Academic Psychiatry

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 331–336

Female Physicians: Balancing Career and Family



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bickel J, Croft K, Marshall R: Women in U.S. academic medicine statistics 1997–1998. Washington, DC, Association of American Medical Colleges, 1998Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bickel J, Clark V, Lawson RM: Women in U.S. academic medicine statistics 2000–2001. Washington, DC, Association of American Medical Colleges, 2001Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Medical Association: Women in Medicine in America: In the Mainstream. Chicago, American Medical Association, 1995Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller ME: Doctor-moms. Hopkins Med News Spring/Summer 2002Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bowman MA, Frank E, Allen DI: Women in Medicine: Career and Life Management. New York, Springer-Verlag, 2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bowman MA, Allen DI: Stress and Women Physicians. New York, Springer-Verlag, 1985CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Warde C: Work-family balance. Ann Intern Med 2001; 134: 343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bickel J: Women in Medicine: Getting in, Growing, and Advancing. Thousand Oaks, Calif, Sage Publications, 2000Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bickel J, Wara D, Atkinson BF, Cohen LS, Dunn M, Hostler S, Johnson TRB, Morahan P, Rubenstein AH, Sheldon GF, Stokes E: Increasing Women’s Leadership in Academic Medicine: Report of the AAMC Project Implemenation Committee. Washington, DC, Association of American Medical Colleges, 2002Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brisson C, Laflamme N, Moisan J, Milot A, Masse B, Vezina M: Effect of family responsibilities and job strain on ambulatory blood pressure among white-collar women. Psychosom Med 1999; 61: 205–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frank E, Boswell L, Dickstein LJ, Chapman DP: Characteristics of female psychiatrists. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 205–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gabbard GO, Menninger RW: Medical Marriages. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1988Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Menninger EW: The impact of the family on careers in psychiatry. Bull Menninger Clin 1994; 58: 497–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Riska E, Wegar K: Gender, Work and Medicine: Women and the Medical Division of Labour. London, Sage Publications, 1993Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Carnes M: Balancing Family and Career: Advice from the Trenches. Ann Intern Med 1996; 125: 618–620PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sinal S, Weavil P, Camp MG: Survey of women physicians on issues relating to pregnancy during a medical career. J Med Educ 1988; 63: 531–538PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tinsley JA: Pregnancy of the Early-Career Psychiatrist. Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51: 105–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Klebanoff MA, Shiono PH, Rhoads GG: Outcomes of pregnancy in a national sample of resident physicians. N Engl J Med 1990; 323: 1040–1045PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Osborn LM, Harris DL, Reading JC, Prather MB: Outcomes of pregnancies experienced during residency. J Fam Pract 1990; 6: 618–622Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wiebe C: Parenthood and residency: the great balancing act. Am Coll Phys Obs 1997; 17: 6–7Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chow KH-Y: Maternal health and leave policies during medical training. JAMA 1997; 277: 766–777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    American College of Physicians: Parental leave for residents. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 1035–1038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sayres M, Wyshak G, Denterlein G: Pregnancy during residency. N Engl J Med 1986; 314: 418–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Forman PD: Parental leave and medical careers. J Am Med Womens Assoc 1992; 267: 741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bongiovi ME, Freedman J: Maternity leave experiences of resident physicians. J Am Med Womens Assoc 1993; 48: 185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement: Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs. Pediatrics 1995; 96: 972–973Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    American Medical Association: H-420.976 Maternity leave policiesGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Warde C, Allen W, Gelbert L: Physician role conflict and resulting career changes: gender and generational differences. J Gen Intern Med 1996; 11: 729–735PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Graduate Medical Education Resident Census 2000–2001. Washington, DC, Office of Graduate and Undergraduate Education, 2002Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Levinson W, Kaufman K, Bickel J: Part-time faculty in academic medicine: present status and future challenges. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 220–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Osborn EH, Ernster VL, Martin JB: Women’s attitudes toward careers in academic medicine at the University of California, San Francisco. Acad Med 1992; 67: 59–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Carr PL, Ash AS, Friedman RH, Scaramucci A, Barnett RC, Szalacha L, Palepu A, Moskowitz MA: Relation of family responsibilities and gender to the productivity and career satisfaction of medical faculty. Ann Intern Med 1998; 129: 532–538PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Silver MA: Women in administrative psychiatry. Psychiatr Ann 1995; 25: 509–511Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krener P: Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry. Acad Psychiatry 1994; 18: 1–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Phillips SP: Parenting, puppies and practice: juggling and gender in medicine. Can Med Assoc J 2000; 162: 663–664Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Amick BC, Kawachi I, Coakley EH, Levine S, Colditz A: Relationship of job strain and iso-strain to health status in a cohort of women in the United States. Scand J Work Environ Health 1998; 24: 54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Frank E, Harvey L, Elon L: Family responsibilities and domestic activities of U.S. women physicians. Arch Fam Med 2000; 9: 134–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cujec B, Oancia T, Bohm C, Johnson D: Career and parenting satisfaction among medical students, residents, and physician teachers at a Canadian medical school. Can Med Assoc J 2000; 162: 637–640Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Academic Psychiatry 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Colorado Health Sciences Center (UCHSC)DenverUSA
  2. 2.General DeliverySilverthorneUSA

Personalised recommendations