Advertisement

The European Physical Journal H

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 509–522 | Cite as

The CERN intersecting storage rings (ISR)

  • Kurt HübnerEmail author
Article
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. CERN’s accelerators, experiments and international integration 1959 – 2009

Abstract

The CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) was the first facility ever built providing colliding hadron beams. It mainly operated with protons with beam energies of 15 to 31 GeV. The ISR was conceived in the years 1960 to 1964 and was approved in 1965. It came into operation at the beginning of 1971 and was decommissioned as a collider in 1983. A number of accelerator technologies have been either much improved or developed at the ISR which subsequently have become enabling technologies for a number of hadron storage rings and large colliders. Prominent examples of such technologies are ultra-high vacuum technology, beam diagnostics based on Schottky signals and stochastic cooling. The experiences obtained with the ISR were later exploited at the proton-antiproton facility in the CERN SPS, the Tevatron at Fermilab, the RHIC at Brookhaven and, finally, by the LHC at CERN.

Keywords

Large Hadron Collider Storage Ring Proton Synchrotron Antiproton Beam Stochastic Cool 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asboe-Hansen, P., O. Barbalat, D. Boussard, M. Boutheon, J. Gareyte, H. Haseroth, J. Jamsek and S. Myers. 1977. Acceleration and Stacking of Deuterons in the CERN PS and ISR, Particle Accelerator Conf., Chicago, pp. 1557–1560Google Scholar
  2. Auslender, V.L. 1966. Initial experiments on Electron-Positron Storage Ring VEPP-2, Proc. Internat. Symposium on Electron and Positron Storage Rings, edited by E. Crémieu-Alcan et al., Saclay V-4-1 Google Scholar
  3. Benvenuti, C. and M. Hauer. 1977. Low Pressure Limit of the Bayard-Alpert Gauge. NIM 140 : 453–460 Google Scholar
  4. Billan, J., P.J. Bryant, G. Guignard, K.N. Henrichsen, H. Laeger, Ph. Lebrun, S. Pichler, L. Resegotti, T. Risselada, T. Tortschanoff, A. Verdier, L. Walckiers and R. Wolf. 1983. Operational experience with the superconducting high-luminosity insertion in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR), Particle Accelerator Conf., Santa Fe, 2036Google Scholar
  5. Borer, J. et al. 1974. Non-Destructive Diagnostics of Coasting Beams with Schottky Noise, Proc. High-Energy Accel. Conf., Stanford, 53Google Scholar
  6. Boutheon, M. et al. 1981. Acceleration and Stacking of α Particles in the CERN Linac, PS and ISR. Particles Accelerator Conf., Washington DC, 2049Google Scholar
  7. Bramham, P.G. Carron, H.G. Hereward, K. Hübner, W. Schnell and L. Thorndahl. 1975. Stochastic cooling of a stored proton beam. NIM 125 : 201–202 Google Scholar
  8. Brobeck, W.M. 1956. The Design of High-Energy Accelerators, Proc. Symposium on High-Energy Accelerators and Pion Physics, Geneva/CERN, Report CERN 56-26 : 60Google Scholar
  9. Brunet, J.C., J.C. Godot, C. Hauviller, W. Jeker, A. Poncet and I. Wilson. 1979. The Design and Construction of Transparent Vacuum Chambers for Interaction Areas of Colliding Beam Machines, Proc. Particle Accelerator Conference, San Francisco, pp. 4083–4085Google Scholar
  10. Bryant, P.J. 1974. Dynamic Compensation during Stacking of the De-Tuning caused by Space Charge Effects, Proc. High-Energy Accel. Conf., Stanford, pp. 80–82Google Scholar
  11. Bryant, P.J. 1983. Antiprotons in the ISR, Proc. 1983 Particle Accelerator Conference, Santa Fe, p. 2047 Google Scholar
  12. Bryant, P.J. and K. Hübner. 2011. CERN’s ISR : the world’s first hadron collider, CERN Courrier, edited by C. Sutton, Vol. 51, p. 27Google Scholar
  13. Budker, G.I. et al. 1968. Check of Quantum Electrodynamics by Electron-Electron Scattering. Soviet J. Nucl. Phys. 6 : 889Google Scholar
  14. CERN Study Group on New Accelerators. 1964a. Report on the Design Study of Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) for the CERN Proton Synchrotron, Report to Council CERN/542 and Internal Report CERN AR/Int.SG/64-9 Google Scholar
  15. CERN Study Group on New Accelerators. 1964b. Report on the Design Study of a 300 GeV Proton Synchrotron, Report to Council CERN/563 and AR/Int.SG/64-15Google Scholar
  16. Ciapala, E., S. Myers and C. Wyss. 1977. Phase displacement acceleration of high intensity stacks in the CERN ISR, 7th IEEE Particle Acc. Conf., Chicago, p. 1431Google Scholar
  17. Crémieu-Alcan, E. et al. (Eds). 1966. The Orsay Storage Ring Group. Status Report on ACO, Proc. Internat. Symposium on Electron and Positron Storage Rings, Saclay II-3-1 and II-4-1Google Scholar
  18. Fabjan, C.W. and N. McCubbin. 2004. Physics at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) 1978–1983. Phys. Rep. 403–404 : 165–175 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fischer, E. 1972. Experience Gained in the Operation of the ISR Vacuum System, Internal Report CERN-ISR-VA/72-39 Google Scholar
  20. Gilardoni, S. and D. Manglunki (Eds.). 2011. Fifty years of the CERN Proton Synchrotron, Geneva Report CERN-2011-004, Vol. 1Google Scholar
  21. Gourber, J.P., E. Keil and S. Pichler. 1981. The First High-Luminosity Insertion in the ISR, Proc. 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington DC, 1419Google Scholar
  22. Green, G.K. 1961. Some Operating Characteristics of the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Accel., edited by M.H. Blewett, Brookhaven, p. 39Google Scholar
  23. Hansen, S., E. Jones, H. Koziol and M.J. Pentz. 1965. Some Results of Stacking Experiments with the CERN Electron Storage and Accumulation Ring (CESAR), CERN Report 65-8Google Scholar
  24. Hereward, H.G., K. Johnsen, A. Schoch and C.J. Zilverschoon. 1960. Present Ideas on 25-GeV Proton Storage Rings, Internal Report CERN PS/Int.AR/60-35Google Scholar
  25. Hofmann, A. 1980. Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) Catalogue of High-Energy Accelerators, p. 44, Annex to Proc. 11th International Conf. on High-Energy Accelerators, edited by J.H.B. Madsen and P.H. Standley, CERNGoogle Scholar
  26. Jacob, M. 1984. Review of Accelerator and Particle Physics at the CERN ISR, Part II, Report CERN : 84–13 Google Scholar
  27. Johnsen, K. 1973a. The CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. NIM 108 : 205 Google Scholar
  28. Johnsen, K. 1973b. CERN. Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70 : 619–626 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Johnsen, K. 1984. Review of Accelerator and Particle Physics at the CERN ISR, Part I, Report CERN 84-13 Google Scholar
  30. Johnsen, K. 1986. The ISR and Accelerator Physics. Particle Accelerators 18 : 167–182 Google Scholar
  31. Johnsen, K. 1992. The CERN Intersecting Storage Rings : the Leap into the Hadron Collider Era, 3rd International Symposion on the History of Particle Physics, edited by L. Hoddeson et al., SLAC Stanford, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 285Google Scholar
  32. Johnsen, K. et al. 1963. Some Problems connected with the Use of Intersecting Proton Storage Rings, Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on High-Energy Accel., edited by A.A. Klomenskij, Dubna, p. 312Google Scholar
  33. Jones, L.W., F.E. Mills, A.M. Sessler, K.R. Symon and D.E. Young. 2009. Innovation was not enough; A History of Midwestern Universities Research Association (MURA), World ScientificGoogle Scholar
  34. Kerst, D.W. 1956. Properties of an Intersecting-Beam Accelerating System, Proc. Symposium on High-Energy Accelerators and Pion Physics, Geneva/CERN, Report CERN 56-26 : 36Google Scholar
  35. Kovalenko, A.D. 2007. From synchro-phasotron to Nuclotron. Phys. Usp. 50 : 870 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lichtenberg, D.B., R.G. Newton and H.M. Ross. 1956. Intersecting beam accelerator with storage ring, MURA Report-110 Google Scholar
  37. Livingston, S. 1968. Early History of the 200 GeV Accelerator, Report NAL-12Google Scholar
  38. Middelkoop, W.C. and A. Schoch. 1963. Interaction rate in colliding beam systems, CERN Internal Report CERN-AR-Int-SG-63-40Google Scholar
  39. Myers, S. 2010. Four Decades of Colliders (from the ISR to LEP to the LHC), Proc. 1st International Particle Accelerator (IPAC’10) Conference, Kyoto, pp. 3663–3667Google Scholar
  40. O’Neill, G.K. 1956a. Storage-Ring Synchrotron, Proc. Symposium on High-Energy Accelerators and Pion Physics, Geneva/CERN, Report CERN 56-26 : 64Google Scholar
  41. O’Neill, G.K. 1956b. Storage-Ring Synchrotron : Device for High-Energy Physics Research. Phys. Rev. 102 : 1418–1419 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. O’Neill, G.K. 1963. Storage-Ring Work at Stanford, Proc. Summer Study on Storage Rings, Accelerators and Experimentation at Super High-Energies, Brookhaven, p. 209.Google Scholar
  43. O’Neill, G.K. and E.J. Woods. 1959. Intersecting-Beam Systems with Storage Rings. Phys. Rev. 115 : 659–668 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pestre, D. 1990. The second generation of accelerators for CERN, 1956–1965, the decision making process, edited by A. Hermann et al., North Holland, History of CERN, Vol. II, p. 679Google Scholar
  45. Regenstreif, E. 1962. The CERN Proton Synchrotron, CERN Report-62-03Google Scholar
  46. Russo, A. 1996. The Intersecting Storage Rings : The Construction and Operation of CERN’s Second Large Machine and s Survey of its Experimental Programme, in History of CERN, edited by J. Knige, Elsevier, Vol. III, pp. 97–170Google Scholar
  47. Sands, M.W. 1959. Ultra-high Energy Synchrotron, MURA Report 465Google Scholar
  48. Symon, K.R. and A.M. Sessler. 1956. Methods of radio frequency acceleration in fixed-field accelerators with applications to high-current and intersecting beam accelerators, Proc. Symposium on High-Energy Accelerators and Pion Physics, Geneva/CERN, Report CERN 56-26 : 44Google Scholar
  49. Teng, L.C. 1980. The ZGS – Conception to turn-on, History of the ZGS, Proceedings, Symposium, Argonne (AIP Conference Proceedings, 60), p. 10Google Scholar
  50. Terwilliger, K.M., L.W. Jones and C.H. Pruett. 1957. Beam stacking experiments in an electron model FFAG accelerator. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 28 : 987–997 ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Touschek, B. 1961. The Frascati storage rings, Proc. Internat. Conf. on Theor. Aspects of Very High-Energy Phenomena, edited by J.S. Bell et al., Geneva, Report CERN 61-22Google Scholar
  52. Unser, K. 1981. A Toroidal DC Beam Transformer with High Resolution, Proc. 1981 Particle Accelerator Conference, Washington DC, pp. 2344–2346Google Scholar
  53. van der Meer, S. 1968. Calibration of the effective beam height in the ISR, Internal Report CERN ISR-PO/68-31 Google Scholar
  54. van der Meer, S. 1972. Stochastic damping of betatron oscillations in the ISR, Internal Report CERNISR-PO-72-31 Google Scholar
  55. Vladimirski, V.V. et al. 1963. The 60–70 GeV Proton Synchrotron, Proc. 4th Intern. Conf. on High-Energy Accelerators, Dubna, 233Google Scholar
  56. Waloschek, P. 1994. The infancy of particle accelerators : Life and work of Rolf Wideröe, Vieweg, Braunschweig Google Scholar
  57. Wideröe, R. 1953. Anordnung zu Herbeiführung von Kernreaktionen, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Deutsches Patentamt, Patenschrift Nr. 876279Google Scholar
  58. Wilson, R.R. 1959. Electron Synchrotrons, Encyclop. of Physics, edited by S. Flügge, Vol. XLIV, p. 174Google Scholar
  59. Wilson, R.R. 1971. The NAL Proton Synchrotron, Proc. 8th International Conf. on High-Energy Accel., edited by M.H. Blewett, CERN, p. 3Google Scholar
  60. Woods, E.J. and G.K. O’Neill. 1958. Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 3 : 169. See also Princeton-Pennsylvania Accelerator Project, Internal Report GKO’N-11, December 1957 (unpublished). It is quoted in [O’Neill 1959]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CERNGeneva 23Switzerland

Personalised recommendations