. Assistantship was provided to OT for carrying out this work.

Availability of data and materials

The RNA-Seq data has been uploaded on the NCBI website (SRA accession: PRJNA497670Temporary Submission ID: SUB4659462). All other data analyzed during this study are included in this article and its supplementary information files.

Authors’ contributions

OT planned the experiments, did the experimental work, analyzed the data and wrote the paper. GSR planned the experiments, interpreted the results and corrected the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary material

12864_2018_5205_MOESM1_ESM.docx (11 kb)
Additional file 1: Table S1. Number of transcripts and GC % of transcripts generated after de novo assembly of clean reads. (DOCX 11 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM2_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Additional file 2: Table S2. Statistics of CEGMA results of guar root transcriptome assembly. (DOCX 12 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM3_ESM.tif (411 kb)
Additional file 3: Figure S1. BLASTX distribution of unigenes obtained from root transcriptome of guar in different plant species. (TIF 410 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM4_ESM.xlsx (185 kb)
Additional file 4: Table S3. Distribution classification of gene ontology (GO) terms in 45200 guar root unigenes. (XLSX 184 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM5_ESM.docx (51 kb)
Additional file 5: Table S4. Pathway mapping of annotated unigenes of RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar using KAAS-KEGG automatic annotation server. (DOCX 51 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM6_ESM.xls (2.1 mb)
Additional file 6: Table S5. List of characteristics of 18972 SSR markers obtained from root transcriptome of guar. (XLS 2191 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM7_ESM.xlsx (391 kb)
Additional file 7: Table S6. Characteristics of mononucleotide SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 391 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (142 kb)
Additional file 8: Table S7. Characteristics of dinucleotide SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 142 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM9_ESM.xlsx (177 kb)
Additional file 9: Table S8. Characteristics of trinucleotide SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 177 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM10_ESM.xlsx (23 kb)
Additional file 10: Table S9. Characteristics of tetranucleotide SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 22 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM11_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Additional file 11: Table S10. Characteristics of pentanucleotide SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 11 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM12_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Additional file 12: Table S11. Characteristics of hexanucleotide SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 12 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM13_ESM.xlsx (60 kb)
Additional file 13: Table S12. Characteristics of compound SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 60 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM14_ESM.xlsx (10 kb)
Additional file 14: Table S13. Characteristics of compound* SSRs obtained in RGC-1066 and M-83 varieties of guar. (XLSX 10 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM15_ESM.xlsx (14 kb)
Additional file 15: Table S14. Frequency distribution of identified SSR repeats in RGC-1066 and M-83 guar varieties. (XLSX 13 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM16_ESM.tif (1.1 mb)
Additional file 16: Figure S2A. PCR amplification results of SSR markers. Fig S2B. PCR amplification results of SNP markers. (TIF 1146 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM17_ESM.xlsx (2.2 mb)
Additional file 17: Table S15. List of SNPs in RGC-1066 and M-83 guar varieties. (XLSX 2293 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM18_ESM.xlsx (357 kb)
Additional file 18: Table S16. Characteristics of SNPs obtained at RD10 from root transcriptome of guar varieties RGC-1066 and M-83. (XLSX 356 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM19_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Additional file 19: Table S17. List of the primers used to study the SNPs present in root development genes of guar. (DOCX 12 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM20_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Additional file 20: Table S18. List of the primers used to study the SNPs located in guar unigenes involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses. (DOCX 13 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM21_ESM.xlsx (38 kb)
Additional file 21: Table S19. Characteristics of InDels obtained at RD10 from root transcriptome of guar varieties RGC-1066 and M-83. (XLSX 37 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM22_ESM.xls (443 kb)
Additional file 22: Table S20. Detailed description of differentially expressed genes of RGC-1066 variety of guar. (XLS 443 kb)
12864_2018_5205_MOESM23_ESM.xls (442 kb)
Additional file 23: Table S21. Detailed description of differentially expressed genes of M-83 variety of guar. (XLS 442 kb)

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© The Author(s). 2018

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia
  2. 2.Present address: Department of Biochemistry & BiotechnologySardar Bhagwan Singh UniversityDehradunIndia

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