Beam test of a PIN-diode read out PWO calorimeter with electron energies from 5 to 40 GeV at CERN SPS

Abstract

The large-area silicon photodiode PIN is one of the candidates for the lead tungstenate photon detector readout in the large heavy ion collision experiment ALICE. The PIN-diode was assembled with the lead tungstate crystal and a low-noise preamplifier into a complete detector unit. A beam test of a 5 \(\times \) 5 detector unit matrix was carried out on the SPS accelerator at CERN. The energy resolution was measured with the electron beam energy ranging from 5 to 40 GeV. The summation correction method was implemented, and an excellent linearity of the signal peak value of the detector versus the nominal beam energy was obtained. In addition, a preliminary study of the punch-through effect in the high energy range was performed. A bulge of high-energy signals was identified at beam energies above 10 GeV, but only accounting for less than 1% of the accumulated statistics. Considering the mean energy of the excess is twice large than the regular signal, it was probably mainly due to the accumulation caused by two electrons hitting the detector at the same time, rather than the punch-through effect.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Data Availability Statement

This manuscript has associated data in a data repository. [Authors’ comment: The experimental data is stored in the laboratory database of CIAE and BRC. Anyone can access it by contacting to the author.]

References

  1. 1.

    ALICE Collaboration, Technical Proposal, CERN/LHCC/95-71 (1995)

  2. 2.

    P. Kuijer, The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC //Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on High Energy Physics Ichep 2002. JAI, 62-64 (2003)

  3. 3.

    K. Aamodt, A.A. Quintana, R. Achenbach et al., The ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. J. Instrum. 3, S08002 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Alice Collaboration, Performance of the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC. Int. J. Mod. Phys. A 29, 1430044 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    J. Adam, D. Adamova, M.M. Aggarwal et al., Enhanced production of multi-strange hadrons in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions. Nat. Phys. 13, 535–539 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    J. Schukraft, V. Manko et al., ALICE Technical Design Report of the Photon Spectrometer (PHOS), CERN/LHCC 99-4 ALICE TDR2 (1999)

  7. 7.

    D.C. Zhou, ALICE Collaboration. PHOS, the ALICE-PHOton Spectrometer. J. Phys. G Nucl. Part. Phys. 34, S719 (2007)

  8. 8.

    D.V. Aleksandrov, S.F. Burachas, M.S. Ippolitov et al., A high resolution electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead-tungstate crystals. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 550, 169–184 (2005)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    H. Muller, D. Budnikov, M. Ippolitov et al., Front-end electronics for PWO-based PHOS calorimeter of ALICE. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 567, 264–267 (2006)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    M. Bogolyubsky, M. Ippolitov, A. Kuryakin et al., Time of flight resolution of the prototype of the electromagnetic calorimeter PHOS. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. A 598, 702–709 (2009)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    D.V. Aleksandrov, A.A. Vinogradov, M.S. Ippolitov et al., Improving the timing resolution of an electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead tungstate crystals. Instrum. Exp. Tech. 57, 233–247 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    K.A. Balygin, M.S. Ippolitov, A.I. Klimov et al., Use of large-area photodiodes for improving the characteristics of an electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead tungstate crystals. Instrum. Exp. Tech. 61, 639–644 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    M.S. Ippolitov, V.A. Lebedev, V.I. Manko et al., The use of silicon photomultipliers for improving the time resolution of an electromagnetic calorimeter based on lead tungstate crystals. Instrum. Exp. Tech. 60, 28–34 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    T.P. Ryan, W. Miller, J. Biomed. Eng. 11, 130–132 (1989)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    K.D. Stephan, F.H. Spooner, P.F. Goldsmith, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 41, 1791–1798 (1993)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    R. Kumar, S.D. Sharma, A. Philomina et al., Technol. Cancer Res. Treatm. 13, 361–367 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    S.V. Rakibe, S.D. Sahu, S.V. Khobragade, J. Comput. Electron. 14, 222–226 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    J. Kumar, B. Basu, F.A. Talukdar et al., Sci. Iran. 26, 1714–1723 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    L.I. Chengbo, Y.U.A.N. Jian, M.E.N.G. Qiuying et al., R&D of Si PIN-diode and its performance test. Nucl. Tech. 29, 305–308 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    B. Skaali, L. Ingebrigtsen, S. Polovnikov et al., A prototype DAQ system for the ALICE experiment based on SCI. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45, 1917–1922 (1998)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (00121140488). The authors would like to thank Prof. Mikhail Ippolitov, Prof. Arne Klovning, and the ALICE/PHOS-Collaboration for their kind help during the experiment at CERN. We thank the SPS staff for providing the experimental beam. We also thank Prof. Lu Zhang and his research group in Peking university for the collaboration during the R&D of the PIN-diodes.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Chengbo Li.

Additional information

Supported by: National Natural Science Foundation of China (00121140488).

Communicated by Patrizia Rossi

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, C., Li, X., Meng, Q. et al. Beam test of a PIN-diode read out PWO calorimeter with electron energies from 5 to 40 GeV at CERN SPS. Eur. Phys. J. A 56, 219 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1140/epja/s10050-020-00211-y

Download citation