, Volume 9, Issue 1–2, pp 3–22 | Cite as

Rheumatoid arthritis as seen through long-distance spectacles

  • W. W. Buchanan
  • Walter F. Kean


Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, R. (1857). A Treatise on Rheumatic Gout, or Chronic Rheumatic Arthritis, of all the Joints. Churchill, London.Google Scholar
  2. Alarcon-Segovia, D. and De la Fuete, J. R. (1986). Pre-Columbian representation of rheumatic diseases in Mesoamerica. Abstract, Clin Rheumatol. 5, 279.Google Scholar
  3. Alarcon-Segovia, D. Laffon, A. and Alcoler-Varela, J. (1983). Probable depiction of juvenile arthritis by Sandro Botticelli, Arthritis Rheum. 26, 1266–1268.Google Scholar
  4. Appelboom, T. de Boelpaepe, C., Ehrlich, G. E., et al. (1981). Rubens and the question of antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 245, 483–486.Google Scholar
  5. Atkinson, J. P. and Frank, M. M. (1974). Complement independent clearance of IgG sensitized erythrocytes: inhibition by cortisone, Blood 44, 629–637.Google Scholar
  6. Balint, G. P., Rooney, P. J., Buchanan, W. W. (1987). A legacy for rheumatology from Sir William Osler, Clin. Rheumatol. 6, 423–435.Google Scholar
  7. Ball, A. P. (1977). Measles, in: A World Geography of Human Diseases. G. M. Howe (Ed.), pp. 237–254. Academic Press, London, England.Google Scholar
  8. Beasley, R. P., Bennett, P. H. and Chien, C. L. (1983). Low prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Chinese: prevalence study in a rural community, J. Rheumatol. 10 (Suppl.), 41–45.Google Scholar
  9. Beasley, R. P., Retailliau, H. and Healy, H. A. (1973). Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Alaskan Eskimos, Arthritis Rheum. 16, 737–742.Google Scholar
  10. Beeson, P. B. (1980). Some diseases that have disappeared, Amer. J. Med. 68, 806–811.Google Scholar
  11. Beighton, S. W., de la Harpe, A. L., van Staden, D. J., et al. (1988). The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in a rural African population, J. Rheumatol. 1 5, 405–408.Google Scholar
  12. Bennike, P. and Gylding-Sabroe, J. P. (1986). Rheumatoid arthritis in a Danish skeleton 2000 years old. Abstract, Clin. Rheumatol. 5, 294.Google Scholar
  13. Bjarnason, I., So, A., Levi, A. J., et al. (1984). Intestinal permeability and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Lancet 2, 1171–1173.Google Scholar
  14. Bourke, J. B. (1971). The paleopathology of the vertebral column in ancient Egypt and Nubia, Med. Hist. 15, 363–375.Google Scholar
  15. Bradford, E. (1973). Christopher Columbus. Amilcare Pizzi, Milano.Google Scholar
  16. Braunstein, E. M., White, S. J., Russell, W., et al. (1988). Paleoradiologic evaluation of the Egyptian royal mummies, Skeletal Radiol. 17, 348–352.Google Scholar
  17. Brody, J. A. (1985). Prospects for an aging population, Nature 315, 463–466.Google Scholar
  18. Buchanan, W. W. (1986). The arthritis of Mary Queen of Scots: due to Marfan's syndrome? Clin. Rheumatol. 5, 419.Google Scholar
  19. Buchanan, W. W. (1994). Rheumatoid arthritis: another New World disease? Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 23, 289–294.Google Scholar
  20. Buchanan, W. W. (1996). The contribution of Sir James Paget (1814–1894) to the study of rheumatic disease, Clin. Rheumatol. 15, 461–472.Google Scholar
  21. Buchanan, W. W. and Dequeker, J. (1998). History of the Rheumatic Diseases in Rheumatology. 2nd edn, J. H. Klippel and P. A. Dieppe (Eds), Vol. 1, pp. 1–6. Mosby, London.Google Scholar
  22. Buchanan, W. W. and Kean, W. F. (1982). Robert Burns' illness revisited, Scot. Med. J. 27, 75–88.Google Scholar
  23. Buchanan, W. W., Kean, W. F. and Palmer, D. G. (1987). The contribution of William Hunter (1718–1783) to the study of bone and joint disease, Clin. Rheumatol. 6, 251–263.Google Scholar
  24. Buchanan, W. W. and Kean, W. F. (1987). William Heberden the Elder (1710–1801): the Compleat Physician and Sometime Rheumatogist, Clin. Rheum. 6, 251–263.Google Scholar
  25. Buchanan, W. W. and Murdoch, R. M. (1979). Hypothesis: that rheumatoid arthritis will disappear, J. Rheumatol. 6, 324–327.Google Scholar
  26. Buchanan, W. W., Kraag, G. R., Palmer, D. G., et al. (1981). The first recorded case of osteitis fibrosa cystica, Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 124, 812–815.Google Scholar
  27. Bywaters, E. G. L. (1977). History of paediatric rheumatology, Arthritis Rheum. 20, 145–152.Google Scholar
  28. Caughey, D. E. (1974). The arthritis of Constantine IX, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 33, 77–80.Google Scholar
  29. Chang, N. C. (1983). Rheumatic diseases in China, J. Rheumatol, 10 (Suppl.), 41–45.Google Scholar
  30. Charcot, J.-M. (1853). Études pour servir à l' Histoire de l' Affection decrite sous les noms de Goutte asthènique primitive, Nodosites des Jointures, rheumatism articulaire chronique (forme primitive) etc., Paris 38.Google Scholar
  31. Clavel, G. Grados, F., Viger, B., et al. (1999). Was rheumatoid arthritis existing in the Middle Ages? Abstract 1048. American College of Rheumatology 63rd Annual Scientific Meeting. Boston, Massachusetts, 15th November 1999.Google Scholar
  32. Copeman, W. S. C. (1964). A Short History of the Gout and the Rheumatic Diseases. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  33. Cornil, A. V. (1864). Memoire sur les coincidences pathologiques du rhumatisme articulaire chronique, C.R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) (Mémoires) 4 sér (1), 3–25.Google Scholar
  34. Creighton, C. A. (1965). A History of Epidemics in Britain. 2nd edn. Vols 1 and 2. Frank Cass, London.Google Scholar
  35. Crosby, W. A. (1969). The early history of syphilis. A reappraisal, Amer. Anthrop. 71, 218–227.Google Scholar
  36. Cruveilhier, J. (1829). Anatomie pathologique du corps human, au descriptions, avec figures litho-graphiées et coloriées, des diverse alterations morbides dont le corps humain est susceptible. Paris, Baillière. 40.Google Scholar
  37. del Puente, A., Knowler, W. C., Pettititt, D. J., Bennet, P. H. (1989). High incidence and prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in Pima Indians, Amer. J. Epidemiol. 129, 1170–1178.Google Scholar
  38. Dequeker, J. (1977). Arthritis in Flemish paintings (1400–1700), Brit. Med. J. 1, 1203–1205.Google Scholar
  39. Dequeker, J. (1981). Polymyalgia rheumatica with temporal arteritis as painted by Jan Van Eyck in 1436, Canad. Med. Assoc. J. 124, 1592–1598.Google Scholar
  40. Dequeker, J. (1984). Arthritis in the paintings of Sandro Botticelli. Letter to the Editor, Arthritis Rheum. 27, 1196–1197.Google Scholar
  41. Dieppe, P., Haywood, A., Rogers, J., et al. (1987). The paleopathology of rheumatic diseases, in: Art, History and Antiquity of Rheumatic Diseases, T. Appelboom (Ed.), pp. 109–112. Elsevier, Brussels.Google Scholar
  42. Dieppe, P. A. and Rogers, J. (1985). Two-dimensional epidemiology, Brit. J. Rheumatol. 25, 310–312.Google Scholar
  43. Disendorf, M. (1986). The mystery of declining tooth decay, Nature 322, 125–129.Google Scholar
  44. Domen, R. E. (1981). Paleopathological evidence of rheumatoid arthritis, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 246, 1899.Google Scholar
  45. Ehrlich, G. E. (1967). Shakespeare's rheumatology, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 26, 562–563.Google Scholar
  46. Elliot Smith, G. and Dawson, W. R. (1924). Egyptian Mummies. Allen and Unwin, London.Google Scholar
  47. Espinel, C. H. (1994). Caravaggio's ‘Il Amore Dormiente’: a sleeping cupid with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, Lancet 344, 1750–1752.Google Scholar
  48. Eykyn, S. J. (1988). Staphylococcal sepsis: the changing pattern of disease and therapy, Lancet 1, 100–104.Google Scholar
  49. Ferguson, R. H. and Slocumb, C. H. (1961). Peripheral neuropathy in rheumatoid arthritis, Bull. Rheum. Dis. 11, 251–254.Google Scholar
  50. Fraga, A. (1986). Paleopathological examination of ancient bones suggests rheumatoid arthritis originated in America, Panlar Bull. 1, 4–5.Google Scholar
  51. Fraser, K. J. (1982). Anglo-French contributions to the recognition of rheumatoid arthritis, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 41, 335–343.Google Scholar
  52. Garrod, A. B. (1859). The Nature and Treatment of Gout and Rheumatic Gout. Walton and Maberly, London.Google Scholar
  53. Gray, P. H. K. (1967). Calcinosis intervertebraliswith special reference to similar changes in mummies of ancient Egyptians, in: Disease of Antiquity, D. Brothwell and A. T. Sandison (Eds), pp. 5–19. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  54. Greenwood, M. (1935). Epidemics and Crowd Diseases. An Introduction to the Study of Epidemiology, pp. 349. William and Morgate, London.Google Scholar
  55. Hafstrom, I., Ringertz, P., Gyllenhammer, H., et al. (1988). Effects of fasting on disease activity, neutrophil, function, fatty acid compositionand leuktrienebiosynthesisin patients with rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 31, 585–592.Google Scholar
  56. Hall, L. (1966). Polyarthritis in Kenya, East Afr. Med. J. 43, 161–170.Google Scholar
  57. Hart, F. D. and Golding, J. R. (1960). Rheumatoid neuropathy, Brit. Med. J. 1, 1594–1600.Google Scholar
  58. Hopkins, D. R. (1983). Princes and Peasants Smallpox in History. University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  59. Hudson, E. H. (1965a). Treponematosis and man' s social evolution, Amer. Anthropol. 67, 885–901.Google Scholar
  60. Hudson, E. H. (1965b). Treponematosis in perspective, Bull. World Health Organisation 32, 735–748.Google Scholar
  61. Jarcho, S. (1964). Some observations on diseases in prehistoric America, Bull. Hist. Med. 38, 1–19.Google Scholar
  62. Jayson, M. I. V. (1975). The history of rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 28. 187–188.Google Scholar
  63. Jonsson, H., Helgason, J. J. (1996). Rheumatoid arthritis in an Icelander Textbook of 1782, Scand. J. Rheumatol. 25, 134–137.Google Scholar
  64. Karsh, R. S. and McCarthy, J. D. (1960). Archaeology and arthritis, Arch. Int. Med. 105, 640–644.Google Scholar
  65. King, L. S. (1982). Medical Thinking: an Historical Preface, pp. 227–244. Princeton University Press. Princeton.Google Scholar
  66. Kirwan, J. (1989). The antiquity of erosive arthropathies: the way forward, in: The Antiquity of Erosive Arthropathies Confernce No 5, J. Rogers and P. Dieppe (Eds), pp. 66–69. Arthritis and Rheumatism Council, London.Google Scholar
  67. Klepinger, L. (1979). Paleopathologic evidence for the evaluation of rheumatoid arthritis, Amer. J. Physical Anthropology 50, 119–122.Google Scholar
  68. Kramar, C. (1982). A case of ankylosing spondylitis in medieval Geneva, OSSA 8, 115–129.Google Scholar
  69. Landré-Beauvais, A.J. (1800). Doit-on admettre une nouvelle espèce de goutte sous la denomination de goutte asthènique primitive? J. Brosson an VIII, Paris.Google Scholar
  70. Laurent, R., Robinson, R. G., Beller, E. M. and Buchanan, W. W. (1989). Incidence and severity of rheumatoid arthritis — the view from Australia. Letter, Brit. J. Rheumatol. 28, 360–361.Google Scholar
  71. Leavesley, J. (1988). Syphilis, Med. J. Australia 258, 74–79.Google Scholar
  72. Ledem, J., Peisson, E. and Peisson, O. (1988). Aspects of the history of rheumatoid arthritis in the light of recent osteoarchaelogical finds, Scan. J. Rheumatol. 17, 341–352.Google Scholar
  73. Leden, I. (1984). Doubts about Sandro Botticelli's depiction of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Letter to the Editor, Arthritis Rheum. 27, 1197–1198.Google Scholar
  74. López de Hinojosos, A. (1977). Suma y recopulación de cirugia con un arte para sangrar muy Útil y provenchosa. Academia Nacional de Medicina Mexico. pp. 190–191. (Original edition 1578).Google Scholar
  75. Lopez Ferez, J. A. (1987). Rheumatism, arthritis and gout in Galen, in: Art History and antiquity of Rheumatic Diseases, T. Appelbloom (Ed.), pp. 84–86. Elsevier, Brussels.Google Scholar
  76. Marketos, S. and Koutras, D. A. (1986). Rheumatic diseases in well-known classic pre-Hippocratic texts. Abstract, Clin. Rheumatol. 1, 286.Google Scholar
  77. May, W. P. (1897). Rheumatoid arthritis (osteitis deformans) affecting bones 5,500 years old, Brit. Med. J. 2, 1631–1632.Google Scholar
  78. McEvedy, C. (1988). The bubonic plague, Scientific American, 258, 74–79.Google Scholar
  79. McKeown, T. (1976). The Role of Medicine Dream, Mirage or Nemesis, pp. 81–83. Nuffield Provincial Hospitals' Trust, London.Google Scholar
  80. Meynet, P. (1875). Rhumatisme articulaire subaigu avec production de tumeurs multiples dans les tissus fibreux périarticulaires et sur le périoste d' un grand nombre d' os, Lyon Méd. 20, 495–499.Google Scholar
  81. Molleson, T. I. (1987). The role of environment in the acquisition of rheumatic diseases, in: Art, History and Antiquity of Rheumatic Diseases, T. Appelboom (Ed.), pp. 100–108. Elsevier, Brussels.Google Scholar
  82. Moran, H., Chen, S.-L., Muirden K. D., et al. (1986). A comparison of rheumatoid arthritis in Australia and China, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 45, 572–578.Google Scholar
  83. Musgrave, W. (1703). De Aerhridtid Symptomtica Disseratio. Yeo and Bishop, Exeter.Google Scholar
  84. Palmer, D. G., Marshall, A. J. and Buchanan, W. W. (1977). Eighteenth century bone and joint disease: William Hunter' s collection, Pathology Department, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, Rheumatology ('R') 4, 34–38.Google Scholar
  85. Parke, A. L. and Hughes, G. R. V. (1981). Rheumatoid arthritis and food: a case study, Brit. Med. J. 282, 2027–2029.Google Scholar
  86. Rennie, J. A. N. and Buchanan, W. W. (1978). Robert the Bruce, King of Scots: a leper? Practitioner 220, 978–981.Google Scholar
  87. Rogers, J. and Dieppe, P. (1989). The Alabama findings and the New World pathogen theory in antiquity of erosive arthritis, in: The Antiquity of Erosive Arthropathies, J. Rogers and P. Dieppe (Eds), Conference No. 5. Arthritis and Rheumatism Council. London.Google Scholar
  88. Rogers, J., Watt, I. and Dieppe, P. (1981). Arthritis in Saxon and medieval skeletons, Brit. Med. J. 283, 1668–1670.Google Scholar
  89. Rogers, J., Watt, J. and Dieppe, P. (1985). Paleopathology of spinal osteophytosis vertebral ankylosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and vertebral hyperostosis, Ann. Rheum. Dis. 44, 113–120.Google Scholar
  90. Rogers, J., Watt, I. and Dieppe, P. (1990). Comparison of visual and radiographic detection of bony changes at the knee joint, Br. Med. J. 300, 367–368.Google Scholar
  91. Rogers, J. M., Waldron, T. Dieppe, P., et al. (1987). Arthropathies in paleopathology: the basis of classification according to most probable cause, J. Archaeol. Sci. 14, 179–193.Google Scholar
  92. Roques, C. J., Condouret, J. and Massie, M. (1986). Louis VIII and his arthritis. Abstract, Clin. Rheumatol. 5, 287.Google Scholar
  93. Rothschild, B. M. and Thillaud, P. L. (1991). Oldest bone disease, Nature 349, 288.Google Scholar
  94. Rothschild, B. M., Turner, K. R. and Deluca, M. A. (1988). Symmetrical erosive polyarthritis in the late archaic period of Alabama, Science 24, 1498–1501.Google Scholar
  95. Rothschild, B. M. and Woods, R. J. (1990). Symmetrical erosive disease in Archaic indians: the origin of rheumatoid arthritis in the New World? Semin. Arthritis Rheum. 19, 278–284.Google Scholar
  96. Ruffer, M. A. Sir. (1913). Studies in palaeopathology in Egypt, J. Path. Bact. 18, 149–162.Google Scholar
  97. Sandison, A. J. (1963). The use of natron in mummification in ancient Egypt, J. Near. East. Stud. 22, 259–261.Google Scholar
  98. Sauvages de la Croix, F. Nosolgia Methodica, Sistens Moborum Classes, Genera st Species Juxta Syndenhami Mentem et Botanicorum Ordinem. Amsterdam 1763 cited by J. T. Scott (1986) in Copeman's Textbook of the Rheumatic Diseases. 6th edn, pp. 3–18. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  99. Scott, D. L., Coulton, B. L., Chapman, J. H., et al. (1987). The long-term outcome of treating rheumatoid arthritis: results after 20 years, Lancet 1, 1108–1111.Google Scholar
  100. Short, C. L. (1974). An antiquity of rheumatoid arthritis, Arthritis Rheum. 17, 193–205.Google Scholar
  101. Silman, A., Davies, P., Currey, H. L. F., et al. (1983). Is rheumatoid arthritis becoming less severe? J. Chron. Dis. 36, 891–897.Google Scholar
  102. Silman, A. J. (1986). Recent trends in rheumatoid arthritis, Brit. J. Rheumatol. 25, 327–332.Google Scholar
  103. Silman, A. J. (1987). Has the incidence of rheumatoid arthritis declined in the United Kingdom? Brit. J. Rheumatol. 27, 77–78.Google Scholar
  104. Singal, D. P. and Buchanan, W. W. (1993). Human leucocyte antigens (HLA) and rheumatic disease: HLA Class II antigen-associateddisease, Inflammopharmacology 2, 47–61.Google Scholar
  105. Spencer, D. G., Sturrock, R. D. and Buchanan, W. W. (1980). Ankylosing spondylitis: yesterday and today, Med. Hist. 24, 60–69.Google Scholar
  106. Steinbock, R. T. (1976). Paleopathological Diagnosis and Interpretation, pp. 306–308. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  107. Stenn, F. F., Milgram, J. W., Lee, S. L., et al. (1979). Biochemical discovery of homogentisic acid pigment in an ochronotic Egyptian mummy, Henry Ford Hosp. Med. J. 27, 44–48.Google Scholar
  108. Still, G. F. (1896–1897). On a form of chronic joint disease in children, Med. Chir. Trans. 80, 47–59.Google Scholar
  109. Sturrock, R. D., Sharma, J. M. and Buchanan, W. W. (1977). Evidence of rheumatoid arthritis in ancient India, Arthritis Rheum. 20, 42–44.Google Scholar
  110. Sundqvist, T., Lindstrom, F., Magnusson, K.-E., et al. (1982). Influence of fasting on intestinal permeability and disease activity inpatients with rheumatoid arthritis, Scand. J. Rheumatol. 11, 33–88.Google Scholar
  111. Sydenham, T. (1848) Medical Observation Concerning the History and Cure of Acute Diseases. Translated from the Latin edition of 1685 by R. G. Latham, pp. 254–259. The Sydenham Society, London.Google Scholar
  112. Talbott, J. H. (1981). Medical maladies as seen by the artist. Editorial, J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 245, 497–498.Google Scholar
  113. Talbott, J. H., Altman, R. D. and Yu, T. F. (1977). Gouty arthritis masqueradingas rheumatoid arthritis and vice versa, Arthritis Rheum. 8, 77–114.Google Scholar
  114. Tamasier, J. N., Thomas, P. and Duruy, B. (1986). Retrospective diagnosis of Mme. de Sevigne's rheumatic condition. Abstract, Clin. Rheumatol. 5, 285.Google Scholar
  115. Thompson, P. L., Hobbs, M. S. T. and Martin, C. A. (1988). The rise and fall of ischemic heart disease in Australia, NZ Med. J. 18, 327–337.Google Scholar
  116. Thould, A. K. and Thould, B. T. (1983). Arthritis in Roman Britain, Brit. Med. J. 287, 1909–1911.Google Scholar
  117. Toynbee, A. J. (1945). A Study of History. Vols. I –VI. Oxford University Press, Oxford, England.Google Scholar
  118. Ulrich-Merzenich, G., Kraft, K. and Singh, L. M. (1999). Rheumatic disease in Ayurveda: a historical perspective, Arthritis Rheum. 42, 1553–1555.Google Scholar
  119. Wells, C. (1967). Pseudo pathology, in: Disease of Antiquity, D. Brothwell and A. T. Sandison (Eds), pp. 5–19. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  120. Willcox, R. R. (1977). Venereal diseases, in: A World Geography of Human Diseases, G. M. Howe (Ed.), pp. 201–235. Academic Press, London, England.Google Scholar
  121. Williams, R. E. O. (1976). The flux of infection, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 69, 797–799.Google Scholar
  122. Willkins, R. F., Hensen, J. A., Malmgren, J. A., et al. (1983). HLA antigens in Yakima Indians with arthritis. Lack of association with HLA-DW4 and HLA-DR4, Arthritis Rheum. 25, 1435–1439.Google Scholar
  123. Wood, P. H. N. (1976). Is rheumatoid arthritis a recent disease? in: Infection and Immunology in the Rheumatic Diseases, D. C. Dumonde (Ed.), Blackwells, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  124. Woods, R. J. and Rothschild, B. M. (1988). Population analysis of symmetrical erosive arthritis in Ohio Woodland Indians (1200 years ago), J. Rheumatol. 15, 1258–1263.Google Scholar
  125. Zivanovic, S. (1986). Rheumatic arthritis in medieval skeletal remains from Old Serbia. (R.A.S.) Abstract, Clin. Rheumatol. 5, 293.Google Scholar
  126. Zorab, P. A. (1961). The historical and prehistorical background to ankylosing spondylitis, Proc. Roy. Soc. Med. 54, 415–420.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© VSP 2001 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. W. Buchanan
    • 1
  • Walter F. Kean
    • 1
  1. 1.McMaster University Faculty of Health SciencesHamiltonCanada

Personalised recommendations