Network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur – the Sagas of Icelanders

Abstract

The Íslendinga sögur – or Sagas of Icelanders – constitute a collection of medieval literature set in Iceland around the late 9th to early 11th centuries, the so-called Saga Age. They purport to describe events during the period around the settlement of Iceland and the generations immediately following and constitute an important element of world literature thanks to their unique narrative style. Although their historicity is a matter of scholarly debate, the narratives contain interwoven and overlapping plots involving thousands of characters and interactions between them. Here we perform a network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur in an attempt to gather quantitative information on interrelationships between characters and to compare saga society to other social networks.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. 1.

    P. Mac Carron, R. Kenna, Euro. Phys. Lett. 99, 28002 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    L. da F. Costa et al., Adv. Phys. 60, 329 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    D.J. Watts, S.H. Strogatz, Nature 393, 440 (1998)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    L.A.N. Amaral, A. Scala, M. Barthélémy, H.E. Stanley, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 11149 (2000)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    A. Mislove et al., in Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGCOMM conference on Internet measurement 2007, San Diego, California, edited by Co. Dovrolis, M. Roughan (New York, 2007), p. 29

  6. 6.

    M.E.J. Newman, J. Park, Phys. Rev. E 68, 036122 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Szell, R. Lambiotte, S. Thurner, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 13636 (2010)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    M.E.J. Newman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 208701 (2002)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S. Fortunato, Phys. Rep. 486, 75 (2010)

    MathSciNet  ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    E. Ravasz, A.-L. Barabási, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026112 (2003)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    W.I. Miller, Bloodtaking and Peacemaking: Feud, Law, and Society in Saga Iceland (University of Chicago Press, 1990)

  12. 12.

    R. Alberich, J. Miro-Julia, F. Roselló, arXiv:cond-mat/ 0202174 (2002)

  13. 13.

    P.M. Gleiser, J. Stat. Mech. 2007, P09020 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    M.E.J. Newman, SIAM Rev. 45, 167 (2003)

    MathSciNet  ADS  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    J. Smiley, The Sagas of Icelanders: a Selection (Penguin Books Limited, London, 2000)

  16. 16.

    Njal’s Saga, translated by C.F. Bayerschmidt, L.M. Hollander (Wordsworth Classics, Hertfordshire, 1998)

  17. 17.

    Njal’s Saga, translated by M. Mahnusson, H. Pálsson (Penguin books, Middlesex, 1960)

  18. 18.

    H. O’Donoghue, Old norse-Icelandic Literature: A Short Introduction (Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, 2004)

  19. 19.

    M.D. Humphries, K. Gurney, PLoS One 3, e0002051 (2008)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    F. Heider, J. Psychol. 21, 107 (1946)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    D. Cartwright, F. Harary, Psychol. Rev. 63, 277 (1956)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    T. Antal, P. Krapivsky, S. Redner, Physica D 224, 130 (2006)

    MathSciNet  ADS  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    R. Albert, A.-L. Barabási, Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 47 (2002)

    ADS  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    M.E.J. Newman, Contemp. Phys. 46, 323 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    B. Efron, SIAM Rev. 21, 460 (1979)

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    M. Newman, Phys. Rev. E 67, 026126 (2003)

    MathSciNet  ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    L. S˜ubelj, M. Bajec, arXiv: 1202.3188

  28. 28.

    G.A. Ludueña, H. Meixner, G. Kaczor, C. Gros, arXiv:1212.0749 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    L.C. Freeman, Sociometry 40, 35 (1977)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    M. Girvan, M.E.J. Newman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99, 7821 (2002)

    MathSciNet  ADS  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    M.E.J. Newman, M. Girvan, Phys. Rev. E 69, 026113 (2004)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    T.M.J. Fruchterman, E.M. Reingold, Software: Practice Experience 21, 1129 (1991)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    M.E.J. Newman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 404 (2001)

    MathSciNet  ADS  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    A.J. Hamer, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, Ph.D. Thesis, 2008

  35. 35.

    R.I. Dunbar, A. Clark, N.L. Hurst, Ethol. Sociobiol. 16, 233 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to P. Mac Carron.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Mac Carron, P., Kenna, R. Network analysis of the Íslendinga sögur – the Sagas of Icelanders. Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 407 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2013-40583-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics