Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 456–467 | Cite as

A measure of long-term orientation: Development and validation

  • William O. Bearden
  • R. Bruce Money
  • Jennifer L. Nevins
Research Notes


Long-term orientation (LTO) is a salient aspect of national culture values and as such influences consumers’ decisionmaking processes. This article describes the development and validation of measures to assess LTO. Scale development procedures resulted in a two-factor, eight-item scale that reflects the tradition and planning aspects of LTO. A program of studies involving more than 2,000 respondents in four countries demonstrated the psychometric properties of the measures, their discriminant and convergent validities, and the relationship of the measures to other important theoretical concepts (e.g., consumer frugality, compulsive buying, and ethical values). The measures are applicable for investigating individual differences in LTO both within and across cultures.


measurement culture long-term orientation 


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Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • William O. Bearden
    • 1
  • R. Bruce Money
    • 2
  • Jennifer L. Nevins
    • 3
  1. 1.University of South CarolinaUSA
  2. 2.Brigham Young UniversityProvoUSA
  3. 3.Appalachian State UniversityBooneUSA

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