Reproductive Sciences

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 243–252 | Cite as

In Vitro Culture of Mouse Embryos Reduces Differential Gene Expression Between Inner Cell Mass and Trophectoderm

  • G. Giritharan
  • L. Delle Piane
  • A. Donjacour
  • F. J. Esteban
  • J. A. Horcajadas
  • E. Maltepe
  • P. RinaudoEmail author
Original Articles


Differences in gene expression and imprinting have been reported, comparing in vivo versus in vitro generated preimplantation embryos. Furthermore, mouse studies have shown that placenta development is altered following in vitro culture. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these findings are unknown. We therefore isolated trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cells from in vivo and in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos and evaluated their transcriptome using microarrays. We found that the transcriptomes of in vitro produced ICM and TE cells showed remarkably few differences compared to ICM and TE cells of in vivo generated embryos. In vitro fertilization embryos showed a reduced number of TE cells compared to in vivo embryos. In addition, TE of IVF embryos showed significant downregulation of solute transporter genes and of genes involved in placenta formation (Eomesodermin, Socs3) or implantation (Hbegf). In summary, IVF and embryo culture significantly affects the transcriptome of ICM and TE cells.


ICM TE gene expression mouse embryo microarray 


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Copyright information

© Society for Reproductive Investigation 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Giritharan
    • 1
  • L. Delle Piane
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Donjacour
    • 1
  • F. J. Esteban
    • 3
  • J. A. Horcajadas
    • 4
  • E. Maltepe
    • 1
  • P. Rinaudo
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Obstetric and GynecologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Reproductive Medicine and IVF Unit, Department of Obstetrical and Gynecological SciencesUniversity of TorinoTorinoItaly
  3. 3.Department of Experimental Biology, Systems Biology UnitUniversity of JaenJaenSpain
  4. 4.Fundacion IVI and iGenomix, Araid at I + CSHospital Miguel ServetZaragozaSpain
  5. 5.Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and InfertilityUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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