Customer loyalty is viewed as the strength of the relationship between an individual’s relative attitude and repeat patronage. The relationship is seen as mediated by social norms and situational factors. Cognitive, affective, and conative antecedents of relative attitude are identified as contributing to loyalty, along with motivational, perceptual, and behavioral consequences. Implications for research and for the management of loyalty are derived.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein. 1980.Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Allen, Chris T., Karen A. Machleit, and Susan Schultz Kleine. 1992. “A Comparison of Attitudes and Emotions as Predictors of Behavior at Diverse Levels of Behavioral Experience.”Journal of Consumer Research 18 (March): 493–504.
Arkes, Hal R. and Catherine Blumer. 1985. “The Psychology of Sunk Cost.”Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 35 (February): 124–140.
Assael, Henry. 1992.Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action. Fourth Edition. Boston, MA: Kent.
Bagozzi, Richard P. and Robert E. Burnkrant. 1979. “Attitude Measurement and Behavior Change: A Reconsideration of Attitude Organization and Its Relationship to Behavior.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Volume 6. Ed. William L. Wilkie. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 295–301.
Belch, George E. 1981. “An Examination of Comparative and Noncomparative Television Commercials: The Effects of Claim Variation and Repetition on Cognitive Response and Message Acceptance.”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (August): 333–349.
Bennett, Peter D. and Gilbert D. Harrell. 1975. “The Role of Confidence in Understanding and Predicting Buyers’ Attitudes and Purchase Intention.”Journal of Consumer Research 2 (September): 110–117.
Berger, Ida E. and Andrew A. Mitchell. 1989. “The Effect of Advertising on Attitude Accessibility, Attitude Confidence, and Attitude-Behavior Relationship.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (December): 269–279.
Bitner, Mary J. 1990. “Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses.”Journal of Marketing 54 (April): 69–82.
Brim, Orville G., Jr. 1955. “Attitude Content-Intensity and Probability Expectations.”American Sociological Review 20 (February): 68–76.
Brucks, Merrie. 1988. “Search Monitor: An Approach for Computer-Controlled Experiments Involving Consumer Information Search.”Journal of Consumer Research 15 (November): 117–121.
Cacioppo, John T. and Richard E. Petty. 1985. “Central and Peripheral Routes to Persuasion: The Role of Message Repetition.” InPsychological Processes and Advertising Effects: Theory, Research and Applications. Eds. Linda F. Alwilt and Andrew A. Mitchell. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 91–111.
Clark, Margaret S. and Alice M. Isen. 1982. “Toward Understanding the Relationship Between Feeling States and Social Behavior.” InCognitive Social Psychology. Eds. Albert H. Hastorf and Alice M. Isen. New York: Elsevier/North Holland, 73–108.
Cohen, Joel B. and Charles S. Areni. 1991. “Affect and Consumer Behavior.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 188–240.
Cunningham, Scott M. 1966. “Brand Loyalty—What, Where, How Much?”Harvard Business Review 34 (January–February): 116–128.
Day, George S. 1969. “A Two-Dimensional Concept of Brand Loyalty.”Journal of Advertising Research 9 (September): 29–35.
Dick, Alan S. 1991. “The Impact of Sunk Costs on Customer Loyalty.” Working paper. State University of New York at Buffalo.
Ehrlich, Howard J. 1969. “Attitudes, Behavior, and the Intervening Variables.”American Sociologist 4 (February): 29–34.
Fazio, Russell H. 1990. “Multiple Processes by Which Attitudes Guide Behavior: The MODE Model as an Integrative Framework.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 23. Ed. Mark P. Zanna. New York: Academic Press, 75–109.
Fazio, Russell H., Martha C. Powell, and Carol J. Williams. 1989. “The Role of Attitude Accessibility in the Attitude-to-Behavior Process.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (December): 280–288.
Fazio, Russell H., David M. Sanbonmatsu, Martha C. Powell, and Frank R. Kardes. 1986. “On the Automatic Activation of Attitude.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 50 (February): 229–238.
Fazio, Russell H. and Mark P. Zanna. 1981. “Direct Experience and Attitude Behavior Consistency.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 14. Ed. Leonard Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 161–202.
Frank, Ronald E. 1967. “Correlates of Buying Behavior for Grocery Products.”Journal of Marketing 31 (October): 48–53.
Furse, David H., Girish N. Punj, and David W. Stewart. 1984. “A Typology of Individual Search Strategies Among Purchasers of New Automobiles.”Journal of Consumer Research 10 (March): 417–431.
Frey, Dieter. 1986. “Recent Research on Selective Exposure to Information.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Volume 19. Ed. Leonard Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 41–80.
Goldberg, Marvin E. and Gerald J. Gorn. 1987. “Happy and Sad TV Programs: How They Affect Reactions to Commercials.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 387–403.
Greenwald, Anthony G. 1968. “On Defining Attitude and Attitude Theory.” InPsychological Foundations of Attitudes. Eds. Anthony G. Greenwald, Timothy C. Brock, and Thomas M. Ostrom. New York: Academic Press, 361–388.
Hirschman, Elizabeth C. 1981. “Retail Research and Theory.” InReview of Marketing. Eds. Ben M. Enis and Kenneth J. Roering. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 120–133.
Holbrook, Morris B. 1978. “Beyond Attitude Structure: Toward the Informational Determinants of Attitude.”Journal of Marketing Research 15 (November): 545–556.
Holbrook, Morris B. and Rajeev Batra. 1987. “Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 404–420.
Howard, John A. and Jagdish N. Sheth. 1969.The Theory of Buyer Behavior. New York: Wiley.
Izard, Carroll E. 1977.Human Emotion. New York: Plenum.
Jacoby, Jacob and Robert W. Chestnut. 1978.Brand Loyalty Measurement and Management. New York: Wiley.
Jacoby, Jacob and David B. Kyner. 1973. “Brand Loyalty Versus Repeat Purchase Behavior.”Journal of Marketing Research 10 (February): 1–9.
Jacoby, Jacob and Jerry C. Olson. 1970. “An Attitudinal Model of Brand Loyalty: Conceptual Underpinnings and Instrumentation Research.”Purdue Papers in Consumer Psychology 159. Purdue University.
Jackson, Barbara B. 1987.Winning and Keeping Industrial Customers: The Dynamics of Customer Relationships. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
Johnson, Blair T. and Alice H. Eagly. 1989. “Effects of Involvement on Persuasion: A Meta-Analysis.”Psychological Bulletin 106 (September): 290–314.
Jöreskog, Karl G. 1971. “Statistical Analysis of Sets of Congeneric Tests.”Psychometrika 36 (June): 109–133.
Kahn, Barbara E., Manohar U. Kalwani, and Donald G. Morrison. 1986. “Measuring Variety Seeking and Reinforcement Behaviors Using Panel Data.”Journal of Marketing Research 23 (May): 89–100.
Kotler, Philip. 1984.Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, and Control. Fifth Edition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Krosnick, Jon A. 1989. “Attitude Importance and Attitude Accessibility.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 15 (September): 297–308.
Lutz, Richard J. and Paul R. Winn. 1974. “Developing a Bayesian Measure of Brand Loyalty: A Preliminary Report.” InCombined Proceedings. Ed. Ronald C. Curhan. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 104–108.
MacKenzie, Scott B., Richard J. Lutz, and George E. Belch. 1986. “The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations.”Journal of Marketing Research 23 (May): 130–143.
Mandler, George. 1976.Mind and Emotion. Malabar, FL: Krieger.
Massey, William F., David B. Montgomery, and Donald G. Morrison. 1970.Stochastic Models of Buyer Behavior. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Mazurski, David and Jacob Jacoby. 1986. “Exploring the Development of Store Images.”Journal of Retailing 62 (Summer): 145–165.
Mischel, Walter, Brian Coates, and Antonette Raskoff. 1968. “Effects of Success and Failure on Self-Gratification.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 10 (December): 381–390.
Mitchell, Andrew A. and Jerry C. Olson. 1981. “Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude?”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (August): 318–332.
Moore, William L. and Donald R. Lehmann. 1980. “Individual Differences in Search Behavior for a Nondurable.”Journal of Consumer Research 7 (December): 296–307.
Newman, Joseph W. and Richard Staelin. 1972. “Prepurchase Information Seeking for New Cars and Major Household Appliances.”Journal of Marketing Research 9 (August): 249–257.
Oliva, Terence A., Richard L. Oliver, and Ian C. MacMillan. 1992. “A Catastrophe Model for Developing Service Satisfaction Strategies.”Journal of Marketing 56 (July): 83–95.
Oliver, Richard L. 1980. “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.”Journal of Marketing Research 17 (November): 460–469.
————— 1992. “An Investigation of the Attribute Basis of Emotion and Related Affects in Consumption: Suggestions for a Stage-Specific Satisfaction Framework.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Volume 19. Eds. John Sherry and Brian Sternthal. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 237–244.
Parasuraman, A., Valarie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1985. “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research.”Journal of Marketing 49 (Fall): 41–50.
Plutchik, Robert. 1980.Emotion: A Psycho-Evolutionary Synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.
Porter, Michael E. 1980.Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors. New York: Macmillan.
Ratchford, Brian T. 1980. “The Value of Information for Selected Appliances.”Journal of Marketing Research 17 (February): 14–25.
Sherif, Carolyn W. and Carl I. Hovland. 1961.Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Sherif, Carolyn W., Merrilea Kelley, Lewis H. Rogers, Jr., Gian Sarup, and Bennett I. Tittler. 1973. “Personal Involvement, Social Judgment, and Action.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 27 (September): 311–327.
Sirgy, M. Joseph and A. Coskun Samli. 1985. “A Path Analytic Model of Store Loyalty Involving Self-Concept, Store Image, Geographic Loyalty and Socioeconomic Status.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 13 (Summer): 265–291.
Smith, Eliot R. and James R. Kluegel. 1982. “Cognitive and Social Bases of Emotional Experience: Outcome, Attribution and Affect.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43 (June): 1129–1141.
Smith, Robert E. and William R. Swinyard. 1983. “Attitude Behavior Consistency: The Impact of Product Trial Versus Advertising.”Journal of Marketing Research 20 (August): 257–267.
Smith, Robert E. and William R. Swinyard. 1988. “Cognitive Response to Advertising and Trial: Belief Strength, Belief Confidence and Product Curiosity.”Journal of Advertising 17 (September): 3–14.
Snyder, Mark and Deborah Kendzierski. 1982. “Acting on One’s Attitude: Procedures for Linking Attitude and Behavior.”Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 18 (March): 165–183.
Tellis, Gerard J. 1988. “Advertising Exposure, Loyalty, and Brand Purchase: A Two-Stage Model of Choice.”Journal of Marketing Research 25 (May): 134–144.
Tesser, Abraham and Mary C. Conlee. 1975. “Some Effects of Time and Thought on Attitude Polarization.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 31 (February): 262–270.
Urbany, Joel E., Peter R. Dickson, and William L. Wilkie. 1989. “Buyer Uncertainty and Information Search.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (September): 208–215.
Warland, Rex H. and John Sample. 1973. “Response Certainty as a Moderator Variable in Attitude Measurement.”Rural Sociology 38 (Summer): 174–186.
Westbrook, Robert A. 1987. “Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Post-Purchase Processes.”Journal of Marketing Research 24 (August): 258–270.
Wicker, Allan W. 1969. “Attitude Versus Actions: The Relationship of Verbal and Overt Behavioral Responses to Attitude Objects.”Journal of Social Issues 25 (Autumn): 41–78.
Wood, Wendy. 1982. “Retrieval of Attitude-Relevant Information From Memory: Effects on Susceptibility to Persuasion and on Intrinsic Motivation.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (May): 798–810.
Zajonc, Robert B. 1980. “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need no Inferences.”American Psychologist 35 (February): 151–175.
Zanna, Mark P., James M. Olson, and Russell H. Fazio. 1981. “Self-Perception and Attitude-Behavior Consistency.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 7 (June): 252–256.
His research interests include consumer decision making, information processing, and consumer loyalty. He has published in theJournal of Consumer Research andAdvances in Consumer Research.
His research interests are consumer information processing, persuasion cues in advertising, and international marketing. His articles have appeared in theJournal of Consumer Research, Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Consumer Psychology, andCanadian Journal of Administrative Sciences as well as in a number of conference proceedings.
About this article
Cite this article
Dick, A.S., Basu, K. Customer loyalty: Toward an integrated conceptual framework. JAMS 22, 99–113 (1994). https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070394222001