Advertisement

Development and validation of scales to measure attitudes influencing monetary donations to charitable organizations

  • Deborah J. Webb
  • Corliss L. Green
  • Thomas G. Brashear
Research Note

Abstract

Charitable organizations are under increasing financial pressure to attract and retain private donors. However, scales measuring consumer attitudes toward giving to charity have yielded ambiguous results in the past. Scales to measure consumer attitudes toward the act of helping others and toward charitable organizations are developed and tested for dimensionality and internal consistency using advocated procedures. The resulting measures are important to academicians, policymakers, and practitioners in the development of theory, public policy, and marketing strategy.

Keywords

Consumer Research Charitable Contribution Charitable Organization Attitudinal Measure Monetary Donation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, Arthur T. and Subhash C. Lonial. 1984. “Investigation of Giving Behavior to United Way Using Log-Linear Modeling and Discriminant Analysis: An Empirical Study.”Journal of Marketing Science 12 (3): 77–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, James C. and David W. Gerbing. 1988. “Structural Equation Modeling in Practice: A Review and Recommended Two-Step Approach.”Psychological Bulletin 103 (3): 411–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagozzi, Richard P. and Youjae Yi. 1988. “On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 16 (1): 74–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batson, C. Daniel. 1987. “Prosocial Motivation: Is It Ever Truly Altruistic?” InAdvances in Experimental Social Psychology. Ed. L. Berkowitz. New York: Academic Press, 65–122.Google Scholar
  5. —, Janine L. Dyck, J. Randall Brandt, Judy G. Batson, Anne L. Powell M. Rosalie McMaster, and Cari Griffitt. 1988. “Five Studies Testing Two New Egoistic Alternatives to the Empathy-Altruism Hypothesis.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 55 (July): 52–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bearden, William O., Richard G. Netemeyer, and Mary F. Mobley. 1993.Handbook of Marketing Scales. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  7. Becker, Gary S. 1974. “A Theory of Social Interactions.”Journal of Political Economy 82 (November/December): 1063–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bendapudi, Neeli, Surendra N. Singh, and Venkat Bendapudi. 1996. “Enhancing Helping Behavior: An Integrative Framework for Promotion Planning.”Journal of Marketing 60 (July): 33–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentler, Peter M. 1990. “Comparative Fit Indexes in Structural Models.”Psychological Bulletin 107 (2): 238–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. — 1994.EQS for Windows Program Manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  11. — and Douglas G. Bonett. 1980. “Significance Tests and Goodness-of-Fit in the Analysis of Covariance Structures.”Psychological Bulletin 88 (3): 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bhattacharya, C. B., Hayagreeva Rao, and Mary Ann Glynn. 1995. “Understanding the Bond of Identification: An Investigation of Its Correlates Among Art Museum Members.”Journal of Marketing 59 (October): 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bollen, Kenneth A. 1989.Structural Equation Modeling With Latent Variables. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Burnkrant, Robert and Thomas Page, Jr. 1982. “An Examination of the Convergent, Discriminant, and Predictive Validity of Fishbein’s Behavioral Intention Model.”Journal of Marketing Research 19 (4): 550–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capron, Laurence and John Hulland. 1999. “Redeployment of Brands, Sales Forces, and General Marketing Management Expertise Following Horizontal Acquisitions: A Resource-Based View.”Journal of Marketing 63 (April): 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Churchill, Gilbert A. 1979. “A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs.”Journal of Marketing Research 16 (February): 64–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cialdini, Robert B., Donald J. Baumann, and Douglas T. Kenrick. 1981. “Insights From Sadness: A Three-Step Model of the Development of Altruism as Hedonism.”Developmental Review 1 (3): 207–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. De Alessi, L. 1975. “Toward a Theory of Postdisaster Cooperation.”American Economic Review 65 (March): 127–138.Google Scholar
  19. Demographics USA-County Edition. 1998. New York, NY: Market Statistics.Google Scholar
  20. Dorsch, Michael, Scott Swanson, and Scott Kelley. 1998. “The Role of Relationship Quality in the Satisfaction of Vendors as Perceived by Customers.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 26 (Spring): 128–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eagly, Alice H. and Shelly Chaiken. 1993.The Psychology of Attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  22. Epstein, Marc J. 1993. “The Fall of Corporate Charitable Contributions.”Public Relations Quarterly 38 (2): 37–39.Google Scholar
  23. Feldstein, Martin and Charles Clotfelter. 1976. “Tax Incentives and Charitable Contributions in the United States.”Journal of Public Economics 5 (1): 1–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fishbein, Martin and Icek Ajzen. 1975.Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  25. Fisher, Robert J. and David Ackerman. 1998. “The Effects of Recognition and Group Need on Volunteerism: A Social Norm Perspective.”Journal of Consumer Research 25 (3): 262–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fornell, Claes and David F. Larker. 1981. “Evaluating Structural Equation Models With Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error.”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (February): 39–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garner, Thesia I. and Janet Wagner. 1991. “Economic Dimensions of Household Gift Giving.”Journal of Consumer Research 18 (December): 368–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gerbing, David W. and James C. Anderson. 1988. “An Updated Paradigm for Scale Development Incorporating Unidimensionality and Its Assessment.”Journal of Marketing Research 25 (May): 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gouldner, Alvin W. 1960. “The Norm of Reciprocity: A Preliminary Statement.”American Sociological Review 25 (2): 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harvey, James W. 1990. “Benefit Segmentation for Fund Raisers.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 18 (1): 77–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Herzlinger, Regina E. 1996. “Can Public Trust in Nonprofits and Governments Be Restored?”Harvard Business Review 74 (2): 97–107.Google Scholar
  32. Hoffman, Martin L. 1981. “Is Altruism Part of Human Nature?”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 40 (1): 121–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Homburg, Christian, John P. Workman, Jr., and Harley Krohmer. 1999. “Marketing’s Influence Within the Firm.”Journal of Marketing 63 (April): 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hoyle, Rick H. and Abigail T. Panter. 1995. “Writing About Structural Equation Models. InStructural Equation Modeling: Concepts, Issues, and Applications. Ed. Rick H. Hoyle. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 138–157.Google Scholar
  35. Independent Sector. 1994.Giving and Volunteering in the United States: Findings From a National Survey—1994 Edition. Analyzed by Virginia A. Hodgkinson and Murray S. Weitzman with Stephen M. Noga, Heather A. Gorski, and Arthur D. Kirsch. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  36. James, Lawrence R., Stanley A. Mulaik, and Jeanne M. Brett. 1982.Causal Analysis: Assumptions, Models, and Data. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Jones, Andrew and John Posnett. 1991. “Charitable Donations by UK Households: Evidence From the Family Expenditure Survey.”Applied Economics 23 (February): 343–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. LaTour, Stephen A. and Ajay K. Manrai. 1989. “Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative Influence on Donations.”Journal of Marketing Research 26 (August): 327–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lichtenstein, Donald R., Richard G. Netemeyer, and Scot Burton. 1990. “Distinguishing Coupon Proneness From Value Consciousness: An Acquisition-Transaction Utility Theory Perspective.”Journal of Marketing 54 (July): 54–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. McIntyre, Pat, Mark A. Barnett, Richard J. Harris, James Shanteau, John Skowronski, and Michael Klassen. 1986. “Psychological Factors Influencing Decisions to Donate Organs.” InAdvances in Consumer Research, Vol. 14 Eds. Melanie Wallendorf and Paul Anderson. Provo, UT: Combined Proceedings Association for Consumer Research, 331–334.Google Scholar
  41. Netemeyer, Richard G., James S. Boles, and Robert McMurrian. 1996. “Development and Validation of Work-Family Conflict and Family-Work Conflict Scales.”Journal of Applied Psychology 81 (4): 400–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Nunnally, Jum. 1979.Psychometric Theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  43. Olson, James and Mark Zanna. 1993. “Attitudes and Attitude Change.”Annual Review of Psychology 44: 117–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pessemier, Edgar A., Albert C. Bemmaer, and Dominique M. Hanssens. 1977. “Willingness to Supply Human Body Parts: Some Empirical Results.”Journal of Consumer Research 4 (December): 131–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Peter, J. Paul. 1981. “Construct Validity: A Review of Basic Issues and Marketing Practices.”Journal of Marketing Research 18 (May): 133–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Petty, Richard E., Rao H. Unnava, and Alan J. Strathman. 1991. “Theories of Attitude Change.” InHandbook of Consumer Behavior. Eds. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  47. Piliavin, Jane Allyn and Hong-Wen Chang. 1990. “Altruism: A Review of Recent Theory and Research.”Annual Review of Sociology 16: 27–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Radley, Alan and Marie Kennedy. 1995. “Charitable Giving by Individuals: A Study of Attitudes and Practice.”Human Relations 48 (6): 685–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Reece, William S. 1979. “Charitable Contributions: New Evidence on Household Behavior.”American Economic Review 69 (1): 142–151.Google Scholar
  50. Reis, George R. 1998. “Charitable Giving Increased 7.5 Percent in 1997.”Fund Raising Management 29 (5): 3.Google Scholar
  51. Rokeach, Milton. 1968.Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  52. —. 1973.The Nature of Human Values New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  53. Schlegelmilch, Bodo B. 1988. “Targeting of Fund-Raising Appeals How to Identify Donors.”European Journal of Marketing 22 (1): 31–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. —, Adamantios Diamantopoulos, and Alix Love. 1992. “Determinants of Charity Giving: An Interdisciplinary Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Future Research.” InMarketing Theory and Applications. Vol. 3. Eds. Chris T. Allen et al. Chicago, IL: Combined Proceedings, American Marketing Association, 507–516.Google Scholar
  55. Schwartz, Shalom H. 1970. “Elicitation of Moral Obligation and Self-Sacrificing Behavior: An Experimental Study of Volunteering to Be a Bone Marrow Donor.”Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37 (4): 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. — 1992. “Universals in the Content and Structure of Values: Theoretical Advances and Empirical Tests in 20 Countries.”Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25: 1–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. — and J. Howard. 1982. “Helping and Cooperation: A Self-Based Motivational Model.” InCooperation and Helping Behavior: Theories and Research. Eds. V. J. Derlega and J. Grzelak. New York: Academic Press, 327–353.Google Scholar
  58. — and —. 1984. “Internalized Values as Motivators of Altruism.” InDevelopment and Maintenance of Prosocial Behavior: International Perspectives on Positive Morality. Eds. E. Staub, D. Bar-Tal, J. Karylowski, and J. Reykowski. New York: Plenum, 229–256.Google Scholar
  59. Scott, William A. 1968. “Attitude Measurement.” InHandbook of Social Psychology, 2d ed., Vol. 2. Eds. G. Lindzey and E. Aronson. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 204–273.Google Scholar
  60. Sheppard, Blair H., Jon Hartwick, and Paul R. Warshaw. 1988. “The Theory of Reasoned Action: A Meta-Analysis of Past Research With Recommendations for Modifications and Future Research.”Journal of Consumer Research 15 (December): 325–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Simmons, Roberta G. 1991. “Presidential Address on Altruism and Sociology.”The Sociological Quarterly 32 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Smith, Gerald E. and Paul D. Berger. 1996. “The Impact of Direct Marketing Appeals on Charitable Marketing Effectiveness.”Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 24 (3): 219–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sparks, John R. and Shelby D. Hunt. 1998. “Marketing Researcher Ethical Sensitivity: Conceptualization, Measurement, and Exploratory Investigation.”Journal of Marketing 62 (April): 92–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. U.S. Census. 1990. Retrieved February 15, 1999. Data from http:// www.census.gov.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academy of Marketing Science 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Deborah J. Webb
    • 1
  • Corliss L. Green
    • 1
  • Thomas G. Brashear
    • 2
  1. 1.Georgia State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.University of Massachusetts AmherstUSA

Personalised recommendations