Reproductive Sciences

, Volume 18, Issue 12, pp 1246–1252 | Cite as

Multiparity Causes Uncoordinated Activity of Pelvic- and Perineal-Striated Muscles and Urodynamic Changes in Rabbits

  • Margarita Martínez-GómezEmail author
  • Germán Mendoza-Martínez
  • Dora Luz Corona-Quintanilla
  • Víctor Fajardo
  • Jorge Rodríguez-Antolín
  • Francisco Castelán
Original Articles


Temporal and coordinated activation of pelvic- (pubococcygeous) and perineal- (bulbospongiosus and ischiocavernosus) striated muscles occurs during micturition in female rabbits. We have hypothesized that the coordinated activation of pelvic and perineal muscles is modified during the micturition of young multiparous rabbits. Young virgin and multiparous female chinchilla rabbits were used to simultaneously record cystometrograms and electromyograms of the pubococcygeous, ischocavernosus, and bulbospongiosus muscles. Bladder function was assessed using standard urodynamic variables. The temporal coordination of pelvic- and perineal-striated muscle activity was changed in multiparous rabbits. The cystometrogram recordings were different than those obtained from virgin rabbits, as seen in alterations of the threshold volume, the residual volume, the voiding duration, and the maximum pressure. In rabbits, we find that multiparity causes uncoordinated activity of pubococcygeous, ischiocavernosus, and bulbospongiosus muscles and modifies the urodynamics.


multiparity micturition striated musculature pelvic floor perineum 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Grandadam F, Lluel P, Palea S, Martin DJ. Pharmacological and urodynamic changes in rat urinary bladder function after multiple pregnancies. BJU Int. 1999;84(7):861–866.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wilfehrt HM, Carson CC 3rd, Marson L. Bladder function in female rats: effects of aging and pregnancy. Physiol Behav. 1999;68(1–2):195–203.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hannestad YS, Rortveit G, Sandvik H, Hunskaar S. A community-based epidemiological survey of female urinary incontinence: the Norwegian EPINCONT study. Epidemiology of Incontinence in the County of Nord-Trondelag. J Clin Epidemiol. 2000;53(11):1150–1157.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ashton-Miller JA, DeLancey JO. Functional anatomy of the female pelvic floor. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2007;1101:266–296.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dietz HP, Schierlitz L. Pelvic floor trauma in childbirth—myth or reality? Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005;45(1):3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rogers RG, Leeman LL. Postpartum genitourinary changes. Urol Clin North Am. 2007;34(5):13–21.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Herbruck LF. The impact of childbirth on the pelvic floor. Urol Nurs. 2008;28(3):173–184.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Shafik A, Shafik AA, El Sibai O, Shafik IA. Effect of micturition on clitoris and cavernosus muscles: an electromyographic study. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19(4):531–535.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hijaz A, Daneshgari F, Sievert KD, Damaser MS. Animal models of female stress urinary incontinence. J Urol. 2008;179(6):2103–2110.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    le Feber J, van Asselt E. Pudendal nerve stimulation induces urethral contraction and relaxation. Am J Physiol. 1999;277(5 Pt 2):R1368–R1375.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McKenna KE, Nadelhaft I. The organization of the pudendal nerve in the male and female rat. J Comp Neurol. 1986;248(4):532–549.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Martinez-Gómez M, Lucio RA, Carro M, Pacheco P, Hudson R. Striated muscles and scent glands associated with the vaginal tract of the rabbit. Anat Rec. 1997;247(4):486–495.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cruz Y, Hudson R, Pacheco P, Lucio RA, Martínez-Gómez M. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of perineal muscles in the female rabbit. Physiol Behav. 2002;75(1–2):33–40.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Corona-Quintanilla DL, Castelán F, Fajardo V, Manzo J, Martínez-Gómez M. Temporal coordination of pelvic and perineal striated muscle activity during micturition in female rabbits. J Urol. 2009;181(3):1452–1458.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fajardo V, Pacheco P, Hudson R, Jiménez I, Martínez-Gómez M. Differences in morphology and contractility of the bulbospongiosus and pubococcygeus muscles in nulliparous and multiparous rabbits. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2008;19(6):843–849.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakircioglu ME, Sievert KD, Lau A, Lin CS, Lue TF. The effect of pregnancy and delivery on the function and ultrastructure of the rat bladder and urethra. BJU Int. 2000;85(3):350–361.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Rocha MA, Sartori MG, De Jesus Simoes M, et al. Impact of pregnancy and childbirth on female rats’ urethral nerve fibers. Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2007;18(12):1453–1458.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lin AS, Carrier S, Morgan DM, Lue TF. Effect of simulated birth trauma on the urinary continence mechanism in the rat. Urology. 1998;52(1):143–151.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tammela TL, Wein AJ, Levin RM. Effect of tetrodotoxin on the phasic and tonic responses of isolated rabbit urinary bladder smooth muscle to field stimulation. J Urol. 1992;148(6):1937–1940.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chacko S, Chang S, Hypolite J, Disanto M, Wein A. Alteration of contractile and regulatory proteins following partial bladder outlet obstruction. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl. 2004;(215):26–36.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Matsumoto S, Chichester P, Bratslavsky G, Kogan BA, Levin RM. The functional and structural response to distention of the rabbit whole bladder in vitro. J Urol. 2002;168(6):2677–2681.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jiang HH, Gustilo-Ashby AM, Salcedo LB, et al. Electrophysiological function during voiding after simulated childbirth injuries. Exp Neurol. 2009;215(2):342–348.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Resplande J, Gholami SS, Graziottin TM, et al. Long-term effect of ovariectomy and simulated birth trauma on the lower urinary tract of female rats. J Urol. 2002;168(1):323–330.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bridges RS, Byrnes EM. Reproductive experience reduces circulating 17beta-estradiol and prolactin levels during proestrus and alters estrogen sensitivity in female rats. Endocrinology. 2006;147(5):2575–2582.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hextall A. Oestrogens and lower urinary tract function. Maturitas. 2000;36(2):83–92.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith P, Heimer G, Norgren A, Ulmsten U. Localization of steroid hormone receptors in the pelvic muscles. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1993;50(1):83–85.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li S, Hydery T, Juan Y, et al. The effect of 2- and 4-week ovariectomy on female rabbit urinary bladder function. Urology. 2009;74(3):691–696.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Alvarado M, Cuevas E, Lara-García M, et al. Effect of gonadal hormones on the cross-sectional area of pubococcygeus muscle fibers in male rat. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008;291(5):586–592.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cuevas E, Camacho M, Alvarado M, Hudson R, Pacheco P. Participation of estradiol and progesterone in the retrograde labeling of pubococcygeus motoneurons of the female rat. Neuroscience. 2006;140(4):1435–1442.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weidner AC, Barber MD, Visco AG, Bump RC, Sanders DB. Pelvic muscle electromyography of levator ani and external anal sphincter in nulliparous women and women with pelvic floor dysfunction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183(6):1390–1399.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shafik A, El-Sibai O. Study of the levator ani muscle in the multipara: role of levator dysfunction in defecation disorders. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;22(2):187–192.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Soderberg MW, Johansson B, Masironi B, et al. Pelvic floor sex steroid hormone receptors, distribution and expression in pre- and postmenopausal stress urinary incontinent women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007;86(11):1377–1384.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Reproductive Investigation 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margarita Martínez-Gómez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
    Email author
  • Germán Mendoza-Martínez
    • 3
  • Dora Luz Corona-Quintanilla
    • 2
  • Víctor Fajardo
    • 4
  • Jorge Rodríguez-Antolín
    • 2
  • Francisco Castelán
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Depto. de Biología Celular y Fisiología, Instituto de Investigaciones BiomédicasUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM)MéxicoMéxico
  2. 2.Centro Tlaxcala de Biología de la ConductaUniversidad Autónoma de Tlaxcala (UATx)TlaxcalaMéxico
  3. 3.Maestría en Ciencias Biológicas, UATxTlaxcalaMéxico
  4. 4.Fac. de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMéxico
  5. 5.Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas, Unidad Periférica Tlaxcala-UNAMUniversidad Autónoma de TlaxcalaTlaxcalaMéxico

Personalised recommendations