Isomeric yield ratio of 196m, gAu in the 197Au(n, 2n) reaction with fast neutron based on the 9Be(p, n) reaction


The isomeric yield ratios (IR) of 196m, gAu in the 197Au(n, 2n) reaction at the average neutron energies (\( \langle E_{n}\rangle\)) of 14.4, 21.8 and 29.5 MeV have been measured by using the off-line gamma-ray spectrometric technique. The neutron beams were obtained by using the 9Be(p, n) reaction with the proton energies of 25, 35 and 45 MeV from the MC-50 cyclotron at KIRAMS. The IR values at different neutron energies were also calculated from the cross sections values based on TENDL-2017 library and are found to be in agreement around 10–18 MeV but not at higher energy. The IR values of 196m, gAu at the neutron energies of 21.8 and 29.5 MeV have been measured for the first time. The present data along with the literature data at other energies in the 197Au(n, 2n) reaction are compared with the similar data in the 197Au(\( \gamma\), n) reaction to examine the role of entrance channel parameters and occurrence of non-compound or pre-equilibrium process at higher projectile energy.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. 1

    R. Vandenbosch, J.R. Huizenga, Nuclear Fission (Academic, New York, 1973)

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    C. Wagemans, The Nuclear Fission Process (CRC, London, 1990)

  3. 3

    H. Naik, G.N. Kim, K. Kim, M. Zaman, M. Sahid, S.-C. Yang, M.W. Lee, Y.R. Kang, S.G. Shin, M.-H. Cho, A. Goswami, T.Y. Song, Eur. Phys. J. A 54, 117 (2014)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Yu.P. Gangrsky, N.N. Kolesnikov, V.G. Lukashik, L.M. Melnikova, Phys. At. Nucl. 67, 1227 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    IAEA-EXFOR Database,

  6. 6

    M. Nadeem, M. Zaman, H. Naik, K. Kim, G.N. Kim, M. Shahid, Nucl. Phys. A 970, 411 (2018)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    C. Plaisir, F. Hannachi, F. Gobet, M. Tarisien, M.M. Aleonard, V. Meot, G. Gosselin, P. Morel, B. Morillon, Eur. Phys. J. A 48, 68 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    A.A. Sorokin, V.N. Ponomarev, in Proceedings of the 26th Conference on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Structure of Atomic Nuclei (Nauka, Leningrad, Russia, 1976) p.449 (in Russian)

  9. 9

    A.A. Sorokin, in Proceedings of the 28th Conference on Nuclear Spectroscopy and Structure of Atomic Nuclei, (Alma-Ata, Russia, 1978) p. 258

  10. 10

    S.R. Palvanov, O. Razhabov, At. Energ. 87, 75 (1999)

    Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Yu.P. Gangrsky, N.N. Kolesnikov, V.G. Lukashik, L.M. Melnikova, Bull. Russ. Acad. Sci. Phys. 67, 1772 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    T.D. Thiep, T.T. An, N.T. Vinh, P.V. Cuong, A.G. Belov, O.D. Maslov, T.T.T. My, Phys. Part. Nucl. Lett. 3, 223 (2006)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    I.N. Vyshnevskyi, O.I. Davidovskaya, V.A. Zheltonozhsky, E.V. Kulich, A.N. Savrasov, N.V. Strilchuk, Yad. Fiz. Energ. 9, 37 (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Md.S. Rahman, K.S. Kim, M.W. Lee, G.N. Kim, Y.D. Oh, H.S. Lee, M.H. Cho, I.S. Ko, W. Namkung, V.D. Nguyen, D.K. Pham, T.T. Kim, T.I. Ro, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 283, 519 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    H. Naik, G.N. Kim, K. Kim, M. Zaman, A. Goswami, M.W. Lee, S.-C. Yang, Y.-O. Lee, S.-G. Shin, M.-H. Cho, Nucl. Phys. A 948, 28 (2016)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    A.A. Filatenkov, S.V. Chuvae, Experimental determination of cross sections for several insufficiently known neutron induced reaction on hevy nuclei $(Z=74-79)$, Khlopin Radiev. Inst., Leningrad Report No. RI-259 (2003)

  17. 17

    A.A. Filatenkov, S.V. Chuvaev, V.N. Aksenov, V.A. Yakovlev, A.V. Malyshenkov, S.K. Vasil’ev, M. Avrigeanu, V. Avrigeanu, D.L. Smith, Y. Ikeda, A. Wallner, W. Kutschera, A. Priller, P. Steier, H. Vonach, G. Mertens, W. Rochow, Systematic measurement of cross sections at neutron energies 13.4--14.9MeV, Khlopin Radiev. Inst., Leningrad Report No. RI-252 (1999)

  18. 18

    S.K. Mangal, C.S. Khurana, Nucl. Phys. 69, 158 (1965)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    S.K. Ghorai, K.C. Hayworth, J.R. Williams, W.L. Alford, Basic Appl. Phys. 29, 1117 (1984)

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Yu.P. Gangrsky, N.N. Kolesnikov, V.G. Lukashik, L.M. Melnikova, Phys. At. Nucl. 67, 1227 (2004)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Yu.P. Gangrsky, N.N. Kolesnikov, V.G. Lukashik, L.M. Melnikova, Basic Appl. Sci. 68, 187 (2004)

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    N. Bueget, Nucl. Instrum. Methods 146, 535 (1977)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23

    F.I. Habbani, I.A. Ahmed, Appl. Radiat. Isot. 51, 81 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    T.B. Ryves, P.K Olkowski, J. Phys. G 7, 115 (1981)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    J. Karolyi, J. Csikai, G. Peto, Nucl. Phys. A 122, 234 (1968)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    G.N. Flerov, Yu.P. Gangrskiy, B.N. Markov, A.A. Pleve, S.M. Polikanov, K.H. Yungklaussen, Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 6, 12 (1968)

    Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Y. Mou, L. Lin, Y. Chen, H. Guo, L. An, X. Wang, Y. Chen, Commun. Nucl. Data Prog. 27, 4 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    D.M. Zellermayer, B. Rosner, Phys. Rev. C 6, 315 (1972)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    A. Tsinganis, M. Diakaki, M. Kokkoris, A. Lagoyannis, E. Mara, C.T. Papadopoulos, R. Vlastou, Phys. Rev. C 83, 024609 (2011)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    A. Kalamara, R. Vlastou, M. Kokkoris, N.G. Nicolis, N. Patronis, M. Serris, V. Michalopoulou, A. Stamatopoulos, A. Lagoyannis, S. Harissopulos, Phys. Rev. C 97, 034615 (2018)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    P. Chudoba, A. Krasa, J. Vrzalova, O. Svoboda, S. Kilim, V. Wagner, M. Majerle, M. Stefanik, M. Suchopar, A. Kugler, M. Bielewicz, E. Strugalska-Gola, M. Szuta, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 191, 150 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    M. Majerle, P. Bem, J. Novak, E. Simeckova, M. Stefanik, Nucl. Phys. A 953, 139 (2016)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    R.J. Prestwood, B.P. Bayhurst, Phys. Rev. 121, 1438 (1961)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    H.A. Tewes, A.A. Caretto, A.E. Miller, D.R. Nethaway, UCRL-6028-T (1960)

  35. 35

    S.H. John, W.M. Gregg, L.F. Michael, R.J. Michael, C.J. Russell, W.D. Joe, P.F. Joshua, B.P. Denise, S.W. Laurie, M.J. William, MCNPX 2.6.0, LANL Report LA-UR-08-2216, Los Alamos, (2008)

  36. 36

    Y. Uwamino, To-oru Ohkubo, A. Torii, T. Nakamura, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 271, 546 (1988)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    V. Rakopoulos, M. Lantz, P. Andersson, A. Hjalmarsson, A. Mattera, S. Pomp, A. Solders, J. Valldor-Blücher, D. Gorelov, H. Penttilä, EPJ Web of Conferences 66, 11032 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    NuDat 2.6, National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, updated 2011, available from

  39. 39

    S.Y.F. Chu, L.P. Ekstrom, R.B. Firestone, The Lund/LBNL, Nuclear Data Search, Version 2.0, February 1999, WWW Table of Radioactive Isotopes, available at

  40. 40

    A.J. Koning, D. Rochman, Nucl. Data Sheets 113, 2841 (2012)

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Guinyun Kim.

Additional information

Data Availability Statement

This manuscript has associated data in a data repository. [Authors’ comment: All data used in this paper are deposited in the EXFOR library and the generated data will be deposited in the same library.]

Publisher’s Note

The EPJ Publishers remain neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Communicated by T. Motobayashi

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Jang, W., Zaman, M., Kim, K. et al. Isomeric yield ratio of 196m, gAu in the 197Au(n, 2n) reaction with fast neutron based on the 9Be(p, n) reaction. Eur. Phys. J. A 55, 181 (2019).

Download citation