Advertisement

Customer satisfaction: A meta-analysis of the empirical evidence

  • David M. Szymanski
  • David H. Henard
Article

Abstract

The growing number of academic studies on customer satisfaction and the mixed findings they report complicate efforts among managers and academics to identify the antecedents to, and outcomes of, businesses having more-versus less-satisfied customers. These mixed findings and the growing emphasis by managers on having satisfied customers point to the value of empirically synthesizing the evidence on customer satisfaction to assess current knowledge. To this end, the authors conduct a meta-analysis of the reported findings on customer satisfaction. They document that equity and disconfirmation are most strongly related to customer satisfaction on average. They also find that measurement and method factors that characterize the research often moderate relationship strength between satisfaction and its antecedents and outcomes. The authors discuss the implications surrounding these effects and offer several directions for future research.

Keywords

Customer Satisfaction Consumer Research Service Recovery Consumer Satisfaction Repurchase Intention 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, J. Stacy. 1963. “Towards an Understanding of Inequity.”Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (November): 422–436.Google Scholar
  2. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Aiello, Albert, Jr, John A. Czepiel, and Larry J. Rosenberg. 1977. “Scaling the Heights of Consumer Satisfaction: An Evaluation of Alternative Measures.” InConsumer Satisfaction. Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior. Ed. Ralph L. Day. Bloomington: Indiana University School of Business, 43–50.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, Eugene W., Claes Fornell, and Donald R. Lehmann. 1994. “Customer Satisfaction, Market Share, and Profitability: Findings From Sweden.”Journal of Marketing 58 (July): 53–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ——, and Roland T. Rust. 1997. “Customer Satisfaction, Productivity, and Profitability: Differences Between Goods and Services.”Marketing Science 16 (2): 129–145.Google Scholar
  5. — and Mary W. Sullivan. 1993. “The Antecedents and Consequences of Customer Satisfaction for Firms.”Marketing Science 12 (2): 125–143.Google Scholar
  6. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Andreasen, Alan R. 1984. “Life Status Changes and Changes in Consumer Preferences and Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Research 11 (December): 784–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. — 1988. “Consumer Complaints and Redress: What We Know and What We Don’t Know.” InThe Frontier of Research in the Consumer Interest. Ed. E. Scott Maynes. Columbia, MO: American Council on Consumer Interest, 675–722.Google Scholar
  8. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Baer, Robert and Donna J. Hill. 1994. “The Impact of Satisfaction on Brand Loyalty: Urging on Classifying Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaining Behavior 7: 152–160.Google Scholar
  9. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Bearden, William O. and Jesse E. Teel. 1983. “Selected Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction and Complaint Report.”Journal of Marketing Research 20 (February): 21–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Bitner, Mary Jo. 1987. “Contextual Cues and Customer Satisfaction: The Role of Physical Surroundings and Employee Behaviors in Service Settings.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle.Google Scholar
  11. —. 1990. “Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses.”Journal of Marketing 54 (April): 69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Bloemer, Jose and Ko de Ruyter. 1995. “Integrating Service Quality and Satisfaction: Pain in the Neck or Marketing Opportunity?”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 8: 44–52.Google Scholar
  13. Bolton, Ruth N. and James H. Drew. 1991. “A Longitudinal Analysis of the Impact of Service Changes on Customer Attitudes.”Journal of Marketing 55 (January): 1–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burnett, John J. and Patrick M. Dunne. 1986. “An Appraisal of the Use of Student Subjects in Marketing Research.”Journal of Business Research 14: 329–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Cadotte, Ernest R., Robert B. Woodruff, and Roger L. Jenkins. 1987. “Expectations and Norms in Models of Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of Marketing Research 14 (August): 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Churchill, Gilbert A. and Carol Surprenant. 1982. “An Investigation Into The Determinants of Customer Satisfaction.”Journal of Marketing Research 19 (November): 491–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Clemmer, Elizabeth C.. 1988. “The Role of Fairness in Customer Satisfaction With Services.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of Maryland College Park.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, Jacob and Patricia Cohen. 1983.Applied Multiple Regression/ Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  19. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Crosby, Lawrence A. and James R. Taylor. 1982. “Consumer Satisfaction With Michigan’s Container Deposit Law—An Ecological Perspective.”Journal of Marketing 46 (Winter): 47–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Day, George. 1984. “Modeling Choices Among Alternative Responses to Dissatisfaction.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Ed. Thomas Kinnear. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 496–499.Google Scholar
  21. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Deeter-Schmelz, Dawn R. 1996. “Customer Contact Teams: The Impact, Structure and Process on Team Effectiveness and Customer Satisfaction.” Ph.D. dissertation. University of South Florida.Google Scholar
  22. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Djupvik, Harald and Dag Eilertsen. 1994. “Customer Satisfaction Monitoring to Understand the Market—Norwegian Telecom.”Marketing and Research Today 22 (February): 4–18.Google Scholar
  23. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Duhaine, Carole P.. 1988. “Customer Satisfaction With the Distribution System for Durable Products.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 1: 53–59.Google Scholar
  24. Duncan, Otis D.. 1975.Introduction to Structural Equation Models. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  25. Fisk, Raymond P. and Clifford E. Young. 1985. “Disconfirmation of Equity Expectations: Effects on Consumer Satisfaction With Services.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Vol. 12. Eds. Elizabeth C. Hirschman and Morris B. Holbrook. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 340–345.Google Scholar
  26. Folkes, Valerie S.. 1984. “Consumer Reactions to Product Failure: An Attribution Approach.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (March): 398–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Fu, Shenzhao and Debra S. Perkins. 1995. “Determinants of Technology Licensee’s Satisfaction: An Empirical Investigation.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaining Behavior 8: 223–233.Google Scholar
  28. Garland, Barbara and Robert A. Westbrook. 1989. “An Exploration of Client Satisfaction in a Nonprofit Context.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 17 (Fall): 297–303.Google Scholar
  29. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Gibbon, Cheryl. 1994. “Supplier Quality, Customer Commitment and Satisfaction, and Marketplace Performance.”, Ph.D. dissertation, York University, North York, Ontario.Google Scholar
  30. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Gilly, Mary C. and Betsy D. Gelb. 1982. “Post-Purchase Consumer Processes and the Complaining Consumer.”Journal of Consumer Research 9 (December): 323–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Glass, Gene V., Barry McGaw, and Mary Lee Smith. 1981.Meta-Analysis in Social Research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Goodwin, Cathy and Ivan Ross. 1992. “Consumer Responses to Service Failure: Influence of Procedural and Interactional Fairness Perceptions.”Journal of Business Research 25 (September): 149–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gronroos, Christian. 1982.Strategic Management and Marketing in the Service Sector. Helsinfors, Sweden: Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration.Google Scholar
  34. Hair, Joseph F., Jr., Rolph E. Anderson, Ronald L. Tatham, and William C Black. 1995.Multivariate Data Analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Halstead, Diane, David Hartman, and Sandra L. Schmidt 1994. “Multisource Effects on the Satisfaction Formation Process.”,Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 22 (2): 114–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hedges, Larry V. and Ingram Olkin. 1985.Statistical Methods for Meta-Analysis. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  37. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Hiltz, Starr Roxanne and Kenneth Johnson. 1990. “User Satisfaction With Computer-Mediated Communication Systems.”,Management Science 36 (6): 739–764.Google Scholar
  38. Hirschman, Albert O., 1970.Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hocutt, Mary Ann, Goutam Chakraborty, and John C. Mowen. 1997. “The Impact of Perceived Justice on Customer Satisfaction and Intention to Complain in a Service Recovery.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 24. Eds. Merrie Brucks and Deborah J. Macinnis, 457–463.Google Scholar
  40. Hunter, John E. and Frank L. Schmidt. 1990.Methods of Meta Analysis. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Johnson, Michael D.. 1998.Customer Orientation and Market Action. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Kennedy John R. and Peter C. Thirkell. 1988. “An Extended Perspective on the Antecedents of Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 1: 2–9.Google Scholar
  43. LaBarbera, Priscilla A. and David Mazursky. 1983. “A Longitudinal Assessment of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction: The Dynamic Aspect of the Cognitive Process.”,Journal of Marketing Research 20 (November): 393–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Lai, Mengkuan and Richard Widdows. 1993. “Determinants of Consumer’s Satisfaction With Service: A Preliminary Study.”,Journal of Consumer Satisfaction. Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 6: 166–174.Google Scholar
  45. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text LaTour, Stephen A. and Nancy C. Peat. 1979. “The Role of Situationally Produced Expectations, Others’ Experiences, and Prior Experiences in Determining Consumer Satisfaction.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 7. Ed. Jerry C. Olson. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 588–592.Google Scholar
  46. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Liljander, Veronica. 1994. “Modeling Perceived Service Quality Using Different Comparison Standards.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaining Behavior 7: 126–142.Google Scholar
  47. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Mano, Haim and Richard L. Oliver. 1993. “Assessing the Dimensionality and Structure of the Consumption Experience: Evaluation, Feeling, and Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Research 20 (December): 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Matt, George E. and Thomas D. Cook. 1994. “Threats to the Validity of Research Synthesis.” InThe Handbook of Research Synthesis. Eds. Harris Cooper and Larry V. Hedges New York: Rusell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  49. Mittal, Vikas, William T. Ross, Jr., and Patrick M. Baldasare. 1998. “The Asymmetric Impact of Negative and Positive Attribute-Level Performance on Overall Satisfaction and Repurchase Intentions.”,Journal of Marketing 62 (January): 33–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Mullan, Dennis J. 1996. “An Investigation of a Residential Customer Satisfaction Model at an Electric Utility.” Ph.D. dissertation. Wayne State University, Detroit, MI.Google Scholar
  51. Neter, John, William Wasserman, and Michael H. Kutner. 1989.Applied Linear Regression Models. Homewood, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  52. Nyer, Prashanth. 1999 “Cathartic Complaining as a Means of Reducing Consumer Dissatisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and complaining Behavior. 12: 15–25.Google Scholar
  53. Oliva, Terence A., Richard L. Oliver, and Ian C. MacMillan. 1992. “A Catastrophe Model for Developing Service Satisfaction Strategies.”Journal of Marketing 56 (July): 83–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Oliver, Richard L. 1980. “A Cognitive Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Satisfaction Decisions.”Journal of Marketing Research 17 (November): 460–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. — 1981. “Measurement and Evaluation of Satisfaction Processes in Retail Settings.”Journal of Retailing 57 (Fall): 25–48.Google Scholar
  56. — 1987. “An Investigation of the Interrelationship Between Consumer (Dis) Satisfaction and Complaining Reports.” InAdvances in Consumer Research Vol. 14. Eds. Melanie Wallendorf and Paul Anderson. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 218–222.Google Scholar
  57. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — 1993. “Cognitive, Affective, and Attribute Bases of the Satisfaction Response.”Journal of Consumer Research 20 (December): 418–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. — 1997.Satisfaction: A Behavioral Perspective on the Consumer. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  59. — and Wayne S. DeSarbo. 1988. “Response Determinants in Satisfaction Judgments.”Journal of Consumer Research 14 (March): 495–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. — and G. Linda. 1981. “Effects of Satisfaction and Its Antecedents on Consumer Preference and Intention.” InAdvances in Consumer Research. Ed. Kent B. Monroe. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 88–93.Google Scholar
  61. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text —, Roland T. Rust, and Sajeev Varki. 1997. “Customer Delight: Foundations, Findings, and Managerial Insight.”Journal of Retailing 73 (Fall): 311–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and John E. Swan. 1989a “Consumer Perceptions of Interpersonal Equity and Satisfaction in Transactions: A Field Survey Approach.”Journal of Marketing 53 (April): 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and —. 1989b. “Equity and Disconfirmation Perceptions as Influences on Merchant and Product Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Research 16 (December): 372–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Paul, Kenneth. 1995. “Market Orientation, Quality and Customer Satisfaction in an Industrial Services Market.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Memphis, TN.Google Scholar
  65. Parasuraman, A., Valerie A. Zeithaml, and Leonard L. Berry. 1985. “A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research.”Journal of Marketing 49 (Fall): 41–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Park, C. Whan and V. Parker Lessig. 1977. “Students and Housewives: Differences in Susceptibility to Reference Group Influence.”Journal of Consumer Research 4 (September): 102–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Prakesh, Ved. 1984. “Validity and Reliability of the Confirmation of Expectations Paradigm as a Determinant of Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 12 (4): 63–76.Google Scholar
  68. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and John W. Lounsbury. 1984. “The Role of Expectations in the Determination of Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 12 (3): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Richins, Marsha L.. 1983. “Negative Word-of-Mouth by Dissatisfied Customers: A Pilot Study.”Journal of Marketing 47 (Winter): 68–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Rust, Roland T. and Anthony J. Zahorik. 1993. “Customer Satisfaction, Customer Retention, and Market Share.”Journal of Retailing 69 (2): 193–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Singh, Jagdip. 1991. “Understanding the Structure of Consumers’ Satisfaction Evaluations of Service Delivery.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 19 (3): 223–244.Google Scholar
  72. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Sirgy, M. Joseph. 1984. “A Social Cognition Model of Consumer Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction: An Experiment.”Psychology and Marketing 1 (2): 27–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Spreng, Richard A., Gilbert D. Harrell, and Robert D. Mackoy. 1995. “Service Recovery: Impact on Satisfaction and Intentions.”Journal of Services Marketing 9 (1): 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text —, Scott B. McKenzie, and Richard W. Olshavsky. 1996. “A Reexamination of the Determinants of Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of Marketing 60 (July): 15–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. — and Richard W. Olshavsky. 1993. “A Desires Congruency Model of Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 21 (3): 169–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sulek, Joanne M., Mary R. Lind, and Ann S. Marucheck. 1995. “The Impact of Customer Service Intervention and Facility Design on Firm Performance.”Management Science 41 (November): 1763–1773.Google Scholar
  77. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Swan, John E. 1977. “Consumer Satisfaction With a Retail Store Related to the Fulfillment of Expectations on an Initial Shopping Trip.” InConsumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior. Ed. Ralph L. Day. Bloomington: Indiana University School of Business, 10–17.Google Scholar
  78. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text —, 1988. “Consumer Satisfaction Related to Disconfirmation of Expectations and Product Performance.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 1: 40–47.Google Scholar
  79. — and Alice A. Mercer. 1982. “Consumer Satisfaction as a Function of Equity and Disconfirmation.” InConceptual and Empirical Contributions to Consumer Satisfaction and Complaining Behavior. Eds. H. Keith Hunt and Ralph L. Day. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2–8.Google Scholar
  80. — and Richard L. Oliver. 1985. “Automobile Buyer Satisfaction With the Salesperson Related to Equity and Disconfirmation.” InConsumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior. Eds. H. K. Hunt and R. L. Day. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  81. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and —. 1991. “An Applied Analysis of Buyer Equity Perceptions and Satisfaction With Automobile Salespeople.”Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management 11 (2): 15–26.Google Scholar
  82. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and I. Frederick Trawick. 1981. “Disconfirmation of Expectations and Satisfaction With a Retail Service.”Journal of Retailing 57 (Fall): 49–67.Google Scholar
  83. Tabachnick, Barbara G. and Linda S. Fidell. 1996.Using Multivariate Statistics. 3d ed. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  84. Tavassoli, Nader T. 1998. “Language in Multimedia: Interaction of Spoken and Written Information.”Journal of Consumer Research 25 (March): 26–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tax, Stephen S. and Murali Chandrashekaran. 1992. “Consumer Decision Making Following a Failed Service Encounter: A Pilot Study.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior 5: 55–68.Google Scholar
  86. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Taylor, Steven A. 1996. “Consumer Satisfaction With Marketing Education: Extending Services Theory to Academic Practice.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaining Behavior 9: 207–220.Google Scholar
  87. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and Thomas L. Baker. 1994. “An Assessment of the Relationship Between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction in the Formation of Consumers’ Purchase Intentions.”Journal of Retailing 70 (2): 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Tessler, Richard and David Mechanic. 1975. “Consumer Satisfaction With Prepaid Group Practice: A Comparative Study.”Journal of Health and Social Behavior 16 (March): 95–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thibaut, J. W. and H. H. Kelley. 1959.The Social Psychology of Groups. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  90. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Tse, David K. and Peter C. Wilton. 1988. “Models of Consumer Satisfaction Formation: An Extension.”Journal of Marketing Research 25 (May): 204–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ursic, Michael L. 1985. “A Model of the Consumer Decision to Seek Legal Redress.”Journal of Consumer Affairs 19 (Summer): 20–36.Google Scholar
  92. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Webb, D. and Abiodun Jagun. 1997. “Customer Care, Customer Satisfaction, Value, Loyalty and Complaining Behavior: Validation in a UK University Setting.”Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction, and Complaining Behavior 10: 139–151.Google Scholar
  93. Weiner, Bernard. 1986.An Attributional Theory of Motivation and Emotion. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  94. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text Westbrook, Robert A. 1980a. “Consumer Satisfaction as a Function of Personal Competence/Efficacy.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 8 (4): 427–437.Google Scholar
  95. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — 1980b. “Intrapersonal Affective Influences on Consumer Satisfaction With Products.”Journal of Consumer Research 7 (June): 49–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — 1980c. “A Rating Scale for Measuring Product/Service Satisfaction.”Journal of Marketing 44 (Fall): 68–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — 1981. “Sources of Consumer Satisfaction With Retail Outlets.”Journal of Retailing 57 (3): 68–85.Google Scholar
  98. — 1987. “Product/Consumption-Based Affective Responses and Postpurchase Processes.”Journal of Marketing Research 24 (August): 258–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and Joseph A. Cote, Jr. 1979. “An Exploratory Study of Non-Product-Related Influences Upon Consumer Satisfaction.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 7. Ed. Jerry C. Olson. Ann Arbor, MI: Association for Consumer Research, 577–581.Google Scholar
  100. Studies whose findings are included in the meta-analysis. Not all of these studies are cited in the text — and Richard L. Oliver. 1991. “The Dimensionality of Consumption Emotion Patterns and Consumer Satisfaction.”Journal of Consumer Research 18 (June): 84–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Yi, Youjae. 1990. “A Critical Review of Consumer Satisfaction.” InReview of Marketing. Ed. Valerie A. Zeithaml. Chicago: American Marketing Association.Google Scholar
  102. Zeithaml, Valerie, Leonard Berry, and A. Parasuraman. 1993. “The Nature and Determinants of Customer Expectations of Service.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 21 (1): 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • David M. Szymanski
    • 1
  • David H. Henard
    • 2
  1. 1.Texas A&M UniversityUSA
  2. 2.North Carolina State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations