Electron swarm experiments in dense rare gases: a review

Topical Review
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical issue: Electron and Positron Induced Processes

Abstract

Swarm techniques have largely been used to investigate electron transport in very dilute gases in order to shed light on the electron-atom (molecule) scattering cross section and, hence, on the interaction potential. The theoretical basis for the analysis of these experiments is classical Kinetic Theory. However, electron transport in dense media, either in gaseous- or condensed phase, is a physical phenomenon of fundamental and practical interest. Dense rare gases are model systems for disordered media. They are particularly well suited to investigate how the dynamics and energetics of quasifree electrons change as the environment density is gradually increased. A review on the electron swarm experiments in dense rare gases is presented here.

References

  1. 1.
    L.G.H. Huxley, R.W. Crompton, The Diffusion and Drift of Electrons in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1974) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.H. Cohen, J. Lekner, Phys. Rev. 158, 305 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. van Hove, Phys. Rev. 95, 249 (1954) ADSCrossRefMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    V.M. Atrazhev, A.V. Bereznov, I.V. Timoshkin, Phys. Rev. B 66, 205106 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Y. Naveh, B. Laikhtman, Phys. Rev. B 47, 3566 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    G.H. Wannier, Statistical Physics (Wiley, New York, 1966) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A.F. Borghesani, M. Santini, Phys. Rev. A 42, 7377 (1990) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.F. Borghesani, J. Electrostat. 53, 89 (2001) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    A.F. Borghesani, M. Santini, Phys. Rev. E 65, 056403 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S.S.S. Huang, G.R. Freeman, J. Chem. Phys. 68, 1355 (1978) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    L.G. Christophorou, S.R. Hunter, in Swarms of Ions and Electrons in Gases, edited by W. Lindinger, T.D. Märk, F. Howorka (Springer, Wien, 1984), p. 241 Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S.R. Hunter, L.G. Christophorou, in Electron-Molecule Interactions and Their Applications, edited by L.G. Christophorou, K. Siomos (Academic Press, Orlando, 1984), Vol. 2, p. 89 Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G.L. Braglia, V. Dallacasa, Phys. Rev. A 26, 902 (1982) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    V.M. Atrazhev, I.T. Iakubov, J. Phys. D 10, 2155 (1977) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    A.Y. Polishuk, Physica C 24, 91 (1984) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    T.F. O’Malley, Phys. Rev. 130, 1020 (1963) ADSCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    T.F. O’Malley, R.W. Crompton, J. Phys. B 13, 3451 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Weyhreter, B. Barzick, A. Mann, F. Linder, Z. Phys. D 7, 333 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A.F. Borghesani, M. Santini, P. Lamp, Phys. Rev. A 46, 7902 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E. Fermi, Nuovo Cimento 11, 157 (1934) CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B.E. Springett, J. Jortner, M.H. Cohen, J. Chem. Phys. 48, 2720 (1968) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.P. Hernandez, L.W. Martin, Phys. Rev. A 43, R4568 (1991) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. Miyakawa, D.L. Dexter, Phys. Rev. 184, 166 (1969) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L.S. Frost, A.V. Phelps, Phys. Rev. 136, A1538 (1964) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. Ascarelli, Phys. Rev. B 33, 5825 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P.W. Adams, D.A. Browne, M.A. Paalanen, Phys. Rev. B 45, 8837 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    J. Lekner, Philos. Mag. 18, 1281 (1968) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    J. Lekner, A.R. Bishop, Philos. Mag. 27, 297 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    H.E. Stanley, Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena (Oxford University Press, New York, 1971) Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J.E. Thomas, P.W. Schmidt, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 2506 (1963) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    A.F. Borghesani, L. Bruschi, M. Santini, G. Torzo, Phys. Rev. A 37, 4828 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Neri, Ph.D. thesis, University of Padua, Padua, Italy, 1996 Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A.G. Khrapak, I.T. Iakubov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 22, 703 (1979) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    A.F. Borghesani, in International Series of Monographs on Physics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2007), Vol. 137 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    L. Bruschi, G. Mazzi, M. Santini, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1504 (1972) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J.L. Levine, T.M. Sanders, Phys. Rev. 154, 138 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    H.R. Harrison, L.M. Sander, B.E. Springett, J. Phys. B 6, 908 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    J.A. Jahnke, M. Silver, J.P. Hernandez, Phys. Rev. B 12, 3420 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K.W. Schwarz, Phys. Rev. B 21, 5125 (1980) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    F. Aitken, Z.L. Li, N. Bonifaci, A. Denat, K. Von Heften, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13, 719 (2011) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    T.P. Eggarter, M.H. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 629 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Y. Sakai, W.F. Schmidt, A.G. Khrapak, Chem. Phys. 164, 139 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    P.W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 109, 1492 (1958) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    A.L. Fetter, The Physics of Liquid and Solid Helium (Wiley, New York, 1975) Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    K.F. Volykhin, A.G. Khrapak, W.F. Schmidt, Sov. Phys. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 81, 901 (1995) ADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    F. Aitken, N. Bonifaci, A. Denat, K. Von Heften, J. Low Temp. Phys. 162, 702 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    G.H. Wannier, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 32, 170 (1953) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    W. Tauchert, H. Jungblut, W.F. Schmidt, Can. J. Chem. 55, 1860 (1977) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    A.F. Borghesani, L. Bruschi, M. Santini, G. Torzo, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 57, 2234 (1986) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    M. Silver, P. Smejtek, K. Mausda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 626 (1967) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    M. Silver, P. Kumbhare, P. Smejtek, D.G. Onn, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 5195 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    A.F. Borghesani, P. Lamp, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 034309 (2013) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    D.G. Onn, M. Silver, Phys. Rev. A 3, 1773 (1971) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    D.G. Onn, M. Silver, Phys. Rev. 183, 295 (1969) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    P. Smejtek, M. Silver, K.S. Dy, D.G. Onn, J. Chem. Phys. 59, 1374 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    J.R. Broomall, W.D. Johnson, D.G. Onn, Phys. Rev. B 14, 2819 (1976) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    J. Jortner, N.R. Kestner, S.A. Rice, M.H. Cohen, J. Chem. Phys. 43, 2614 (1965) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    L.A. Young, N.E. Bradbury, Phys. Rev. 43, 34 (1933) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    A.F. Borghesani, P. Lamp, Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 20, 034001 (2011) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    F. Bloch, N.E. Bradbury, Phys. Rev. 48, 689 (1935) ADSCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    M.J.W. Boness, G.J. Schulz, Phys. Rev. A 2, 2182 (1970) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    T.D. Märk, K. Leiter, W. Ritter, A. Stamatovic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2559 (1985) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    S. Matejcik, A. Kiendler, P. Stampfli, A. Stamatovic, T.D. Märk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3771 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A.K. Bartels, Phys. Lett. 45A, 491 (1973) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    D. Neri, A.F. Borghesani, M. Santini, Phys. Rev. E 56, 2137 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    A.F. Borghesani, M. Santini, in Gaseous Dielectrics VI, edited by L.G. Christophorou (Plenum Press, New York, 1991), p. 27 Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    W.A. Mason, E.W. McDaniel, Transport Properties of Ions in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1988) Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    W.F. Schmidt, Liquid State Electronics of Insulating Liquids (CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1997) Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    A.K. Bartels, Appl. Phys. 8, 59 (1975) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    A.G. Khrapak, I.T. Iakubov, Electrons in Dense Gases and Plasmas [in Russian] (Nauka, Moscow, 1981) Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    A.F. Borghesani, D. Neri, M. Santini, Phys. Rev. E 48, 1379 (1993) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    A.F. Borghesani, D. Neri, A. Barbarotto, Chem. Phys. Lett. 267, 116 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    K.R. Atkins, Phys. Rev. 116, 1339 (1959) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    J.V. Sengers, J.M.H.L. Sengers, C.A. Croxton, Progress in Liquid Physics (Wiley, Chichester, 1978) Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    C.M. Evans, G.L. Findley, Phys. Rev. A 72, 022717 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    C.M. Evans, G.L. Findley, Chem. Phys. Lett. 410, 242 (2005) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    A.F. Borghesani, G. Carugno, M. Santini, IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 26, 615 (1991) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    R. Reininger, U. Asaf, I.T. Steinberger, S. Basak, Phys. Rev. B 28, 4426 (1983) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    A.F. Borghesani, G. Bressi, G. Carugno, E. Conti, D. Iannuzzi, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 6042 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    A.F. Borghesani, G. Carugno, I. Mogentale, J. Phys. B 40, 4551 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    A.M. Köhler, R. Reininger, V. Saile, G.L. Findley, Phys. Rev. A 35, 79 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    A.M. Köhler, R. Reininger, V. Saile, G.L. Findley, Phys. Rev. A 33, 771 (1988) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    L.W. Martin, Ph.D. thesis, University of North Carolina, 1991 Google Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CNISM Unit, Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of PaduaPaduaItaly

Personalised recommendations