Research on Chemical Intermediates

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 141–159 | Cite as

Protonated (protosolvated) onium ions (onlum dications)

  • G. A. Olah
  • G. K. Surya Prakash
  • P. Donald
  • Katherine B. Loker
  • Koop Lammertsma


In this short review we have shown the importance of protosolvation of onium ions (containing non-bonded pairs of electrons) in superacid catalyzed reactions. Such activation can result in unusual reactions such as aromatic alkylation with Meerwein’s salts, aliphatic nitration with nitronium ion, alkylation of saturated hydrocarbons, greatly enhanced activity of acyl cations, etc. Possibly such phenomena may be operative in hydroxylation reactions using protonated hydrogen peroxide in strong acid solutions. Even the reactivity of halonium ions could be enhanced by protosolvation. Consequently, electrophilic protosolvation may play a significant role in strogg acid catalyzed reactions.


SbF5 HSO3F Selenonium Aromatic Alkylation FSO3H 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Olah
    • 1
  • G. K. Surya Prakash
    • 1
  • P. Donald
    • 1
  • Katherine B. Loker
    • 1
  • Koop Lammertsma
    • 2
  1. 1.Hydrocarbon Research Institute and Department of ChemistryUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

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