sp3 domain in graphite by visible light and photoinduced phase transitions
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- Nasu, K. Eur. Phys. J. B (2010) 75: 415. doi:10.1140/epjb/e2010-00147-9
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Photoinduced structural phase transition (PSPT)s are reviewed in connection with recent experimental results. There are two key concepts: the hidden multi-stability of the ground state, and the proliferations of optically excited states. Taking the ionic (I)-neutral (N) phase transition in an organic charge-transfer (CT) crystal TTF-CA, as an example, we, briefly look back the essence of its PSPT, in terms of the CT exciton and the N-domain proliferation. Next, we are concerned with the discovery of a new photoinduced phase with inter-layer σ-bonds in a graphite. We will see the mechanism of this nonequilibrium phase transition, in terms of the proliferation of photo-generated inter-layer CT excitations in the visible region. At the Franck-Condon state, the resultant electron-hole pair is quite unstable, being easily dissipated into the two-dimensional electronic continuum, as plus and minus free carriers. However, by a small probability, the electron and the hole are bound as an inter-layer CT exciton. This exciton self-localizes, contracting the inter-layer distance and buckling the six membered ring of graphite, only around it. Thus a tiny sp3 nano-domain appears.