Skip to main content
Log in

On the discovery of the gluon

  • Published:
The European Physical Journal H Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract.

Quantum chromodynamics, the theory of the strong interaction, is a field theory of quarks and gluons. When it was formulated, the existence of its basic ingredients was still unproven and controversial. While for the quarks the case had been settled by 1975, it remained open for the gluons until in 1979 experiments at the electron-positron collider PETRA at DESY in Hamburg led to a breakthrough. Peculiar final configurations of hadrons produced in the electron-positron annihilation process at high energies, so-called planar events and three-jet events, were discovered. In a close cooperation between experiment and theory they were unambiguously identified as signatures of the radiation of hard gluons by quarks (“hard gluon bremsstrahlung”), providing the first clear and direct observational evidence for the existence of the gluon and confirming crucial predictions of quantum chromodynamics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. H. Fritzsch, M. Gell-Mann, Current Algebra: Quarks and what else?, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics (Chicago-Batavia, 1972), Vol. 2, p. 135

  2. H. Fritzsch, M. Gell-Mann, H. Leutwyler, Advantages of the Color Octet Gluon Picture, Phys. Lett. B 47, 365 (1973)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  3. H.D. Politzer, Reliable Perturbative Results for Strong Interactions?, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1346 (1973)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  4. D.J. Gross, F. Wilczek, Ultraviolet Behavior of Non-Abelian Gauge Theories, Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 1343 (1973)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  5. M. Gell-Mann, A Schematic Model of Baryons and Mesons, Phys. Lett. 8, (1964) 214

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  6. G. Zweig, An SU(3) Model for Strong Interaction Symmetry and its Breaking, CERN Reports No. 8152/TH.401 and 8419/TH.412 (1964), unpublished

  7. R.P. Feynman, M. Gell-Mann, G. Zweig, Group U(6) ⊗ U(6) Generated by Current Components, Phys. Rev. Lett. 13, 678 (1964)

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  ADS  Google Scholar 

  8. M.H. Han, Y. Nambu, 3-triplet model with SU(3) symmetry, Phys. Rev. 139, 1006B (1965)

    Article  MathSciNet  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. W.K.H. Panofsky, Low q2 Electrodynamics, Elastic and Inelastic Electron (and Muon) Scattering, Proc. 14th Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics(Vienna, 28 Aug - 5 Sept 1968), p. 23

  10. R.E. Taylor, Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering in the Deep Continuum Region, Invited talk, Proc. 4th Int. Symp. on Electron Photon Interactions at High Energies(Liverpool, 1969), p. 251

  11. E.D. Bloom et al., High-Energy Inelastic ep Scattering at 6° and 10°, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 930 (1969)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  12. M. Breidenbach et al., Observed Behavior of Highly Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 935 (1969)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  13. J.D. Bjorken, Asymptotic Sum Rules at Infinite Momentum, Phys. Rev. 179, 1547 (1969)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  14. J.D. Bjorken, E.A. Paschos, Inelastic Electron-Proton and γ-Proton Scattering and the Structure of the Nucleon, Phys. Rev. 185, 1975 (1969)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  15. R.P. Feynman, Photon-Hadron Interactions (Benjamin, Reading, Mass., 1972)

  16. R.P. Feynman, Very High-Energy Collisions of Hadrons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1415 (1969)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  17. R.P. Feynman, The Behavior of Hadron Collisions at Extreme Energies, High Energy Collisions(New York, Gordon and Breach, 1969), p. 237

  18. G. Myatt, D.H. Perkins, Further Observations on Scaling in Neutrino Interactions, Phys. Lett. B 34, 542 (1971)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  19. D.H. Perkins, Neutrino Interactions, Review paper, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics(Chicago-Batavia, 1972), Vol. 4, p. 189

  20. J.I. Friedman, H.W. Kendall, Deep Inelastic Electron Scattering, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 22, 203 (1972)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  21. G. Miller et al., Inelastic Electron-Proton Scattering at Large Momentum Transfers and the Inelastic Structure Functions of the Proton, Phys. Rev. D 5, 528 (1972)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  22. T. Eichten et al., Measurement of the Neutrino-Nucleon and Antineutrino-Nucleon Total Cross Sections, Phys. Lett. B 46, 274 (1973)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  23. B. Richter, e + e − → HADRONS, Plenary session report, Proc. XVII Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics, London, 1 - 10 July 1974(Science Research Council, Rutherford Lab., 1974), pp. IV-37

  24. G.S. Abrams, Properties of the New Particles ψ(3095) and ψ′(3684), Proc. 1975 Int. Symp on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Stanford U., Aug. 21 - 27, 1975), p. 25; G.J. Feldman, New Particle Searches and Discoveries at SPEAR, ibid., p. 39; A.D. Liberman, ψ(3095) and ψ(3684) Results from the HEPL Experiment at SPEAR, ibid., p. 55; B.H. Wiik, Recent Results from DORIS, ibid., p. 69; J. Heintze, DORIS Results from the DESY Heidelberg Collaboration, ibid., p. 97; SPEAR-DORIS Discussion, ibid., p. 109

  25. S.D. Drell, D.J. Levy, T.-M. Yan, Theory of Deep-Inelastic Lepton-Nucleon Scattering and Lepton-Pair Annihilation Processes I, Phys. Rev. 187, 2159 (1969)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  26. S.D. Drell, D.J. Levy, T.-M. Yan, Theory of Deep-Inelastic Lepton-Nucleon Scattering and Lepton-Pair Annihilation Processes III, Phys. Rev. D 1, 1617 (1970)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  27. N. Cabibbo, G. Parisi, M. Testa, Hadron Production in e + e − Collisions, Lett. Nuovo Cim. 4, 35 (1970)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. J.D. Bjorken, S.J. Brodsky, Statistical Model for Electron-Positron Annihilation into Hadrons, Phys. Rev. D 1, 1416 (1970)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  29. G. Hanson et al., Evidence for Jet Structure in Hadron Production by e + e − Annihilation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1609 (1975)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  30. R.F. Schwitters et al., Azimuthal Asymmetry in Inclusive Hadron Production by e + e − Annihilation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 1320 (1975)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  31. M. Gell-Mann, Symmetries of Baryons and Mesons, Phys. Rev. 125, 1067 (1962)

    Article  MATH  MathSciNet  ADS  Google Scholar 

  32. C.H. Llewellyn Smith, Current-Algebra Sum Rules Suggested by the Parton Model, Nucl. Phys. B 17, 277 (1970)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. C.H. Llewellyn Smith, Inelastic Lepton Scattering in Gluon Models, Phys. Rev. D 4, 2392 (1971)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  34. J. Kuti, V.F. Weisskopf, Inelastic Lepton-Nucleon Scattering and Lepton Pair Production in the Relativistic Quark-Parton Model, Phys. Rev. D 4, 3418 (1971)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  35. R.P. Feynman, Photon-Hadron Interactions (Benjamin, Reading, Mass., 1972), p. 152

  36. D.J. Gross, F. Wilczek, Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories I, Phys. Rev. D 8, 3633 (1973)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. D.J. Gross, F. Wilczek, Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories II, Phys. Rev. D 9, 980 (1974)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  38. H. Georgi, H.D. Politzer, Electroproduction Scaling in an Asymptotically Free Theory of Strong Interactions, Phys. Rev. D 9, 416 (1973)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  39. J.B. Kogut, L. Susskind, Scale-Invariant Parton Model, Phys. Rev. D 9, 697 (1974)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  40. J.B. Kogut, L. Susskind, Parton Models and Asymptotic Freedom, Phys. Rev. D 9, 3391 (1974)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  41. Y. Watanabe et al., Test of Scale Invariance in Ratios of Muon Scattering Cross Sections at 150 and 56 GeV, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 898 (1975)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  42. C. Chang et al., Observed Deviations from Scale Invariance in High Energy Muon Scattering, Phys. Rev. Lett. 35, 901 (1975)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  43. W.B. Atwood et al., Inelastic Electron Scattering from Hydrogen at 50° and 60°, Phys. Lett. B 64, 479 (1976)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  44. H1 and ZEUS Collaborations, Combined Measurement and QCD Analysis of the Inclusive e ± p Scattering Cross Sections at HERA, Journal of High Energy Physics, DOI: 10.1007/JHEP01(2010)109

  45. P.C. Bosetti et al., Analysis of Nucleon Structure Functions in CERN Bubble Chamber Neutrino Experiments, Nucl. Phys. B 142, 1 (1978)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  46. J.G.H. De Groot et al., Comparison of Moments from the Valence Structure Function with QCD Predictions, Phys. Lett. B 82, 292 (1979)

    Article  MathSciNet  ADS  Google Scholar 

  47. J.G.H. De Groot et al., QCD Analysis of Charged-Current Structure Functions, Phys. Lett. B 82, 456 (1979)

    Article  MathSciNet  ADS  Google Scholar 

  48. J.G.H. De Groot et al., Inclusive Interactions of High-Energy Neutrinos and Antineutrinos in Iron, Z. Phys. C 1, 143 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  49. J.K. Yoh et al., Study of Scaling in Hadronic Production of Dimuons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 41, 684 (1978)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  50. Sau Lan Wu, e+e− Physics at PETRA – The first five years, Phys. Rep. 107, 59 (1984)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. P. Söding, B. Wiik, G. Wolf, Sau Lan Wu, The First Evidence for Three-Jet Events in e+e− Collisions at PETRA – First Direct Observation of the Gluon (presented by S.L. Wu), Proc. Int. Europhysics Conf. on High Energy Physics (EPS HEP 95)(Brussels, 1995), p. 3

  52. Sau Lan Wu, Hadron Jets and the Discovery of the Gluon, The Rise of the Standard Model: Particle Physics in the 1960s and 1970s edited by L. Hoddeson, L. Brown, M. Riordan and M. Dresden (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997), p. 600

  53. J. Ellis, Those were the days: discovering the gluon, CERN Courier 49Nr. 6 (July/August 2009) p. 15; see also reference

  54. E. Lohrmann, P. Söding, Von schnellen Teilchen und hellem Licht: 50 Jahre Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY (WILEY-VCH Weinheim 2009)

  55. PETRA – Ein Vorschlag zur Erweiterung der Speicherringanlagen bei DESY zu hohen Energien (DESY, Hamburg, Nov. 1974), unpublished

  56. Discussion Meeting on PETRA Experiments, organized by DESY and INFN (Frascati, March 1 - 5, 1976), unpublished

  57. T.F. Walsh, Hadron Production in e + e − Annihilation at High Energies, ibid.p. B1, referring to A.M. Polyakov. See also A.M. Polyakov, Ultraviolet and Infrared Interactions of the Quantized Field, Proc. 1975 Int. Symp on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Stanford U., Aug. 27 - 27, 1975), p. 855

  58. J. Ellis, M.K. Gaillard, G.G. Ross, Search for Gluons in e + e − Annihilation, Nucl. Phys. B 111, 253 (1976)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  59. G. Sterman, S. Weinberg, Jets from Quantum Chromodynamics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1436 (1977)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  60. Ch. Berger et al. (PLUTO Coll.), A Study of Jets in Electron Positron Annihilation into Hadrons in the Energy Range 3.1 to 9.5 GeV, Phys. Lett. B 78, 176 (1978)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  61. T. Appelquist, H.D. Politzer, Heavy Quarks and e+e− Annihilation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 43 (1975)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  62. T. Appelquist, H.D. Politzer, Heavy Quarks and Long-Lived Hadrons, Phys. Rev. D 12, 1404 (1975)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  63. K. Koller, T.F. Walsh, Three Gluon Jets as a Test of QCD, Phys. Lett. B 72, 227 (1977)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  64. Ch. Berger et al. (PLUTO Coll.), Jet Analysis of the Υ(9.46) Decay into Charged Hadrons, Phys. Lett. B 82, 449 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  65. PLUTO Coll., Experimental Search for Υ Decay into 3 Gluons (presented by S. Brandt), Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics(European Physical Society, Geneva, 27 June - 4 July 1979), Vol. 1, p. 338

  66. PLUTO Coll., Measurement of the Properties of the Υ Family from e+e− Annihilation (presented by H. Meyer), Proc. 9th Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Fermi National Accelerator Lab. FNAL, Batavia, Ill. August 1979), p. 214

  67. S. Brandt et al., The Principal Axis of Jets – An Attempt to Analyse High-Energy Collisions as Two-Body Processes, Phys. Lett. 12, 57 (1964)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  68. E. Fahri, Quantum Chromodynamics Test for Jets, Phys. Rev. Lett. 39, 1587 (1977)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  69. S. Brandt, H.D. Dahmen, Axes and Scalar Measures of Two-Jet and Three-Jet Events, Z. Phys. C 1, 61 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  70. F.H. Heimlich et al. (DESY-Hamburg-Heidelberg-MPI München Coll.), Hadronic Jets from e+e− Annihilations in the Υ- and Υ′-Region, Phys. Lett. B 86, 399 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  71. K. Koller, H. Krasemann, Excluding Scalar Gluons, Phys. Lett. B 88, 119 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  72. T.F. Walsh, P. Zerwas, Υ(9.46) Decays Do Test QCD, Phys. Lett. B 93, 53 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  73. H. Albrecht et al. (ARGUS Coll.), Observation of \(B^0\bar{B^0}\) Mixing, Phys. Lett. B 192, 245 (1987)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  74. S.L. Wu, G. Zobernig, A Method of Three-Jet Analysis in e+e− Annihilation, Z. Phys. C 2, 107 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  75. S.L. Wu, G. Zobernig, A three-jet candidate, TASSO Note No. 84 (June 26, 1979)

  76. G. Wolf, High Energy Trends in e+e− Physics, Invited talk, Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics(European Physical Society, Geneva, 27 June - 4 July 1979), Vol. 1, p. 220

  77. TASSO Coll., The Hadronic Final State in e+e− Annihilation at c.m. Energies of 13, 17 and 27.4 GeV (presented by R. Cashmore), Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics(European Physical Society, Geneva, 27 June - 4 July 1979), p. 330

  78. B. Wiik, First Results from PETRA, Proc. Int. Conf. on Neutrinos, Weak Interactions and Cosmology, edited by A. Haatuft, C. Jarlskog (Bergen, 18 - 22 June 1979), Vol. 1, p. 113

  79. P. Söding, Jet Analysis; Invited talk, Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics(European Physical Society, Geneva, 27 June - 4 July 1979), Vol. 1, p. 271

  80. T.A. DeGrand, Y.G. Ng, S.H.H. Tye, Jet Structure in e+e− Annihilation as a Test of Quantum Chromodynamics and the Quark-Confining String, Phys. Rev. D 16, 3251 (1977)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  81. A. De Rujula, J. Ellis, E.G. Floratos, M.K. Gaillard, QCD Predictions for Hadronic Final States in e+e− Annihilation, Nucl. Phys. B 138, 387 (1978)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  82. J. Ellis, I. Karliner, Measuring the Spin of the Gluon in e+e− Annihilation, Nucl. Phys. B 148, 141 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  83. G. Kramer, G. Schierholz, J. Willrodt, QCD Precictions for Jets in e+e− Annihilation: Angular Correlations and Asymmetries, Phys. Lett. B 79, 249 (1978)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  84. G. Kramer, G. Schierholz, Transverse Momentum and Angular Distributions of Hadrons in e+e− Jets from QCD, Phys. Lett. B 82, 108 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  85. G. Kramer, G. Schierholz, J. Willrodt, Cross Sections and Angular Distributions of Three-Jet Final States in e+e− Annihilation for Heavy Quarks, Z. Phys. C 4, 149 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  86. G. Kramer, Theory of Jets in Electron-Positron Annihilation, Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 102, (1984)

  87. P. Hoyer, P. Osland, H.G. Sander, T.F. Walsh, P.M. Zerwas, Quantum Chromodynamics and Jets in e+e−, Nucl. Phys. B 161, 349 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  88. R. Field, R.P. Feynman, A Parametrization of the Properties of Quark Jets, Nucl. Phys. B 136, 1 (1978)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  89. A. Ali, J.G. Körner, G. Kramer, J. Willrodt, Jet-Like Distributions from the Weak Decay of Heavy Quarks, Z. Phys. C 1, 203 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  90. A. Ali et al., Indications of \(b\bar{b}\) Production and Decay at PETRA, Phys. Lett. B 83, 375 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  91. A. Ali et al., A QCD Analysis of the High Energy e+e− Data from PETRA, Phys. Lett. B 93, 155 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  92. A. Ali et al., Heavy Quarks in e+e− Annihilation, Nucl. Phys. B 168, 409 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  93. T. Meyer (Wisconsin group in TASSO) had added the signatures of heavy quark decays to the Monte Carlo program of references

  94. MARK-J Coll., A Measurement of e+e− → hadrons at √s = 27.4 GeV (presented by J.G. Branson), Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Phys.(European Physical Society, Geneva, 27 June - 4 July 1979), Vol. 1, p. 325

  95. PLUTO Coll., Results from PLUTO at PETRA (presented by V. Blobel), Proc. Int. Conf. on High Energy Phys.(European Physical Society, Geneva, 27 June - 4 July 1979), p. 43

  96. D. Lüke, P. Mättig, P.M. Zerwas, Gluon jets at PETRA, internal note (1995)

  97. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll.), Differential Three-Jet Cross Section in e+e− Annihilation and Comparison with Second-Order Predictions of QCD, Phys. Lett. B 119, 239 (1982)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  98. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll.), Experimental Studies on Multijet Production in e+e− Annihilation at PETRA Energies, Z. Phys. C 33, 23 (1986)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  99. An update of the TASSO work was shown by P. Schmüser, presentation in the open session of the DESY Physics Research Committee, July 31, 1979

  100. JADE Coll., First Results from JADE (presented by S. Orito), Proc. 9th Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Fermi National Accelerator Lab. FNAL, Batavia, Ill, August 1979), p. 52

  101. MARK-J Coll., The First Year of MARK-J at PETRA (presented by H. Newman), Proc. 9th Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Fermi National Accelerator Lab. FNAL, Batavia, Ill, August 1979), p. 3

  102. PLUTO Coll., Results from the PLUTO Experiment on e+e− Reactions at High Energies (presented by Ch. Berger), Proc. 9th Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Fermi National Accelerator Lab. FNAL, Batavia, Ill, August 1979), p. 19

  103. TASSO Coll., TASSO Results on e+e− Annihilation between 13 and 31.6 GeV and Evidence for Three-Jet Events (presented by G. Wolf), Proc. 9th Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Fermi National Accelerator Lab. FNAL, Batavia, Ill, August 1979), p. 343

  104. H. Harari, Theoretical Interpretation of e+e− Results, Proc. 9th Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Fermi National Accelerator Lab. FNAL, Batavia, Ill, August 1979), p. 198

  105. R. Brandelik et al. (TASSO Coll.), Evidence for Planar Events in e+e− Annihilation at High Energies, Phys. Lett. B 86, 243 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  106. D.P. Barber et al. (MARK-J Coll.), Discovery of Three-Jet Events and a Test of Quantum Chromodynamics at PETRA, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 830 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  107. Ch. Berger et al. (PLUTO Coll.), Evidence for Gluon Bremsstrahlung in e+e− Annihilations at High Energies, Phys. Lett. B 86, 418 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  108. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll.), Observation of Planar Three-Jet Events in e+e− Annihilation and Evidence for Gluon Bremsstrahlung, Phys. Lett. B 91, 142 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  109. Michael Riordan, The Hunting of the Quark (Simon & Schuster, New York 1987), p. 351 ff

  110. R. Brandelik et al. (TASSO Coll.), Evidence for a Spin-1 Gluon in Three-Jet Events, Phys. Lett. B 97, 453 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  111. Ch. Berger et al. (PLUTO Coll.), A Study of Multi-Jet Events in e+e− Annihilation, Phys. Lett. B 97, 459 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  112. H.J. Behrend et al. (CELLO Coll.), Topology of Hadronic e+e− Annihilation Events at 22 and 34 GeV CM Energy, Phys. Lett. B 110, 329 (1982)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  113. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll.), Experimental Study of Jets in Electron-Positron Annihilation, Phys. Lett. B 101, 129 (1981)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  114. B. Andersson, G. Gustafson, T. Sjöstrand, A Three-Dimensional Model for Quark and Gluon Jets, Z. Phys. C 6, 235 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  115. B. Andersson, G. Gustafson, G. Ingelman, T. Sjöstrand, Parton Fragmentation and String Dynamics, Phys. Rep. 97, 31 (1983)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  116. G. Marchesini, B.R. Webber, Simulation of QCD Jets Including Soft Gluon Interference, Nucl. Phys. B 238, 1 (1984)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  117. B.R. Webber, A QCD Model for Jet Fragmentation Including Soft Gluon Interference, Nucl. Phys. B 238, 492 (1984)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  118. A. Ali, F. Barreiro, Jets in e+e− Annihilation and QCD, High Energy Electron-Positron Physics, edited by A. Ali, P. Söding (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988), p. 612

  119. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll.), Differential Three-Jet Cross Section in e+e− Annihilation and Comparison with Second-Order Predictions of QCD and Abelian Vector Theory, Phys. Lett. B 119, 239 (1982)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  120. K. Fabricius, I. Schmitt, G. Schierholz, G. Kramer, Order αS2 Correction to Jet Cross Sections in e+e− Annihilation, Phys. Lett. B 97, 431 (1981)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  121. Ch. Berger et al. (PLUTO Coll.), A Study of Energy-Energy Correlations in e+e− Annihilations at √s = 34.6 GeV, Z. Phys. C 28, 365 (1985)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  122. B. Adeva et al. (MARK-J Coll.), Model-Independent Second-Order Determination of the Strong Coupling Constant α S, Phys. Rev. Lett. 50, 2051 (1983)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  123. A. Ali, E. Pietarinen, G. Kramer, J. Willrodt, A QCD Analysis of the High Energy e+e− Data from PETRA, Phys. Lett. B 93, 155 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  124. R.K. Ellis, D.A. Ross, A.E. Terrano, Calculation of Event-Shape Parameters in e+e− Annihilation, Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1226 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  125. A. Ali, F. Barreiro, An O(α S)2 Calculation of Energy-Energy Correlation in e+e− Annihilation and Comparison with Experimental Data, Phys. Lett. B 118, 155 (1982)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  126. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll.), Observation of Four-Jet Structures in e+e−-Annihilation at √s = 33 GeV, Phys. Lett. B 115, 338 (1982)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  127. W. Bartel et al., Experimental Studies on Multijet Production in e+e− Annihilation at PETRA Energies, Z. Phys. C 33, 23 (1986)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  128. W. Bartel et al. (JADE Coll), Experimental Evidence for Differences in 〈 p T ⟩ between Quark Jets and Gluon Jets, Phys. Lett. B 123, 460 (1983)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  129. M. Althoff et al. (TASSO Coll.), A Study of 3-Jet Events in e+e− Annihilation into Hadrons at 34.6 GeV c.m. Energy, Z. Phys. C 29, 29 (1985)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  130. A. Petersen et al. (SLAC-LBL-Berkeley-Harvard Coll.), Inclusive Charged-Particle Distribution in Nearly Threefold-Symmetric Three-Jet Events at E c . m. = 29GeV, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1954 (1985)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  131. B.H. Wiik, New e+e− Physics; XX Int. Conf. on High Energy Physics–1980, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 68, 1379 (1981)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  132. J. Ellis, Gluons, Comm. Nucl. Part. Phys. 9, 153 (1981)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  133. P. Söding, G. Wolf, Experimental Evidence on QCD, Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 31, 231 (1981)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  134. P. Söding, Evidence on the Gluon; Particles and Fields 1981: Testing the Standard Model, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 81, 107 (1982)

    ADS  Google Scholar 

  135. L. Criegee, G. Knies, e+e− Physics with the PLUTO detector, Phys. Rep. 83, 192 (1982)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  136. B. Naroska, e+e− Physics with the JADE detector at PETRA, Phys. Rep. 148, 67 (1987)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  137. Sau Lan Wu, e+e− Interactions at High Energies, Proc. 1987 Int. Symposium on Lepton and Photon Interactions at High Energies(Hamburg, 1987), pp. 39–137

  138. A. Ali, P. Söding (Eds.), High Energy Electron-Positron Physics(World Scientific, Singapore, 1988)

  139. S. Bethke et al. (JADE Coll.), Experimental Investigation of the Energy Dependence of the Strong Coupling Strength, Phys. Lett. B 213, 235 (1988)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  140. S. Bethke, The 2009 World Average of α S, Eur. Phys. J. C 64, 689 (2009)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  141. S. Bethke, QCD Studies at LEP, Phys. Rep. 403-404, 203 (2004)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  142. M. Bengtsson, P.M. Zerwas, Four-Jet Events in e+e− Annihilation: Testing the Three-Gluon Vertex, Phys. Lett. B 208, 306 (1988)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  143. The MARK J Coll., Physics with High Energy Electron-Positron Colliding Beams with the MARK J Detector, Phys. Rep. 63, 337 (1980)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  144. P. Duinker, D. Luckey, In Search of Gluons, Comm. Nucl. Part. Phys. 9, 123 (1981)

    Google Scholar 

  145. The MARK J Coll. (B. Adeva et al.), A Summary of Experimental Results from MARK J: High Energy e+e− Collisions at PETRA, Phys. Rep. 109, 131 (1984)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  146. J.G. Branson, Gluon Jets, Int. Conf. on the History of Original Ideas and Basic Discoveries in Particle Physics, Erice, July 1994, Gluon Jets, UCSD/PTH 9509 (1995)

  147. Letters to the Editor, CERN Courier 49 Nr. 8, October 2009, p. 29, http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/40428/2

  148. European Physical Society, Press Release, Geneva, June 27, 1995

  149. D.P. Barber et al. (MARK-J Coll.), Test of Quantum Chromodynamics and a Direct Measurement of the Strong Coupling Constant α S at √s = 30 GeV, Phys. Lett. B 89, 139 (1979)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Söding.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Söding, P. On the discovery of the gluon. EPJ H 35, 3–28 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2010-00002-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1140/epjh/e2010-00002-5

Keywords

Navigation