Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework

Abstract

Customer loyalty is viewed as the strength of the relationship between an individual’s relative attitude and repeat patronage. The relationship is seen as mediated by social norms and situational factors. Cognitive, affective, and conative antecedents of relative attitude are identified as contributing to loyalty, along with motivational, perceptual, and behavioral consequences. Implications for research and for the management of loyalty are derived.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

References

  1. Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein. 1980.Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Allen, Chris T., Karen A. Machleit, and Susan Schultz Kleine. 1992. “A Comparison of Attitudes and Emotions as Predictors of Behavior at Diverse Levels of Behavioral Experience.”Journal of Consumer Research 18 (March): 493–504.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Arkes, Hal R. and Catherine Blumer. 1985. “The Psychology of Sunk Cost.”Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 35 (February): 124–140.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Assael, Henry. 1992.Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action. Fourth Edition. Boston, MA: Kent.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Bagozzi, Richard P. and Robert E. Burnkrant. 1979. “Attitude Measurement and Behavior Change: A Reconsideration of Attitude Organization and Its Relationship to Behavior.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Volume 6. Ed. William L. Wilkie. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 295–301.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Belch, George E. 1981. “An Examination of Comparative and Noncomparative Television Commercials: The Effects of Claim Variation and Repetition on Cognitive Response and Message Acceptance.”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (August): 333–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bennett, Peter D. and Gilbert D. Harrell. 1975. “The Role of Confidence in Understanding and Predicting Buyers’ Attitudes and Purchase Intention.”Journal of Consumer Research 2 (September): 110–117.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Berger, Ida E. and Andrew A. Mitchell. 1989. “The Effect of Advertising on Attitude Accessibility, Attitude Confidence, and Attitude-Behavior Relationship.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (December): 269–279.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bitner, Mary J. 1990. “Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses.”Journal of Marketing 54 (April): 69–82.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Brim, Orville G., Jr. 1955. “Attitude Content-Intensity and Probability Expectations.”American Sociological Review 20 (February): 68–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Brucks, Merrie. 1988. “Search Monitor: An Approach for Computer-Controlled Experiments Involving Consumer Information Search.”Journal of Consumer Research 15 (November): 117–121.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Cacioppo, John T. and Richard E. Petty. 1985. “Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: The Role of Message Repetition.” InPsychological Processes and Advertising Effects: Theory, Research and Applications. Eds. Linda F. Alwilt and Andrew A. Mitchell. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 91–111.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Clark, Margaret S. and Alice M. Isen. 1982. “Toward Understanding the Relationship Between Feeling States and Social Behavior.” InCognitive Social Psychology. Eds. Albert H. Hastorf and Alice M. Isen. New York: Elsevier/North Holland, 73–108.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Cohen, Joel B. and Charles S. Areni. 1991. “Affect and Consumer Behavior.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 188–240.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Cunningham, Scott M. 1966. “Brand Loyalty—What, Where, How Much?”Harvard Business Review 34 (January–February): 116–128.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Day, George S. 1969. “A Two-Dimensional Concept of Brand Loyalty.”Journal of Advertising Research 9 (September): 29–35.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Dick, Alan S. 1991. “The Impact of Sunk Costs on Customer Loyalty.” Working paper. State University of New York at Buffalo.

  18. Ehrlich, Howard J. 1969. “Attitudes, Behavior, and the Intervening Variables.”American Sociologist 4 (February): 29–34.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Fazio, Russell H. 1990. “Multiple Processes by Which Attitudes Guide Behavior: The MODE Model as an Integrative Framework.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 23. Ed. Mark P. Zanna. New York: Academic Press, 75–109.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Fazio, Russell H., Martha C. Powell, and Carol J. Williams. 1989. “The Role of Attitude Accessibility in the Attitude-to-Behavior Process.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (December): 280–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Fazio, Russell H., David M. Sanbonmatsu, Martha C. Powell, and Frank R. Kardes. 1986. “On the Automatic Activation of Attitude.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (February): 229–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Fazio, Russell H. and Mark P. Zanna. 1981. “Direct Experience and Attitude Behavior Consistency.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 14. Ed. Leonard Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 161–202.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Frank, Ronald E. 1967. “Correlates of Buying Behavior for Grocery Products.”Journal of Marketing 31 (October): 48–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Furse, David H., Girish N. Punj, and David W. Stewart. 1984. “A Typology of Individual Search Strategies Among Purchasers of New Automobiles.”Journal of Consumer Research 10 (March): 417–431.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Frey, Dieter. 1986. “Recent Research on Selective Exposure to Information.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 19. Ed. Leonard Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 41–80.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Goldberg, Marvin E. and Gerald J. Gorn. 1987. “Happy and Sad TV Programs: How They Affect Reactions to Commercials.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 387–403.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Greenwald, Anthony G. 1968. “On Defining Attitude and Attitude Theory.” InPsychological Foundations of Attitudes. Eds. Anthony G. Greenwald, Timothy C. Brock, and Thomas M. Ostrom. New York: Academic Press, 361–388.

    Google Scholar 

  28. Hirschman, Elizabeth C. 1981. “Retail Research and Theory.” InReview of Marketing. Eds. Ben M. Enis and Kenneth J. Roering. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 120–133.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Holbrook, Morris B. 1978. “Beyond Attitude Structure: Toward the Informational Determinants of Attitude.”Journal of Marketing Research 15 (November): 545–556.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Holbrook, Morris B. and Rajeev Batra. 1987. “Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 404–420.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Howard, John A. and Jagdish N. Sheth. 1969.The Theory of Buyer Behavior. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Izard, Carroll E. 1977.Human Emotion. New York: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  33. Jacoby, Jacob and Robert W. Chestnut. 1978.Brand Loyalty Measurement and Management. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Jacoby, Jacob and David B. Kyner. 1973. “Brand Loyalty Versus Repeat Purchase Behavior.”Journal of Marketing Research 10 (February): 1–9.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Jacoby, Jacob and Jerry C. Olson. 1970. “An Attitudinal Model of Brand Loyalty: Conceptual Underpinnings and Instrumentation Research.”Purdue Papers in Consumer Psychology 159. Purdue University.

  36. Jackson, Barbara B. 1987.Winning and Keeping Industrial Customers: The Dynamics of Customer Relationships. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.

    Google Scholar 

  37. Johnson, Blair T. and Alice H. Eagly. 1989. “Effects of Involvement on Persuasion: A Meta-Analysis.”Psychological Bulletin 106 (September): 290–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Jöreskog, Karl G. 1971. “Statistical Analysis of Sets of Congeneric Tests.”Psychometrika 36 (June): 109–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Kahn, Barbara E., Manohar U. Kalwani, and Donald G. Morrison. 1986. “Measuring Variety Seeking and Reinforcement Behaviors Using Panel Data.”Journal of Marketing Research 23 (May): 89–100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Kotler, Philip. 1984.Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control. Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Krosnick, Jon A. 1989. “Attitude Importance and Attitude Accessibility.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 15 (September): 297–308.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Lutz, Richard J. and Paul R. Winn. 1974. “Developing a Bayesian Measure of Brand Loyalty: A Preliminary Report.” InCombined Proceedings. Ed. Ronald C. Curhan. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 104–108.

    Google Scholar 

  43. MacKenzie, Scott B., Richard J. Lutz, and George E. Belch. 1986. “The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations.”Journal of Marketing Research 23 (May): 130–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Mandler, George. 1976.Mind and Emotion. Malabar, FL: Krieger.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Massey, William F., David B. Montgomery, and Donald G. Morrison. 1970.Stochastic Models of Buyer Behavior. Cambridge: MIT Press.

    Google Scholar 

  46. Mazurski, David and Jacob Jacoby. 1986. “Exploring the Development of Store Images.”Journal of Retailing 62 (Summer): 145–165.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Mischel, Walter, Brian Coates, and Antonette Raskoff. 1968. “Effects of Success and Failure on Self-Gratification.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10 (December): 381–390.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Mitchell, Andrew A. and Jerry C. Olson. 1981. “Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude?”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (August): 318–332.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Moore, William L. and Donald R. Lehmann. 1980. “Individual Differences in Search Behavior for a Nondurable.”Journal of Consumer Research 7 (December): 296–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Newman, Joseph W. and Richard Staelin. 1972. “Prepurchase Information Seeking for New Cars and Major Household Appliances.”Journal of Marketing Research 9 (August): 249–257.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Oliva, Terence A., Richard L. Oliver, and Ian C. MacMillan. 1992. “A Catastrophe Model for Developing Service Satisfaction Strategies.”Journal of Marketing 56 (July): 83–95.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Oliver, Richard L. 1980. “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.”Journal of Marketing Research 17 (November): 460–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. ————— 1992. “An Investigation of the Attribute Basis of Emotion and Related Affects in Consumption: Suggestions for a Stage-Specific Satisfaction Framework.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Volume 19. Eds. John Sherry and Brian Sternthal. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 237–244.

    Google Scholar 

  54. Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1985. “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research.”Journal of Marketing 49 (Fall): 41–50.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Plutchik, Robert. 1980.Emotion: A Psycho-Evolutionary Synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.

    Google Scholar 

  56. Porter, Michael E. 1980.Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Macmillan.

    Google Scholar 

  57. Ratchford, Brian T. 1980. “The Value of Information for Selected Appliances.”Journal of Marketing Research 17 (February): 14–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Sherif, Carolyn W. and Carl I. Hovland. 1961.Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  59. Sherif, Carolyn W., Merrilea Kelley, Lewis H. Rogers, Jr., Gian Sarup, and Bennett I. Tittler. 1973. “Personal Involvement, Social Judgment, and Action.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27 (September): 311–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Sirgy, M. Joseph and A. Coskun Samli. 1985. “A Path Analytic Model of Store Loyalty Involving Self-Concept, Store Image, Geographic Loyalty and Socioeconomic Status.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 13 (Summer): 265–291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Smith, Eliot R. and James R. Kluegel. 1982. “Cognitive and Social Bases of Emotional Experience: Outcome, Attribution and Affect.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43 (June): 1129–1141.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Smith, Robert E. and William R. Swinyard. 1983. “Attitude Behavior Consistency: The Impact of Product Trial Versus Advertising.”Journal of Marketing Research 20 (August): 257–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Smith, Robert E. and William R. Swinyard. 1988. “Cognitive Response to Advertising and Trial: Belief Strength, Belief Confidence and Product Curiosity.”Journal of Advertising 17 (September): 3–14.

    Google Scholar 

  64. Snyder, Mark and Deborah Kendzierski. 1982. “Acting on One’s Attitude: Procedures for Linking Attitude and Behavior.”Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 18 (March): 165–183.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Tellis, Gerard J. 1988. “Advertising Exposure, Loyalty, and Brand Purchase: A Two-Stage Model of Choice.”Journal of Marketing Research 25 (May): 134–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Tesser, Abraham and Mary C. Conlee. 1975. “Some Effects of Time and Thought on Attitude Polarization.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31 (February): 262–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Urbany, Joel E., Peter R. Dickson, and William L. Wilkie. 1989. “Buyer Uncertainty and Information Search.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (September): 208–215.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Warland, Rex H. and John Sample. 1973. “Response Certainty as a Moderator Variable in Attitude Measurement.”Rural Sociology 38 (Summer): 174–186.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Westbrook, Robert A. 1987. “Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Post-Purchase Processes.”Journal of Marketing Research 24 (August): 258–270.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Wicker, Allan W. 1969. “Attitude Versus Actions: The Relationship of Verbal and Overt Behavioral Responses to Attitude Objects.”Journal of Social Issues 25 (Autumn): 41–78.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Wood, Wendy. 1982. “Retrieval of Attitude-Relevant Information From Memory: Effects on Susceptibility to Persuasion and on Intrinsic Motivation.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (May): 798–810.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Zajonc, Robert B. 1980. “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need no Inferences.”American Psychologist 35 (February): 151–175.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Zanna, Mark P., James M. Olson, and Russell H. Fazio. 1981. “Self-Perception and Attitude-Behavior Consistency.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 7 (June): 252–256.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Alan S. Dick.

Additional information

His research interests include consumer decision making, information processing, and consumer loyalty. He has published in theJournal of Consumer Research andAdvances in Consumer Research.

His research interests are consumer information processing, persuasion cues in advertising, and international marketing. His articles have appeared in theJournal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Psychology, andCanadian Journal of Administrative Sciences as well as in a number of conference proceedings.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dick, A.S., Basu, K. Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. JAMS 22, 99–113 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070394222001

Download citation

Keywords

  • Switching Cost
  • Consumer Research
  • Customer Loyalty
  • Brand Loyalty
  • Store Loyalty