Skip to main content
Log in

Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implications for energetics of water

  • Regular Article
  • Published:
The European Physical Journal Special Topics Aims and scope Submit manuscript


We observed sustained axial flow through tubes immersed in water. The flow was spontaneous; i.e., no pressure gradient was applied. The tubes were made of hydrophilic materials: either the polymer Nafion, or a polyacrylic-acid gel in which a tunnel had been bored. Flow was monitored microscopically, with the aid of particles suspended in the water. The flow appears to be associated with recently discovered interfacial phase of water, which lines the insides of the tubes. This phase of water builds from electromagnetic energy absorbed by water from the surrounding environment [6]. That absorbed energy may power the observed flow.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. B. Chai, H. Yoo, G.H. Pollack, J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 13953 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. A. Einstein, Ann. Phys. 17, 549 (1905)

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. I. Klyuzhin, A. Symonds, J. Magula, G.H. Pollack, Environ. Sci. Techn. 42, 6160 (2008)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. C. O’Rourke, I.S. Klyuzhin, J.S. Park, G.H. Pollack, Phys. Rev. E (in press) (2011)

  5. G.H. Pollack, Int’l J. Design Nat. 5, 27 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  6. G.H. Pollack, The Fourth Phase of Water: Beyond Solid, Liquid, and Vapor (Ebner and Sons, 2013)

  7. H. Yoo, D.R. Baker, C.M. Pirie, B. Hovakeemian, G.H. Pollack, Characteristics of water adjacent to hydrophilic interfaces, Water: the Forgotten Molecule, ed. Denis LeBihan and Hidenao Fukuyama (Pan Stanford, 2011), p. 123

  8. Q. Zhao, J. Coult, G.H. Pollack, Proc. SPIE 7376, 73716C1 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  9. J.-M. Zheng, W.-C. Chin, E. Khijniak, E. Khijniak Jr., G.H. Pollack, Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 127, 19 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. J.M. Zheng, G.H. Pollack, Phys. Rev. E. 68, 031408 (2003)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  11. M. Rohani, G.H. Pollack, Flow through horizontal tubes submerged in water in the absence of a pressure gradient: mechanistic considerations, Langmuir (in press) (2013)

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gerald H. Pollack.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Yu, A., Carlson, P. & Pollack, G.H. Unexpected axial flow through hydrophilic tubes: Implications for energetics of water. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. 223, 947–958 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: