Accelerating Availability of New Vaccines: The Role of the International Community


Most vaccines available to national immunization programs rely on old technologies, are produced by a wide range of laboratories, and meet a variety of standards. The world, however, is facing an explosion of new vaccine products and technologies. The challenge facing the international community is to facilitate global access to high quality, affordable vaccines against priority diseases. Strategies developed to address this challenge are targeting assistance to the neediest countries, tiering of prices for new vaccines according to a segmented market, and assuring access to new technologies for viable local producers. The international community may intervene in three major areas: vaccine development, introduction, and self-sufficiency. Necessary activities include prioritization of vaccine options based on epidemiological disease burden, coordinating research and development, minimizing risks and costs of clinical trials, and strengthening infrastructure so that countries can take responsibility for their own vaccine supply needs. The indication that these activities are being effectively managed is the degree to which new vaccines against important diseases are available in all countries for the majority of the population at risk.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 189

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.


  1. 1.

    Batson A, Evans P, Milstien, JB. The crisis in vaccine supply: a framework for action. Vaccine. 1994;12(11): 963–965.

  2. 2.

    Rizzetto M, Purcell RH, Gerin JL, Verme G. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Edizioni Minerva Medica, Turin, 1997.Proceedings of IX Triennial International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis and Liver Disease. Rome, Italy, April 21–25, 1996.

  3. 3.

    Milstien JB, Evans P, Batson A. Discussion: Vaccine production and supply in developing countries. In: Cutts FT and Smith PG ed. Vaccination & World Health. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons; 1994:60–66.

  4. 4.

    Milstien JB, Gellin BG, Kane M, di Fabio JL, Homma A. Global DTP Manufacturing Capacity and Capability. Status report: January 1995. Vaccine. 1996;14(4):313–320.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Julie B. Milstien PhD.

Additional information

Many of the ideas and recommendations in this article were discussed and debated at a meeting, “The Global Supply of New Vaccines,” co-sponsored by the Children’s Vaccine Initiative, and the Rockefeller Foundation, February 3–7, 1997, Bellago, Italy.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Milstien, J.B., Batson, A. Accelerating Availability of New Vaccines: The Role of the International Community. Ther Innov Regul Sci 32, 175–182 (1998) doi:10.1177/009286159803200125

Download citation

Key Words

  • Vaccine development
  • Immunization
  • Harmonization
  • Vaccine markets
  • Vaccine financing