Scale-invariant structure of energy fluctuations in real earthquakes

Regular Article
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

Earthquakes are obviously complex phenomena associated with complicated spatiotemporal correlations, and they are generally characterized by two power laws: the Gutenberg-Richter (GR) and the Omori-Utsu laws. However, an important challenge has been to explain two apparently contrasting features: the GR and Omori-Utsu laws are scale-invariant and unaffected by energy or time scales, whereas earthquakes occasionally exhibit a characteristic energy or time scale, such as with asperity events. In this paper, three high-quality datasets on earthquakes were used to calculate the earthquake energy fluctuations at various spatiotemporal scales, and the results reveal the correlations between seismic events regardless of their critical or characteristic features. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations exhibit evidence of another scaling that behaves as a q-Gaussian rather than random process. The scaling behaviors are observed for scales spanning three orders of magnitude. Considering the spatial heterogeneities in a real earthquake fault, we propose an inhomogeneous Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model to describe the statistical properties of real earthquakes. The numerical simulations show that the inhomogeneous OFC model shares the same statistical properties with real earthquakes.

Keywords

Statistical and Nonlinear Physics 

References

  1. 1.
    B. Gutenberg, C.F. Richter, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 34, 185 (1944) Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Ishimoto, K. Iida, Bull. Earthq. Res. Inst. 17, 443 (1939) Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. Omori, J. Coll. Sci. 7, 111 (1894) Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. Utsu, J. Fac. Sci. Hokkaido Univ. Ser. VII, 3, 379 (1971) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    C.H. Scholz, The Mechanics of Earthquakes and Faulting, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 2002) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Bhattacharyya, B. Chakrabarti, Modelling Critical and Catastrophic Phenomena in Geoscience (Springer, Berlin, 2006) Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Kazemian, K.F. Tiampo, W. Klein, R. Dominguez, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 088501-1 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. Wang, Z. Chang, H. Wang, H. Lu, Eur. Phys. J. B 88, 206 (2015) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    P. Bak, C. Tang, K. Wiesenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 381 (1987) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. Bak, How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality (Copernicus, New York, 1996) Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Marković, C. Gros, Phys. Rep. 536, 41 (2014) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Z. Olami, Hans Jacob S. Feder, K. Christensen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1244 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. Christensen, Z. Olami, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 8729 (1992) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J.X. de Carvalho, C.P.C. Prado, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4006 (2000) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. Lise, M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 63, 036111-1 (2001) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Hergarten, H.J. Neugebauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 238501-1 (2002) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Burridge, L. Knopoff, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 57, 341 (1967) Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Ceva, Phys. Rev. E 52, 154 (1995) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    O. Ramos, E. Altshuler, K.J. Maloy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 098501-1 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    E.A. Jagla, Phys. Rev. E 81, 046117-1 (2010) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    F. Caruso, A. Pluchino, V. Latora, S. Vinciguerra, A. Rapisarda, Phys. Rev. E, 75, 055101-1 (2007) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys., 52, 479 (1988) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. Tsallis, R.S. Mendes, A.R. Plastino, Physica A, 261, 534 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. Caruso, V. Latora, A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda, B. Tadić, Eur. Phys. J. B 50, 243 (2006) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    D.J. Watts, S.H. Strogatz, Nature 393, 440 (1998) ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© EDP Sciences, SIF, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of ScienceBeijingP.R. China

Personalised recommendations