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The effect of fins and wavy geometry on natural convection heat transfer of \(\hbox {TiO}_{{2}}\)–water nanofluid in trash bin-shaped cavity


This paper studies the effect of fins number and size and wavy wall of a trash bin-shaped cavity on the natural convection heat transfer (NC) of a \(\hbox {TiO}_{2}\)–water nanofluid. The flow is considered buoyancy driven, which is under thermal radiation. The effects of Rayleigh number (\(10^{3}-10^{5})\), thermal radiation (0.1\(-\)0.3), nanoparticle concentration (0.02\(-\)0.04), and geometry are investigated. Non-dimensional mode of NS equations would be governing equations, and the finite element technique is utilized to discrete them. Two plans are examined: firstly, the effects of thermal parameters on the enclosure with no fin are studied. Secondly, the effects of the fins length and number, and also the wavy geometry on Nusselt number (Nu) and flow distribution are investigated. The findings of the present paper are that increasing the fin number around the inner cylinder increases \(\hbox {Nu}_{\mathrm{avg}}\) up to 54%, and reduces the local entropy generation (EG) and enhances the Bejan number. Moreover, if the wavy wall amplitude changes from 0.05 to 0.1, \(\hbox {Nu}_{\mathrm{avg}}\) reduces by 31%, and if the Ra changes from \(10^{3}\) to \(10^{5}\), \(\hbox {Nu}_{\mathrm{avg}}\) increases up to 36%.

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\(\psi \) :

Stream function


Nusselt number

\(\rho \) :


\(\mu \) :

Dynamic viscosity

\(\beta \) :

Volume expansion coefficient

\({\mathrm{Pr}}\) :

Prandtl number

\(\phi \) :

Nanoparticle volume fraction

T :


S :

Entropy generation


Radiation parameter


Rayleigh number

L :

Length of cavity



c :







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Fereidooni, J. The effect of fins and wavy geometry on natural convection heat transfer of \(\hbox {TiO}_{{2}}\)–water nanofluid in trash bin-shaped cavity. Eur. Phys. J. Spec. Top. (2022).

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