Quantification of radioisotopes produced in 1.4 GeV proton irradiated lead–bismuth eutectic targets


Six cylindrical lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) targets having fixed diameter of 6 mm and varying lengths of 8–50 mm were irradiated with a 1.4 GeV proton beam at CERN-ISOLDE. Both short-lived (\(5\hbox { h } {<}\hbox {T}_{1/2} {<}5\hbox { days}\)) and long-lived (\(\hbox {T}_{1/2} {>}5\hbox { days}\)) radionuclides were identified by off-line \(\upgamma \)-spectrometry and their activities at the end of bombardment (EOB) were determined. Total 80 \(\upgamma \)-emitting radionuclides, ranging from \(^{7}\hbox {Be}\) to \(^{209}\hbox {At}\), were identified in the 50 mm long LBE target. The yields of all the radioisotopes were compared with the Monte Carlo Code FLUKA. The spallation reaction was the dominant mode whereas fission induced reactions had no significant contribution. The high energy proton irradiated LBE target may act as a large source of several clinically important and other exotic radionuclides.

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Data Availability Statement

This manuscript has no associated data or the data will not be deposited. [Authors’ comment: All data produced in the experiment have been used in this manuscript.]


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We acknowledge fruitful discussions with Professor Sukalyan Chattopadhyay, Head, High Energy Physics, SINP, India. We acknowledge the support from the research grants from SINP-DAE 12 Five year plan Trace, Ultratrace Analysis and Isotope Production (TULIP), Government of India.

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Correspondence to Susanta Lahiri.

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Communicated by Navin Alahari

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Choudhury, D., Lahiri, S., Naskar, N. et al. Quantification of radioisotopes produced in 1.4 GeV proton irradiated lead–bismuth eutectic targets. Eur. Phys. J. A 56, 204 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1140/epja/s10050-020-00191-z

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