The European Physical Journal H

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 1–61 | Cite as

Bruno Touschek: particle physicist and father of the e+e collider



This article gives a brief outline of the life and works of the Austrian physicist Bruno Touschek, who conceived and, 50 years ago, brought to completion the construction of AdA, the first electron-positron storage ring. The events which led to the approval of the AdA project and the Franco-Italian collaboration which confirmed the feasibility of electron-positron storage rings will be recalled. We shall illustrate Bruno Touschek’s formation both as a theoretical physicist and as an expert in particle accelerators during the period between the time he had to leave the Vienna Staatgymnasium in 1938, because of his Jewish origin from the maternal side, until he arrived in Italy in the early 1950s and, in 1960, proposed to build AdA, in Frascati. The events which led to Touschek’s collaboration with Rolf Widerøe in the construction of the first European betatron will be described. The article will make use of a number of unpublished as well as previously unknown documents, which include an early correspondence with Arnold Sommerfeld and Bruno Touschek’s letters to his family in Vienna from Italy, Germany and Great Britain. The impact of Touschek’s work on students and collaborators from University of Rome will be illustrated through his work on QED infrared radiative corrections to high energy e+e experiments and the book Meccanica Statistica.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. Bernardini, G.F. Corazza, G. Ghigo, B. Touschek, The Frascati Storage Ring, Il Nuovo Cimento 18, 1293–1295 (1960)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Amman, C. Bernardini, R. Gatto, G. Ghigo, B. Touschek, Anello di Accumulazione per elettroni e positroni (ADONE), Frascati National Laboratories, Nota Interna No. 68, 1961Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Bacci, G. Penso, G. Salvini, B. Stella, R. Baldini-Celio, G. Capon, C. Mencuccini, G.P. Murtas, M. Spinetti, A. Zallo, Multihadronic cross sections from e+e− annihilation up to 3 GeV c.m. energy, Phys. Lett. B 44, 533–536 (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.J. Aubert et al., Experimental Observation of a Heavy Particle J. By E598 Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1404–1406 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.-E. Augustin et al., Discovery of a Narrow Resonance in e+e− Annihilation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1406–1408 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    C. Bacci et al., Preliminary Result of Frascati (ADONE) on the Nature of a New 3.1-GeV Particle Produced in e+e− Annihilation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1408–1410 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. Amaldi, The Bruno Touschek Legacy, CERN 81–19, 23 December 1981Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. Amaldi, L’eredità di Bruno Touschek, SIF, Quaderni del Giornale di Fisica V (1982) Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Widerøe, The life of Rolf Widerøe, edited by Pedro Waloschek (DESY, 1994)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    E. Paris, Lords of the ring: The fight to build the first US electron-positron collider, Hist. Stud. Phys. Biol. Sci. 31, 355–380 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    F. Amman, The early times of electron colliders, in [17], p. 449Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. Bernardini, AdA: The first electron-positron collider, Phys. Persp. 6, 156–183 (2004) Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Bonolis, Bruno Touschek vs. machine builders: AdA, the first matter-antimatter collider, Riv. Nuovo Cimento 28, 1–60 (2005) Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Greco, G. Pancheri (Eds.), Bruno Touschek Memorial Lectures, Frascati Physics Series, Vol. XXXIII (Frascati 2005), available at
  15. 15.
    Bruno Touschek and the art of physics, movie by E. Agapito, L. Bonolis, 2004, INFN 2005 (available upon request through Pancheri G.)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Archival collection of Le carte di Bruno Touschek, edited by G. Battimelli, M. De Maria, G. Paoloni (U. La Sapienza, Rome, 1989)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    M. De Maria, M. Grilli, F. Sebastiani (Eds.), The Restructuring of Physical Sciences in Europe and the United States, 1945–1960 (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Valente (Ed.), Adone a Milestone on the Particle Way, Frascati Physics Series (Frascati, 1997)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Amman, ADONE and the International Collaboration in the e+e− Storage Rings Development, in [18], p. 23 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    C. Bernardini, AdA: the smallest e+e− ring, in [17], p. 444, 1989Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    C. Bernardini, From the Frascati electron synchrotron to Adone, in Bacci et al., Present and Future of Collider Physics (SIF, Bologna, 1991), p. 3Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Bernardini, Bruno Touschek and AdA, in [18], p. 1Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Cabibbo, e+e− Physics – a View from Frascati in 1960s, in [18], p. 219, 1997Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    B. Bonolis, Una rivoluzione culturale nel mondo degli acceleratori di particelle: Bruno Tuschek e il primo anello di collisione materia-antimateria, Analysis 4, 16–32 (2005) Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    B. Bonolis, Bruno Touschek and the genesis of an idea: AdA, the first storage ring for electrons and positrons in Fermi’s and Majorana’s Legacy and other issues, edited by M. Leone et al. (Bibliopolis, 2007), p. 217Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C.C. Ting Samuel, From Nobel Lectures, Physics 1971–1980, Editor Stig Lundqvist, (World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1992), available at
  27. 27.
    M. Greco, G. Pancheri, Frascati e la fisica teorica: da AdA a DaΦne, Analysis 2–3, 21–38 (2008) Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    C. Rubbia, Edoardo Amaldi. 5 September 1908–5 December: 1989, Bio. Mem. Fell. Roy. Soc. 37, 1–31 (1991) Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. Battimelli, I. Gambaro, Da via Panisperna a Frascati: gli acceleratori mai realizzati, Quaderni di Storia della Fisica 1, 319–333 (1997) Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B. Touschek, Parity conservation and the mass of the neutrino, Il Nuovo Cimento 5, 754–755 (1957) CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    B. Touschek, The mass of the neutrino and the non conservation of parity, Il Nuovo Cimento 5, 1281–1291 (1957)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Morpurgo, L. Radicati, B. Touschek, Time reversal in quantized theories, Il Nuovo Cimento 12, 677–798 (1954)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    C. Rubbia, in [14], p. 57Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    B. Touschek, M. Sands, Alignment Errors in the Strong-Focusing Synchrotron, Il Nuovo Cimento 10, 604–613 (1953)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Proceedings of the CERN Symposium on High-Energy Accelerators and Pion Physics, Geneva, 11–23 June 1956, edited by E. Regenstreif (CERN, Geneva), Vol. 1, p. 66Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    G.K. O’Neill, W.C. Barber, B. Richter, W.K.H. Panofsky, A Proposed experiment on the limits of quantum electrodynamics (Stanford University, HEPL, RX-1486, 1958)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    W.C. Barber, Burton Richter, W.K.H. Panofsky, G.K. O’Neill, B. Gittelman, An Experiment On The Limits Of Quantum Electrodynamics (HEPL-170, 1959)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    D.W. Kerst et al., Attainment of very high energy by means of intersecting beams of particles, Phys. Rev. 102, 590–591 (1956)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    G.K. O’Neill, Storage ring synchrotron: Device for high energy physics research, Phys. Rev. 102, 1418–1419 (1956) Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    G.K. O’Neill, Experimental methods for colliding beams, in Proceedings of the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators and Instrumentation, edited by L. Kowarski (CERN, Geneva, 1959), p. 23Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    G.K. O’Neill, Storage rings for electrons and protons, in Proceedings of the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators and Instrumentation, edited by L. Kowarski (CERN, Geneva, 1959), p. 1925Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G.K. O’Neill , E.J. Woods, Intersecting-beam systems with storage rings, Phys. Rev. 115, 659–668 (1959)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    N. Cabibbo in [15]Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. Gatto, Memories of Bruno Touschek, in [14], p. 69Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. Bernardini, Bruno Touschek and AdA, in [18], p. 1Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    J.F. Crawford, E.B. Hughes, L.H. O’Neill, R.E. Rand, A precision luminosity monitor for use at electron-positron storage rings, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 127, 173–182 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    L.M. Brown, F. Calogero, Effects of pion-pion interaction in electromagnetic processes, Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 315–317 (1960) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    N. Cabibbo, R. Gatto, Pion Form Factors from Possible High-Energy Electron-Positron Experiments, Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 313–314 (1960) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    N. Cabibbo, R. Gatto, Electron positron Colliding Beam Experiments, Phys. Rev. 124, 1577–1595 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    P. Marin, Un demi siècle d’accélérateurs de particules (Editions du Dauphin, Paris, 2009)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    J. Haïssinski, Thèse pour obtenir le grade de docteur ès-sciences, Orsay, série A, No. 81, 1965Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    J. Haïssinski, From AdA to ACO, Reminiscences of Bruno Touschek, Frascati Physics Series Vol. XIII, pp. 17–31, 1998Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    C. Bernardini, Fisica vissuta (Codice Edizioni, 2007)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    C. Bernardini, G.F. Corazza, G. Di Giugno, G. Ghigo, J. Haïssinski, P. Marin, R. Querzoli, B. Touschek, Lifetime and Beam Size in a Storage Ring, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 407–409 (1963)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    C. Bernardini, The Z-distribution of an electron beam in a storage ring, Nota Interna n° 145, Frascati National Laboratories, 1962Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    C. Bernardini, G.F. Corazza, G. Di Giugno, J. Haïssinski, P. Marin, R. Querzoli, B. Touschek, Measurements of the Rate of Interaction between Stored Electrons and Positrons, Il Nuovo Cimento 34, 1473–1493 (1964)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    C. Pellegrini, A.M. Sessler, The Development of Colliders (AIP Press, New York, 1995)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    B. Richter, The rise of colliding beams, in The Rise of the Standard Model. Particle Physics in the 1960s and 1970s, edited by L. Brown et al. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997), p. 261Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    V. Valente, Via del Sincrotrone Km. 12 (INFN, Frascati, 2007)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A.M. Budker et al., Work on colliding electron-electron, electron-positron, and proton-proton beams at the Institute of Nuclear Physics, the Siberian Division of the USSR Academy of Science, 1963, in Proceedings of the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators, edited by A.A. Kolomenski, Atomizdat (Moscow, 1964), p. 274 Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    English translation of [60], USAEC, OakRidge, Tenn., 1965Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    G.I. Budker, Reflections and Remembrances, edited by B.N. Breizman, J.W. Van Dam (AIP Press, New York, 1994) Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    V.N. Baier, Forty years of acting electron-positron colliders, available at
  64. 64.
    A. Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien, 1st edn. (Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1919) Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    A. Sommerfeld, Atombau und Spektrallinien, Vol. II, 2nd edn. (Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1944)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    A. Beyerchen, Scientists under Hitler. Politics and the Physics Community in the Third Reich (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1977)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    R. Widerøe, Über ein neues Prinzip zur Herstellung hoher Spannungen, Arch. Elektrotech. 21, 387–402 (1928)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    D. Kerst, Acceleration of Electrons by Magnetic Induction, Phys. Rev. 58, 841 (1940)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    T. Brustad, Rolf Widerøe: why is the originator of the science of particle accelerators so neglected, particularly in his home country? Acta Oncologica 37, 603–614 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    H.F. Kaiser, European Electron Induction Accelerators, J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1–18 (1947) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    W. Heitler, Quantum theory of radiation, 1st edn. (2nd edn. 1944) (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1936) Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    R. Kollath, G. Schumann, Untersuchungen an einem 15-MV-Betatron, Z. Naturforschung 2a, 634–642 (1947)ADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    B. Touschek, Zur Theorie des doppelten β-Zerfalls, Z. Phys. 125, 108–132 (1948)ADSMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    W. Thirring, Lust am Forschen (Seifert Verlag, Vienna, 2008)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    B. Touschek, Excitation of Nuclei by Electrons, Nature 160, 500 (1947) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. Touschek, Das Synchrotron, Acta Phys. Austriaca 3, 146–155 (1949) Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    B. Touschek, I.N. Sneddon, A Note on the Calculation of the Spacing of Energy Levels in a Heavy Nucleus, Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 44, 391–403 (1948)MATHCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    B. Touschek, I.N. Sneddon, The excitation of nuclei by electrons, Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 193, 344–356 (1948)ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    B. Touschek, Note on Pengs Treatment of the Divergency Difficulties in Quantized Field Theories, Proc. Cambr. Phil. Soc. 44, 301–303 (1948)MATHCrossRefMathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    B. Touschek, I.N. Sneddon, Nuclear Models, Nature 161, 61 (1948)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    B. Touschek, Zum analytischen Verhalten Schrödinger’scher Wellenfunktionen, Z. Phys. 125, 293–297 (April 1948, on the occasion of 60th birthday of Wilhelm Lenz)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    B. Touschek, I.N. Sneddon, The production of mesons by electrons, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 199, 352–361 (1949)ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    B. Touschek, Zum analytischen Verhalten Schrödinger’scher Wellenfunktionen, Z. Phys. 125, 293–297 (1948)ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    W.E. Thirring, B. Touschek, On the Covariant Formulation of the Bloch-Nordsieck Method, Philos. Mag. 42, 244–249 (1951)MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    M. Born, Atomic Physics, 5th edn. (Blackie, Glasgow–London, 1951)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    B. Touschek, An Estimate for the position of the lowest dipole level of a nucleus, Philos. Mag. 41, 849–851 (1950)MATHGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    B. Touschek, J.C. Gunn, E.A. Power, The production of π-mesons in proton-proton collisions, Phys. Rev. 81, 277–278 (1951)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    B. Touschek, A Perturbation Treatment of Closed States in Quantized Field Theories, Philos. Mag. 42, 1178–1184 (1951)MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    E.G. Etim, G. Pancheri, B. Touschek, The Infra-red Radiative Corrections for Colliding Beam (Electrons and Positrons) Experiments, Il Nuovo Cimento B 51, 276–302 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    M. Greco, G. Pancheri Y.N. Srivastava, Radiative Corrections For Colliding Beam Resonances, Nucl. Phys. B 101, 234–262 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    F. Bloch, A. Nordsieck, Note on the Radiation Field of the Electron, Phys. Rev. 52, 54–59 (1937) ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    N.M. Mott, Influence of radiative forces on the scattering of electrons, Proc. Camb. Phil. Soc. 27, 255–257 (1931)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    A. Sommerfeld, Über die Beugung und Bremsung der Elektronen, Ann. Phys. 403, 257–330 (1931)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    H. Bethe, W. Heitler, On the Stopping of Fast Particles and on the Creation of Positive Electrons, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 146, 83–112 (1934)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    J. Schwinger, On Radiative Corrections to Electron Scattering, Phys. Rev. 75, 898–899 (1949)ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. Schwinger, Quantum Electrodynamics. III. The Electromagnetic Properties of the Electron Radiative Corrections to Scattering, Phys. Rev. 76, 790–817 (1949)ADSMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    L.M. Brown, R.P. Feynman, Radiative Corrections to Compton Scattering, Phys. Rev. 85, 231–244 (1952)ADSMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    J.M. Jauch, F. Rohrlich, The infrared divergence, Helv. Phys. Acta 27, 613–636 (1954)MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    V.V. Sudakov, Vertex Parts at Very High Energies in Quantum Electrodynamics, Sov. Phys. JETP 3, 65–71 (1956) MATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    E.L. Lomon, The joining of infra-red and ultra-violet calculations, Nucl. Phys. 1, 101–111 (1956) MATHGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    E.L. Lomon, Radiative Corrections for Nearly Elastic Scattering, Phys. Rev. 113, 726–727 (1959)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    K.E. Erikson, On radiative corrections due to the soft photons, Il Nuovo Cimento 19, 1010–1028 (1961)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    D.R. Yennie, S.C. Frautschi, H. Suura, The Infrared Divergence Phenomenona and High Energy Processes, Ann. Phys. 13, 379–452 (1961)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Y.-S. Tsai, Radiative Corrections To Colliding Beam Experiments, Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Electron and Photon Interactions at High Energies, DESY (Hamburg, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, 1965), Vol. 2, pp. 387–392, and references thereinGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    M. Greco, G. Rossi, A Note on the Infra-red Divergence, Il Nuovo Cimento A 50, 168–175 (1967)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    G. Pancheri, Infra-red Radiative Corrections for Resonant Processes, Il Nuovo Cimento A 60, 321–329 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    V.N. Baier, V.S. Fadin, Radiative corrections to the resonant particle production, Phys. Lett. B 27, 223–225 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    M. Greco, G. Pancheri, Y.N. Srivastava, Radiative Corrections to e+ e− → μ+μ− around the Z0, Nucl. Phys. B 171, 118–140 (1980); Erratum, ibid. B 197, 543–545 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    G. Altarelli, G. Parisi, Asymptotic Freedom in Parton Language, Nucl. Phys. B 126, 298–318 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    D. Babusci et al., Proposal for taking data with the KLOE-2 detector at the DAΦNE collider upgraded in energy, LNF-10-17-P (2010), e-Print arXiv:1007.5219 [hep-ex]Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    G. Pancheri-Srivastava, Y. Srivastava, Transverse-Momentum Distribution From Bloch-Nordsieck Method, Phys. Rev. D 15, 2915–2921 (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    G. Pancheri-Srivastava, Y. Srivastava, Quantum Chromodynamic Radiation And Mean Scaling For Hadronic And Current Processes, Phys. Rev. D 21, 95–101 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Yu.L. Dokshitzer, D.I. Dyakonov, S.I. Troyan, On the transverse momentum distribution of massive lepton pairs, Phy. Lett. B 79, 269–272 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yu.L. Dokshitzer, D.I. Dyakonov, S.I. Troyan, Hard processes in quantum chronodynamics, Phys. Rep. 58, 269–395 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    G. Parisi, R. Petronzio, Small Transverse Momentum Distributions In Hard Processes, Nucl. Phys. B 154, 427–440 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    P. Chiappetta, M. Greco, Transverse Momentum Distributions For Drell-Yan Pairs In QCD, Phys. Lett. B 106, 219–223 (1981); Erratum, ibid. B 107, 456 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    G. Altarelli, R.K. Ellis, M. Greco, G. Martinelli, Vector Boson Production at Colliders: A Theoretical Reappraisal, Nucl. Phys. B 246, 12–44 (1984) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    B. Touschek, G.C. Rossi, Meccanica Statistica, Programma di Matematica Fisica Elettronica (Boringhieri, Torino, 1970)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    M. Mézard, G. Parisi, M. Virasoro, Spin Glass Theory and Beyond, Lectures Notes in Physics, Vol. 9 (World Scientific, 1987)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    G. Parisi, Statistical Field Theory, Frontiers in Physics (Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1988)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    M. Bochiccio, L. Maiani, G. Martinelli, G.C. Rossi, M. Testa, Chiral Symmetry on the Lattice with Wilson Fermions, Nucl. Phys. B 262, 331–355 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    C. Bernardini, U. Bizzarri, G.F. Corazza, G. Ghigo, R. Querzoli, B. Touschek, Progress Report on AdA (Frascati Storage Ring), Il Nuovo Cimento 23, 202–207 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    M.E. Biagini et al. (SuperB Collaboration), SuperB Progress Reports: The Collider (2010), 162 p., e-Print: arXiv:1009.6178 [physics.acc-ph] Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences and Springer 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.History of Physics GroupAIFRomeItaly
  2. 2.INFN Frascati National LaboratoriesFrascatiItaly
  3. 3.Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear ScienceMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA

Personalised recommendations