The European Physical Journal Special Topics

, Volume 223, Issue 10, pp 1971–1988 | Cite as

Enhanced nanoparticle detection with liquid droplet resonators

  • M. R. ForemanEmail author
  • S. Avino
  • R. Zullo
  • H.-P. Loock
  • F. Vollmer
  • G. Gagliardi
Regular Article WGM Resonator Materials
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Taking Detection to the Limit: Biosensing with Optical Microcavities


Whispering gallery mode particle sensing experiments are commonly performed with solid resonators, whereby the sensing volume is limited to the weak evanescent tail of the mode near the resonator surface. In this work we discuss in detail the sensitivity enhancements achievable in liquid droplet resonators wherein the stronger internal fields and convenient means of particle delivery can be exploited. Asymptotic formulae are derived for the relative resonance shift, line broadening and mode splitting of TE and TM modes in liquid droplet resonators. As a corollary the relative fraction of internal and external mode energy follows, which is shown to govern achievable sensitivity enhancements of solute concentration measurements in droplet sensors. Experimental measurements of nanoparticle concentration based on whispering gallery mode resonance broadening are also presented.


European Physical Journal Special Topic Liquid Droplet Resonance Shift Resonator Surface Sensitivity Gain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. R. Foreman
    • 1
    Email author
  • S. Avino
    • 2
  • R. Zullo
    • 2
  • H.-P. Loock
    • 3
  • F. Vollmer
    • 1
  • G. Gagliardi
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Nanophotonics and BiosensingMax-Planck-Institute for the Science of LightErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheIstituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO)PozzuoliItaly
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada

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