Hybrid multilane models for highway traffic

  • Taiyi Zhang
  • Yu-Cheng LinEmail author
Regular Article


We study effects of lane changing rules on multilane highway traffic using the Nagel–Schreckenberg cellular automaton model with different schemes for combining driving lanes (lanes used by default) and overtaking lanes. Three schemes are considered: a symmetric model, in which all lanes are driving lanes; an asymmetric model, in which the right lane is a driving lane and the other lanes are overtaking lanes; a hybrid model, in which the leftmost lane is an overtaking lane and all the other lanes are driving lanes. In a driving lane, vehicles follow symmetric rules for lane changes to the left and to the right, while in an overtaking lane vehicles follow asymmetric lane changing rules. We test these schemes for three- and four-lane traffic mixed with some low-speed vehicles (having a lower maximum speed) in a closed system with periodic boundary conditions as well as in an open system with one open lane. Our results show that the asymmetric model, which reflects the ”Keep Right Unless Overtaking” rule, is more efficient than the other two models. An extensible software package developed for this study is free available.


Statistical and Nonlinear Physics 


  1. 1.
    B. Derrida, M.R. Evans, V. Hakim, V. Pasquier, J. Phys. A 26, 1493 (1993) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Nagel, M. Schreckenberg, J. Phys. I 2, 2221 (1992) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. Chowdhury, L. Santen, A. Schadschneider, Phys. Rep. 329, 199 (2000) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    K. Nagel, D.E. Wolf, P. Wagner, P. Simon, Phys. Rev. E 58, 1425 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    W. Knospe et al., J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35, 3369 (2002) ADSMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. K. Lee, R. Barlovic, M. Schreckenberg, D. Kim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 238702 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Habel, M. Schreckenberg, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, Krak, 2014, edited by J. Was, G.Ch. Sirakoulis, S. Bandini (Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, 2014), p. 620 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Z. Su, W. Denga, L. Zhao, J. Han, W. Lib, X. Cai, Eur. Phys. J. B 89, 203 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    The software package is free available at:, accessed August 2018
  10. 10.
    R. Barlovic, L. Santen, A. Schadschneider, M. Schreckenberg, Eur. Phys. J. B 5, 793 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. Rickert, K. Nagel, M. Schreckenberg, A. Latour, Physica A 231, 534 (1996) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Chowdhury, D.E. Wolf, M. Schreckenberg, Physica A 235, 417 (1997) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Nagel, M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 51, 2909 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Maerivoeta, B. De Moor, Eur. Phys. J. B 42, 131 (2004) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Cheybani, J. Kertész, M. Schreckenberg, Phys. Rev. E 63, 016108 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. Barlovic, T. Huisinga, A. Schadschneider, M. Schreckenberg, Phys. Rev. E 66, 046113 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Jia, S. Ma, Phys. Rev. E 79, 031115 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    T. Neumann, P. Wagner, Phys. Rev. E 80, 013101 (2009) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    N. Zhu, S. Ma, N. Jia, Phys. Rev. E 85, 043101 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. Bouadi, K. Jetto, A. Benyoussef, A. El Kenz, Physica A 469, 1 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Eisenblaetter, L. Santen, A. Schadschneider, M. Schreckenberg, Phys. Rev. E 57, 1309 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. Csányi, J. Kertész, J. Phys. A 28, L427 (1995) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. de Gier, T.M. Garoni, Z. Zhou, Phys. Rev. E 82, 021107 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A.S. de Wijn, D.M. Miedema, B. Nienhuis, P. Schall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 228001 (2012) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    A. Balouchi, D.A. Browne, Phys. Rev. E 93, 052302 (2016) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    M.L.L. Iannini, R. Dickman, Phys. Rev. E 95, 022106 (2017) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Chengchi UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

Personalised recommendations