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GW170817 --the first observed neutron star merger and its kilonova: Implications for the astrophysical site of the r-process

Abstract.

The first neutron star (NS) merger observed by advanced LIGO and Virgo, GW170817, and its fireworks of electromagnetic counterparts across the entire electromagnetic spectrum marked the beginning of multi-messenger astronomy and astrophysics with gravitational waves. The ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared emission was consistent with being powered by the radioactive decay of nuclei synthesized in the merger ejecta by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). Starting from an outline of the inferred properties of this “kilonova” emission, I discuss possible astrophysical sites for r-process nucleosynthesis in NS mergers, arguing that the heaviest r-process elements synthesized in this event most likely originated in outflows from a post-merger accretion disk. I compare the inferred properties of r-process element production in GW170817 to current observational constraints on galactic heavy r-process nucleosynthesis and discuss challenges merger-only models face in explaining the r-process content of our galaxy. Based on the observational properties of GW170817 and recent theoretical progress on r-process nucleosynthesis in collapsars, I then show how GW170817 points to collapsars as the dominant source of r-process enrichment in the Milky Way. These rare core-collapse events arguably better satisfy existing constraints and overcome problems related to r-process enrichment in various environments that NS mergers face. Finally, I comment on the universality of the r-process and on how variations in light r-process elements can be obtained both in NS mergers and collapsars.

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Siegel, D.M. GW170817 --the first observed neutron star merger and its kilonova: Implications for the astrophysical site of the r-process. Eur. Phys. J. A 55, 203 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1140/epja/i2019-12888-9

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