Advertisement

The role of emotions in marketing

  • Richard P. Bagozzi
  • Mahesh Gopinath
  • Prashanth U. Nyer
Article

Abstract

Emotions are mental states of readiness that arise from appraisals of events or one’s own thoughts. In this article, the authors discuss the differentiation of emotions from affect, moods, and attitudes, and outline an appraisal theory of emotions. Next, various measurement issues are considered. This is followed by an analysis of the role of arousal in emotions. Emotions as markers, mediators, and moderators of consumer responses are then analyzed. The authors turn next to the influence of emotions on cognitive processes, which is followed by a study of the implications of emotions for volitions, goal-directed behavior, and decisions to help. Emotions and customer satisfaction are briefly explored, too. The article closes with a number of questions for future research.

Keywords

Positive Affect Negative Emotion Positive Emotion Mood State Positive Mood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Aaker, David A., Douglas M. Stayman, and Michael R. Hagerty. 1986. “Warmth in Advertising: Measurement, Impact and Sequence Effects.”Journal of Consumer Research 12 (March): 365–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. —,—, and Richard Vezina. 1988. “Identifying Feelings Elicited by Advertising.”Psychology & Marketing 5 (Spring): 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen, Chris T. and Chris A. Janiszewski. 1989. “Assessing the Role of Contingency Awareness in Attitudinal Conditioning With Implications for Advertising Research.”Journal of Marketing Research 26 (February): 30–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Austin, James T. and Jeffrey B. Vancouver. 1996. “Goal Constructs in Psychology: Structure, Process, and Content.”Psychological Bulletin 120:338–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bagozzi, Richard P. 1991a. “Further Thoughts on the Validity of Measures of Elation, Gladness, and Joy.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 61:98–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. — 1991b. “The Role of Psychophysiology in Consumer Research.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 124–161.Google Scholar
  7. — 1992. “The Self-Regulation of Attitudes, Intentions, and Behavior.”Social Psychology Quarterly 55:178–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. — 1993. “An Examination of the Psychometric Properties of Measures of Negative Affect in the PANAS-X Scales.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65:836–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. — 1994. “The Effects of Arousal on the Organization of Positive and Negative Affect and Cognitions: Application to Attitude Theory.”Structural Equation Modeling 1:222–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. — 1996. “The Role of Arousal in the Creation and Control of the Halo Effect in Attitude Models.”Psychology & Marketing 13:235–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bagozzi, Richard P. Forthcoming. “Happiness.” InEncyclopedia of Human Emotions. Eds. David Levinson, James Ponzetti, and Peter Jorgensen. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. — and Robert E. Burnkrant. 1979. “Attitude Organization and the Attitude-Behavior Relationship.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:913–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bagozzi, Richard P. and Utpal Dholakia. 1998. “Goal-Setting and Goal-Striving in Consumer Behavior.” Unpublished working paper, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  14. — and Elizabeth A. Edwards. 1998. “Goal Setting and Goal Pursuit in the Regulation of Body Weight.”Psychology and Health 13:593–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. — and David J. Moore. 1994. “Public Service Advertisements: Emotion and Empathy Guide Prosocial Behavior.”Journal of Marketing 58:56–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. —, Hans Baumgartner, and Rik Pieters. 1998. “Goal-Directed Emotions.”Cognition and Emotion 12:1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bagozzi, Richard P., Nancy Wong, and Youjae Yi. 1998. “The Representation of Affect in Independent- and Interdependent-Based Cultures.” Unpublished working paper, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  18. Barrett, Lisa Feldman and James A. Russell. 1998. “Independence and Bipolarity in the Structure of Current Affect.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:967–984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bartlett, James C. and John W. Santrock. 1979. “Affect-Dependent Episodic Memory in Young Children.”Child Development 50:513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. —, Georgia Burleson, and John W. Santrock. 1982. “Emotional Mood and Memory in Young Children.”Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 34:59–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Batra, Rajeev and Olli T. Ahtola. 1990. “Measuring the Hedonic and Utilitarian Sources of Consumer Attitudes.”Marketing Letters 2:159–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. — and Morris B. Holbrook. 1990. “Developing a Typology of Affective Responses to Advertising.”Psychology & Marketing 7 (Spring): 11–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. — and Michael L. Ray. 1986. “Affective Responses Mediating Acceptance of Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Research 13 (September): 234–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. — and Douglas M. Stayman. 1990. “The Role of Mood in Advertising Effectiveness.”Journal of Consumer Research 17:203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. — and Debra Stephens. 1994. “Attitudinal Effects of Ad-Evoked Moods and Emotions: The Moderating Role of Motivation.”Psychology & Marketing 11:199–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bless, Herbert, Gerd Bohner, Norbert Schwarz, and Fritz Strack. 1990. “Mood and Persuasion: A Cognitive Response Analysis.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 16 (2):331–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. —, Gerald L. Clore, Norbert Schwarz, Verena Golisano, Christina Rabe, and Marcus Wolk. 1996. “Mood and the Use of Scripts: Does a Happy Mood Really Lead to Mindlessness?”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (4):665–679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bohner, Gerd, Kimberly Crow, Hans-Peter Erb, and Norbert Schwarz. 1992. “Affect and Persuasion: Mood Effects on the Processing of Message Content and Context Cues and on Subsequent Behavior.”European Journal of Social Psychology 22:511–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. —, Shelly Chaiken, and Piroska Hunyadi. 1994. “The Role of Mood and Message Ambiguity in the Interplay of Heuristic and Systematic Processing.”European Journal of Social Psychology 24:207–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Boninger, David S., Faith Gleicher, John Hetts, David Armor, and E. Moore. 1994. “The Influence of Counterfactual Thinking on Intentions and Behavior.” Unpublished raw data, reported in Gleicher et al. (1995).Google Scholar
  31. Bower, Gordan H. 1981. “Mood and Memory.”American Psychologist 36 (2): 129–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. — and Paul R. Cohen. 1982. “Emotional Influences in Memory and Thinking: Data and Theory.” InAffect and Cognition. Eds. Margaret Clark and Susan T. Fiske. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 291–331.Google Scholar
  33. — and John D. Mayer. 1985. “Failure to Replicate Mood-Dependent Retrieval.”Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 23:39–42.Google Scholar
  34. —, Kenneth P. Monteiro, and Stephen G. Gilligan. 1978. “Emotional Mood as a Context for Learning and Recall.”Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 17:573–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. —, Stephen G. Gilligan, and Kenneth P. Monteiro. 1981. “Selectivity of Learning Caused by Affective States.”Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 110 (4):451–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Bradburn, Norman M. 1969.The Structure of Psychological Well-Being. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  37. Breckler, Steven J. and Elizabeth C. Wiggins. 1989. “Affect Versus Evaluation in the Structure of Attitudes.”Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 25:253–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brown, Steven P. and Douglas M. Stayman. 1992. “Antecedents and Consequences of Attitude Toward the Ad: A Meta-Analysis.”Journal of Consumer Research 19 (June): 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. —, William L. Cron, and John W. Slocum Jr. 1997. “Effects of Goal-Directed Emotions on Salesperson Volitions, Behavior, and Performance: A longitudinal Study.”Journal of Marketing 61:39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Burke, Marian C. and Julie A. Edell. 1989. “The Impact of Feelings on Ad-Based Affect and Cognition.”Journal of Marketing Research 26:69–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Cacioppo, John T., Gary G. Berntson, and David J. Klein. 1992. “What Is an Emotion? The Role of Somatovisceral Afference, With Special Emphasis on Somatovisceral ‘Illusions.’.”Review of Personality and Social Psychology 14:63–98.Google Scholar
  42. Cantor, Joanne R., Jennings Bryant, and Dolf Zillman. 1974. “Enhancement of Humor Appreciation by Transferred Excitation.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30:812–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Clark, Margaret D. and John D. Teasdale. 1982. “Diurnal Variation in Clinical Depression and Accessibility of Memories of Positive and Negative Experiences.”Journal of Abnormal Psychology 91:87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Clore, Gerald L. and Donn Byrne. 1974. “A Reinforcement Affect Model of Attraction.” InFoundations of Interpersonal Attraction. Ed. T. L. Huston. New York: Academic Press, 143–170.Google Scholar
  45. —, Norbert Schwarz, and Michael Conway. 1994. “Affective Causes and Consequences of Social Information Processing.” InHandbook of Social Cognition, 2nd ed., Vol. 1. Eds. Robert Wyer, Thomas Srull, and Alice Isen. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 323–417.Google Scholar
  46. Cohen, Joel B. and Charles S. Areni. 1991. “Affect and Consumer Behavior.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 188–240.Google Scholar
  47. Crites Jr., Stephen L., Leandre R. Fabrigar, and Richard E. Petty. 1994. “Measuring the Affective and Cognitive Properties of Attitudes: Conceptual and Methodological Issues.”Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 20 (December): 619–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Damasio, Antonio R. 1994.Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: Avon.Google Scholar
  49. Diener, Ed and Robert A. Emmons 1985. “The Independence of Positive and Negative Affect.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47:1105–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. — and Randy J. Larsen. 1993. “The Experience of Emotional Well-Being.” InHandbook of Emotions. Eds. Michael Lewis and Jeannette M. Haviland. New York: Guilford, 405–415.Google Scholar
  51. Donovan, Robert J. and John R. Rossiter. 1982. “Store Atmospherics: An Environmental Psychology Approach.”Journal of Retailing 58:34–57.Google Scholar
  52. Dubé, Laurette, Marie-Claude Bélanger, and Elyse Trudeau. 1996. “The Role of Emotions in Health Care Satisfaction.”Journal of Health Care Marketing 16 (Summer):45–51.Google Scholar
  53. Dutton, Donald G. and Arthur P. Aron. 1974. “Some Evidence for Heightened Sexual Attraction Under Conditions of High Anxiety.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 30:510–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Eagly, Alice H. and Shelly Chaiken. 1993.The Psychology of Attitudes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  55. —, Antonio Mladinic, and Stacey Otto. 1994. Cognitive and Affective Bases of Attitudes Toward Social Groups and Social Policies.Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 30:113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Edell, Julie A. and Marian Chapman Burke. 1987. “The Power of Feelings in Understanding Advertising Effects.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (December): 421–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Eich, Eric J. and Isabel M. Birnbaum. 1982. “Repetition, Cueing and State-Dependent Memory.”Memory and Cognition 10:103–114.Google Scholar
  58. Fiedler, Klaus. 1990. “Mood-dependent Selectivity in Social Cognition.” InEuropean Review of Social Psychology, Vol. 1. Eds. Wolfgang Stroebe and Miles Hewstone. New York: John Wiley, 1–32.Google Scholar
  59. Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen. 1975.Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  60. Folkes, Valerie, Susan Koletsky, and John L. Graham. 1987. “A Field Study of Causal Inferences and Consumer Reaction: The View From the Airport.”Journal of Consumer Research 13 (March):534–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Forgas, Joseph P. 1994. “The Role of Emotion in Social Judgments: An Introductory Review and an Affect Infusion Model (AIM).”European Journal of Social Psychology 24:1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. — 1995. “Mood and Judgment: The Affect Infusion Model (AIM).”Psychological Bulletin 117 (1):39–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. — and Gordon H. Bower. 1987. “Mood Effects on Person-Perception Judgments.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 53 (1):53–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Friestad, Marian and Esther Thorson. 1986. “Emotion-Eliciting Advertising: Effect on Long-term Memory and Judgment.”Advances in Consumer Research 13:111–115.Google Scholar
  65. Frijda, Nico H. 1986.The Emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. — 1993. “Moods, Emotion Episodes, and Emotions.” InHandbook of Emotions. Eds. M. Lewis and J. M. Haviland. New York: Guilford, 381–403.Google Scholar
  67. — 1994. “Emotions Are Functional, Most of the Time.” InThe Nature of Emotion. Eds. P. Ekman and R. J. Davidson, New York: Oxford University Press, 112–122.Google Scholar
  68. —, Peter Kuipers, and Elisabeth ter Schure. 1989. “Relations Among Emotion, Appraisal, and Emotional Action Readiness.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57:212–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gardner, Meryl P. 1985. “Mood States and Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review.”Journal of Consumer Research 12 (December):281–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. — and G. J. Simokos. 1986. “Toward a Methodology for Assessing Effects of Instore Atmospherics.”Advances in Consumer Research 13:27–31.Google Scholar
  71. Gleicher, Faith, David S. Boninger, Alan Strathman, David Armor, John Hetts, and Mina Ahn. 1995. “With an Eye Toward the Future: The Impact of Counterfactual Thinking on Affect, Attitudes, and Behavior.” InWhat Might Have Been: The Social Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Eds. Neal J. Roese and James M. Olson. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 283–304.Google Scholar
  72. Goldberg, Marvin E. and Gerald J. Gorn. 1987. “Happy and Sad TV Programs: How They Affect Reactions to Commercials.”Journal of Consumer Research 14:387–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Gopinath, Mahesh and Richard P. Bagozzi. 1999. “Cognitive Appraisals Leading to Consumer Emotions and Action Tendencies.” Unpublished working paper, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  74. Green, Donald P., Susan L. Goldman, and Peter Salovey. 1993. “Measurement Error Masks Bipolarity in Affect Ratings.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64:1029–1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hayes-Roth, B. 1977. “Evolution of Cognitive Structures and Processes.”Psychological Review 84:260–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hill, Ronald P. and Meryl P. Gardner. 1987. “The Buying Process: Effects of and on Consumer Mood States.”Advances in Consumer Research 14:408–410.Google Scholar
  77. Hochschild, Arlie R. 1983.The Managed Heart. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  78. Holbrook, Morris B. and Rajeev Batra. 1987. “Assessing the Role of Emotions as Mediators of Consumer Responses to Advertising.”Journal of Consumer Research 14:404–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Isen, Alice M. 1984. “Toward Understanding the Role of Affect in Cognition.” InHandbook of Social Cognition, Vol. 3. Eds. Robert Wyer, Thomas Srull, and Alice Isen. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 179–236.Google Scholar
  80. — 1987. “Positive Affect, Cognitive Processes, and Social Behavior.” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 20. Ed. Leonard Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 203–253.Google Scholar
  81. — 1989. “Some Ways in Which Affect Influences Cognitive Processes: Implications for Advertising and Consumer Behavior.” InCognitive and Affective Responses to Advertising. Eds. Patricia Cafferata and Alice M. Tybout. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 91–117.Google Scholar
  82. — and Kimberly A. Daubman. 1984. “The Influence of Affect on Categorization.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47 (6):1206–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. —, Thomas E. Shalker, Margaret Clark, and Lynn Karp. 1978. “Affect, Accessibility of Material in Memory, and Behavior: A Cognitive Loop?”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 36 (1):1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. —, Mitzi M. Johnson, Elizabeth Mertz, and Gregory F. Robinson. 1985. “The Influence of Positive Affect on the Unusualness of Word Associations.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48 (6): 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. —, Kimberly A. Daubman, and Gary P. Nowicki. 1987. “Positive Affect Facilitates Creative Problem Solving.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52 (6):1122–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. —, Paula M. Niedenthal, and Nancy Cantor. 1992. “An Influence of Positive Affect on Social Categorization.”Motivation and Emotion 16 (1):65–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Izard, Carroll E. 1972.Patterns of Emotions: A New Analysis of Anxiety and Depression. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  88. — 1991.The Psychology of Emotions. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  89. — 1992. “Basic Emotions, Relations Among Emotions, and Emotion-Cognition Relations.”Psychological Review 99:561–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. James, William. [1890] 1950.The Priciples of Psychology. Vol 2. New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  91. Laird, James D., John J. Wagener, Mark Halal, and Martha Szegda. 1982. “Remembering What You Feel: The Effects of Emotion on Memory.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 42 (4): 646–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Larsen, Randy J. and Ed Diener. 1992. “Promises and Problems With the Circumplex Model of Emotion.” InReview of Personality and Social Psychology: Vol. 14. Emotional and Social Behavior. Ed. M. S. Clark. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 25–59.Google Scholar
  93. Lazarus, Richard S. 1982. “Thoughts on the Relations Between Emotion and Cognition.”American Psychologist 35:1019–1024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. — 1991.Emotion and Adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  95. LeDoux, Joseph. 1996.The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  96. Lewis, Michael 1993. “Self-Conscious Emotions: Embarrassment, Pride, Shame, and Guilt.” InHandbook of Emotions. Eds. M. Lewis and J. M. Haviland. New York: Guilford, 563–573.Google Scholar
  97. Locke, Karen. 1996. “A Funny Thing Happened! The Management of Consumer Emotions in Service Encounters.”Organizational Science 7 (January–February):40–59.Google Scholar
  98. MacKenzie, Scott B., Richard J. Lutz, and George Belch. 1986. “The Role of Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Advertising Effectiveness: A Test of Competing Explanations.”Journal of Marketing Research 23 (May):130–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Mackie, Diane M. and Leila T. Worth. 1989. “Processing Deficits and the Mediation of Positive Affect in Persuasion.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57 (1):27–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Mano, Haim and Richard L. Oliver. 1993. “Assessing the Dimensionality and Structure of the Consumption Experience: Evaluation, Feeling, and Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Research 20 (December): 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Manstead, Antony S. R. and Hugh L. Wagner. 1981. “Arousal, Cognition, and Emotion: An Appraisal of Two-Factor Theory.”Current Psychological Reviews 1: 35–54.Google Scholar
  102. Marcel, Anthony J. 1983. “Conscious and Unconscious Perception: An Approach to the Relations Between Phenomenal Experience and Perceptual Processes.”Cognitive Psychology 15: 238–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Markus, Hazel R. and Shinobu Kitayama. 1994. “The Cultural Construction of Self and Emotion: Implications for Social Behavior.” In Emotion and Culture: Empirical Studies of Mutual Influence. Eds. S. Kitayama and H. R. Markus. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 89–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Martin, Leonard L., David W. Ward, John W. Achee, and Robert S. Wyer Jr. 1993. “Mood as Input: People Have to Interpret the Motivational Implications of Their Moods.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64 (3): 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Milliman, Ronald E. 1982. “Using Background Music to Affect the Behavior of Supermarket Shoppers.”Journal of Marketing 46 (Summer): 86–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. — 1986. “The Influence of Background Music on the Behavior of Restaurant Patrons.”Journal of Consumer Research 13: 286–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Miniard, Paul W., Sunil Bhatla, and Randall L. Rose. 1990. “On the Formation and Relationship of Ad and Brand Attitudes: An Experimental and Causal Analysis.”Journal of Marketing Research 27 (August): 290–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mitchell, Andrew A. and Jerry C. Olson. 1981. “Are Product Attribute Beliefs the Only Mediator of Advertising Effects on Brand Attitude?”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (August): 318–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Murray, Noel, Harish Sujan, Edward R. Hirt, and Mita Sujan. 1990. “The Influence of Mood on Categorization: A Cognitive Flexibility Interpretation.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 59 (3): 411–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Nasby, William and Regina Yando. 1982. “Selective Encoding and Retrieval of Affectively Valent Information.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43 (6): 1244–1253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Nyer, Prashanth U. 1997a. “Modeling the Cognitive Antecedents of Post-Consumption Emotions.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 10: 80–90.Google Scholar
  112. — 1997b. “A Study of the Relationships Between Cognitive Appraisals and Consumption Emotions.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 25 (4): 296–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Oatley, Keith 1992.Best Laid Schemes: The Psychology of Emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  114. — and Philip N. Johnson-Laird. 1987. “Towards a Cognitive Theory of Emotions.”Cognition and Emotion 1: 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Obermiller, Carl. 1985. “Varieties of Mere Exposure: The Effects of Processing Style and Repetition on Affective Response.”Journal of Consumer Research 12: 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Oliver, Richard L. 1980. “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.”Journal of Marketing Research 17 (November): 460–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. — 1993. “Cognitive, Affective, and Attribute Bases of the Satisfaction Response.”Journal of Consumer Research 20 (December): 418–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. — 1994. “Conceptual Issues in the Structural Analysis of Consumption Emotion, Satisfaction, and Quality.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 21. Eds. Chris T. Allen and Deborah Roedder John. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 16–22.Google Scholar
  119. Olney, Thomas J., Morris B. Holbrook, and Rajeev Batra. 1991. “Consumer Responses to Advertising: The Effects of Ad Content, Emotions, and Attitude Toward the Ad on Viewing Time.”Journal of Consumer Research 17 (March): 440–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Ortony, Andrew, Gerald L. Clore, and Allan Collins. 1988.The Cognitive Structure of Emotions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Parker, Dianne, Antony S. R. Manstead, and Stephen G. Stradling. 1995. “Extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour: The Role of Personal Norm.”British Journal of Social Psychology 34: 127–137.Google Scholar
  122. Parkinson, Brian. 1995.Ideas and Realities of Emotion. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  123. Parrott, Gerrod W. 1988. “The Role of Cognition in Emotional Experience.” InRecent Trends in Theoretical Psychology. Eds. W. J. Baker, L. P. Mos, H. V. Rappard, and H. J. Stam. New York: Springer-Verlag, 327–337.Google Scholar
  124. Perugini, Marco and Richard P. Bagozzi. 1998. “The Role of Desires and Anticipatory Emotions in Goal-Directed Behaviors: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior.” Unpublished working paper, University of Michigan Business School.Google Scholar
  125. Petty, Richard E. and John T. Cacioppo. 1986.Communication and Persuasion. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  126. —, David W. Schumann, Steven A. Richman, and Alan J. Strathman. 1993. “Positive Mood and Persuasion: Different Roles for Affect Under High and Low Elaboration Conditions.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64: 5–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pieters, Rik, Hans Baumgartner, and D. Allen. 1995. “A Means-End Chain Approach to Consumer Goal Structures.”International Journal of Research in Marketing 12 (3): 227–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Plutchik, Robert 1980. Emotion:A Psychoevolutionary Synthesis. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  129. Puto, Christopher P. and William D. Wells. 1984. “Informational and Transformational Advertising: The Differential Effects of Time.”Advances in Consumer Research 11: 638–643.Google Scholar
  130. Reisenzein, Rainer. 1983. “The Schachter Theory of Emotion: Two Decades Later.”Psychological Bulletin 94: 239–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Richard, René, Joop van der Pligt, and Nanne de Vries. 1995. “Anticipated Affective Reactions and Prevention of AIDS.”British Journal of Social Psychology 34: 9–21.Google Scholar
  132. Richins, Marsha L. 1997. “Measuring Emotions in the Consumption Experience.”Journal of Consumer Research 24: 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Roese, Neal J. and James M. Olson, eds. 1995.What Might Have Been: The Social Psychology of Counterfactual Thinking. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  134. Roseman, Ira J. 1991. “Appraisal Determinants of Discrete Emotions.”Cognition and Emotion 5: 161–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rozin, Paul, Jonathan Haidt, and Clark R. McCauley. 1993. “Disgust.” InHandbook of Emotions. Eds. M. Lewis and J. M. Haviland. New York: Guilford, 575–594.Google Scholar
  136. Russell, James A. 1980. “A Circumplex Model of Affect.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39 (December): 1161–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. — 1997. “How Shall an Emotion Be Called.” InCircumplex Models of Personality and Emotions. Eds. R. Plutchick and H. R. Conte. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 205–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. — and Albert Mehrabian. 1977. “Evidence for a Three-Factor Theory of Emotions.”Journal of Research in Personality 11: 273–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. —, Anna Weiss, and Gerald A. Mendelsohn. 1989. “Affect Grid: A Single-Item Scale of Pleasure and Arousal.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 493–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Ruth, Julie A., Cele C. Otnes, and Frédéric F. Brunel. 1998. “Bonds and Burdens: Gift Receipt and Relationship Reformulation.” Unpublished working paper, University of Washington.Google Scholar
  141. Salovey, Peter and Deborah Birnbaum. 1989. “Influence of Mood on Health-Related Cognitions.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 57: 539–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Sanbonmatsu, David M. and Frank R. Kardes. 1988. “The Effect of Physiological Arousal on Information Processing and Persuasion.”Journal of Consumer Research 15: 379–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schachter, Stanley and Jerome E. Singer. 1962. “Cognitive, Social, and Physiological Determinants of Emotional State.”Psychological Review 69: 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Schaller, Mark and Robert B. Cialdini. 1990. “Happiness, Sadness, and Helping: A Motivational Integration.” InHandbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior, Vol. 2. Eds. R. M. Sorrentino and E. T. Higgins. New York: Guilford, 265–296.Google Scholar
  145. Schwarz, Norbert. 1990. “Feelings as Information: Informational and Motivational Functions of Affective States.” InHandbook of Motivation and Cognition: Foundations of Social Behavior, Vol. 2. Eds. R. M. Sorrentino and E. T. Higgins. New York: Guilford, 527–561.Google Scholar
  146. — and Herbert Bless. 1991. “Happy and Mindless, But Sad and Smart? The Impact of Affective States on Analytic Reasoning.” InEmotion and Social Judgments. Ed. Joseph P. Forgas. London: Pergamon, 55–71.Google Scholar
  147. — and Gerald L. Clore. 1983. “Mood, Misattribution, and Judgments of Well-Being: Informative and Directive Functions of Affective States.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45 (3): 513–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. —, Fritz Strack, Detlev Kommer, and Dirk Wagner. 1987. “Soccer, Rooms and the Quality of Your Life: Mood Effects on Judgments of Satisfaction With Life in General and with Specific Life Domains.”European Journal of Social Psychology 17: 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Shaver, Phillip, Judith Schwartz, Donald Kirson, and Cary O’Connor. 1987. “Emotion Knowledge: Further Exploration of a Prototype Approach.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52: 1061–1086.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Shimp, Terence A. 1981. “Attitude Toward the Ad as a Mediator of Consumer Brand Choice.”Journal of Advertising 10: 9–15.Google Scholar
  151. — 1991. “Neo-Pavlovian Conditioning and Its Implications for Consumer Theory and Research.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 162–187.Google Scholar
  152. Smith, Craig A. and Phoebe C. Ellsworth. 1985. “Patterns of Cognitive Appraisals in Emotion.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 48: 813–838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Srull, Thomas K. 1983. “Affect and Memory: The Impact of Affective Reactions in Advertising on the Representation of Product Information in Memory.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 10. Eds. Richard P. Bagozzi and Alice Tybout. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 520–525.Google Scholar
  154. — 1984. “The Effects of Subjective Affective States on Memory and Judgment.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 11. Ed. Thomas C. Kinnear. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 530–533.Google Scholar
  155. Stayman, Douglas M. and David A. Aaker. 1988. “Are All the Effects of Ad-Induced Feelings Mediated by Aad?”Journal of Consumer Research 15: 368–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. — and Rajeev Batra. 1991. “Encoding and Retrieval of Ad Affect in Memory.”Journal of Marketing Research 28 (May): 232–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Stein, Nancy L., Maria D. Liwag, and Elizabeth Wade. 1996. “A Goal-Based Approach to Memory for Emotional Events: Implementations for Theories of Understanding and Socialization.” InEmotion: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Eds. R. D. Kavanaugh, B. Zimmerberg, and S. Fein. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 91–118.Google Scholar
  158. Taylor, Shirley. 1994. “Waiting for Service: the Relationship Between Delays and Evaluations of Services.”Journal of Marketing 58 (April): 56–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Teasdale, John D. and Sarah J. Fogarty. 1979. “Differential Effects of Induced Mood on Retrieval of Pleasant and Unpleasant Events From Episodic Memory.”Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88 (3): 248–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. — and Louise M. Russell. 1983. “Differential Aspects of Induced Mood on the Recall of Positive, Negative and Neutral Words.”British Journal of Clinical Psychology 22: 163–171.Google Scholar
  161. Tulving, Endel and Zena Pearlstone. 1966. “Availability Versus Accessibility of Information in Memory for Words.”Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 5: 381–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Verbeke, Willem and Richard P. Bagozzi. 1998. “Self-Conscious Emotions in the Context of Personal Selling: Performance is a Function of the Ability to Cope With Shame and Embarrassment.” Unpublished working paper, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  163. Verbeke, Willem and Richard P. Bagozzi. 1999. “Coping With Anxiety in Personal Selling: A Study of Financial Service Salespeople.” Unpublished working paper, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  164. Watson, David and Auke Tellegen. 1985. “Toward a Consensual Structure of Mood.”Psychological Bulletin 98 (September): 219–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wegener, Duane T. and Richard E. Petty. 1994. “Mood-Management Across Affective States: The Hedonic Contingency Hypothesis.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66 (6): 1034–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. — and —. 1996. “Effects of Mood on Persuasion Processes: Enhancing, Reducing, and Biasing Scrutiny of Attitude-Relevant Information.” InStriving and Feeling: Interactions Between Goals and Affect. Eds. L. L. Martin and A. Tesser. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 329–362.Google Scholar
  167. ——, and David J. Klein. 1994. “Effects of Mood on High Elaboration Attitude Change: The Mediating Role of Likelihood Judgments.”European Journal of Social Psychology 24: 25–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. ——, and Stephen M. Smith. 1995. “Positive Mood Can Increase or Decrease Message Scrutiny: The Hedonic Contingency View of Mood and Message Processing.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69 (1): 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Westbrook, Robert A. 1987. “Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Postpurchase Processes.”Journal of Marketing Research 24 (August): 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. — and Richard L. Oliver. 1991. “The Dimensionality of Consumption Emotion Patterns and Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Research 18 (June): 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wiles, Judith A. and T. Bettina Cornwell. 1990. “A Review of Methods Utilized in Measuring Affect, Feelings, and Emotion in Advertising.”Current Issues and Research in Advertising 13: 241–275.Google Scholar
  172. Worth, Leila T. and Diane M. Mackie. 1987. “Cognitive Mediation of Positive Affect in Persuasion.”Social Cognition 5: 76–94.Google Scholar
  173. Yi, Youjae. 1990. “A Critical Review of Consumer Satisfaction.” InReview of Marketing 1990. Ed. V. A. Zeithaml. Chicago: American Marketing Association, 68–123.Google Scholar
  174. Zajonc, Robert B. 1968. “Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement 9: 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. — 1980. “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences.”American Psychologist 35: 151–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. — 1984. “On the Primacy of Affect.”American Psychologist 39: 117–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. — 1998. “Emotions.” InThe Handbook of Social Psychology. Eds. D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, and G. Lindzey. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 591–632.Google Scholar
  178. — and Hazel Markus. 1982. “Affective and Cognitive Factors in Preferences.”Journal of Consumer Research 9 (September): 123–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zevon, Michael A. and Auke Tellegen. 1982. “The Structure of Mood Change: An Idiographic/Nomothetic Analysis.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43: 111–122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zillman, Dolf. 1971. “Excitation Transfer in Communication-Mediated Aggressive Behavior.”Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 7: 419–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. —. 1983. “Transfer of Excitation in Emotional Behavior.” InHandbook of Social Psychology. Eds. John T. Cacioppo and Richard E. Petty. New York: Guilford, 215–230.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard P. Bagozzi
    • 1
  • Mahesh Gopinath
    • 2
  • Prashanth U. Nyer
    • 3
  1. 1.University of MichiganUSA
  2. 2.Tulane UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  3. 3.Chapman UniversityOrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations