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Clomiphene for the Treatment of Male Infertility


Male infertility is a relatively common condition caused by low sperm production, immobile sperm, or blockages that prevent the delivery of sperm. This condition can be caused by a variety of illnesses, injuries, chronic health problems, lifestyle choices, other factors, or idiopathic, in which abnormal semen parameters occur without an identifiable cause. Medical management traditionally focuses on correcting endocrine abnormalities related to hormone deficiencies. Clomiphene citrate is an antiestrogen thought to increase sperm parameters in males attempting to conceive. The objective of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of clomiphene citrate in the treatment of male patients with infertility. A literature search of MEDLINE (1966–June 2012) and EMBASE (1980–June 2012) was conducted using the medical terms clomiphene and male infertility and 9 clinical studies were identified. Overall, only 1 study detected a statistically significant benefit on the pregnancy rate in the clomiphene group; however, the majority of the studies demonstrated a statistically significant increase in sperm concentrations. At doses used to treat male infertility, clomiphene was well tolerated with no identified serious adverse effects. Based on the reviewed studies there is insufficient evidence to indicate that clomiphene is effective for the treatment of male infertility.

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Correspondence to Amy E. Willets PharmD.

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Willets, A.E., Corbo, J.M. & Brown, J.N. Clomiphene for the Treatment of Male Infertility. Reprod. Sci. 20, 739–744 (2013).

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  • clomiphene
  • male infertility
  • oligozoospermia
  • idiopathic